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非谓语动词

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lanluwenwen
2009-05-30上传 侵权/举报

非谓语动词作状语时,它的逻辑主语应该是句子的主语。但有时非谓语动词带有自己的主语,从而在结构上与主语不发生关系,我们称之为独立主格结构(Absolute Construction)。其实,所谓“独立主格结构”也并非真正独立,它还是一种从属的结构。

一、      非谓语动词独立主格结构

在独立主格结构中,非谓语动词和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。

1、Such an able man to help you,you will surely succeed sooner or later.  

有这么能干的人来帮你, 你迟早一定会成功的。(such an able man和 to help you 之间存在着主谓关系)= Since such an able man will help you, you will surely succeed sooner or later.

2、He seating himself at the desk, his mother began to tell him a story.  他在书桌旁坐好后,他母亲开始给他讲故事。(seating himself at the desk拥有了自己的逻辑主语he,注意是“主格”)

= When he seated himself at the desk, his mother began to tell him a story.

3、The key to the bike lost, he had to walk to school.  由于丢了自行车钥匙,他只好步行去学校。(lost 的逻辑主语是the key,lost 也可以用完成式having been lost)= Because the key to the bike had been lost, he had to walk to school.

A.       不定式“独立主格结构”

在“逻辑主语+动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。这种结构也可用一个从句或并列分句来表达。

1.动词不定式用主动的形式

在独立主格结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。

1、His mother to come tonight,he is busy preparing the dinner.  他母亲今晚要来,他正在忙着准备饭菜。(= As his mother is to come tonight, he is busy preparing the dinner.)

2、——will you go to the comcert tonight   你今晚去听音乐会吗?

——sorry.So many exerise-books to check,I rially can't afford any time.  对不起,有这多的作业要批,我真的抽不出时间。(=Because I shall check so many exercise-books tonight,I really can't afford any time.)

3、The four of us agreed on a division of labour,each to translate a quarter of the book.

我们四人同意分工干,每人翻译全书的四分之一。 (=The four of us agreed on a division of labour and each is to translate a quarter of the book.)

4、Many trees,flowers,and grass to be planted,our newly-built school will look even more beautiful.  种上许多的树,花和草后,我们新建的学校将看上去更美。(=If many trees,flowers,and grass are planted,our newly-built school will look even more beautiful.)

B.-ing形式“独立主格结构”

动词的-ing形式作状语时,其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语保持一致。

1、Being ill, he went home.由于生病,他回家了。(= As he was very ill, he went home.)

2、Seating himself at the desk, he began to read a magazine. 在课桌旁坐好后,他开始看杂志。(= When he had seated himself at the desk, he began to read a magazine.)

1. 表示时间的-ing形式作“独立主格结构”


1、Everyone being ready, the teacher began his class.  每个人都准备好后,老师开始上课。(相当于一个时间状语从句When everyone was ready)

2、The chairman began the meeting , everyone being seated.  每个人坐好后,主席开始开会。(相当于一个时间状语从句after everyone was seated)

2. 表示原因的-ing形式作“独立主格结构”

1、The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. 由那个男孩带路,我们没有困难就找到了那奇怪的洞。(相当于一个原因状语从句Because the boy led the way)

2、Many eyes watching him, he felt a bit nervous. 许多眼睛看着他,他感到有点儿紧张。(相当于一个原因状语从句As many eyes were watching him)

必背:  含有being的独立主格结构。

1、It being National Day today,the streets are very crowded. 今天是国庆节,街上很拥挤。 = As it is National Day today, the streets are very crowded.

2、There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. 没有别的事可讨论,我们都回家了。 = As there was no further business to discuss, we all went home.

3. 表示条件的-ing形式作“独立主格结构”

1、Time permitting, we will have a picnic next week. 时间允许的话,我们下星期将进行一次野炊。(相当于一个条件状语从句If time permits)

2、My health allowing, I will work far into the night. 我的健康许可的话,我愿工作到深夜。(相当于一个条件状语从句If my health allows)

4. 表示方式的-ing形式作“独立主格结构”

1、The students are walking in the school happily, each wearing a card in front of his chest.  学生们快乐地在学校里走着,每个人胸前都带着一张卡。(相当于一个并列分句and each wears a card in front of his chest)

2、The boy lay on the grass, his eyes looking at the sky.  男孩躺在草地上,眼睛看着天空。(相当于一个并列分句and his eyes were looking at the sky)

C.-ed形式“独立主格结构”

与逻辑主语+动词的-ing形式一样,如果-ed形式的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致的话,就需要用-ed形式的独立主格结构。

1、The book written in simple English, English beginners were able to read it.  该书是用简单英语写的,英语初学者也能看懂。  = As the book was written in simple English,English beginners were able to read it.

2、The workers worked still harder, their living conditions greatly improved. 由于工人们的生活条件大大提高,他们工作得更起劲了。 = As their living conditions were greatly improved, the workers worked still harder.

3、He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard.  他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。 = He was listening attentively in class, and his eyes were fixed on the blackboard.

4、The task completed,he had two months' leave.  任务完成以后,他休了两个月的假。(=When the task had been completed,he had two months' leave.)

比较:

  动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生,动词-ed形式表示动作已经结束,动词-ing形式往往表示动作正在进行。


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