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定语从句的翻译

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2009-04-29上传 侵权/举报

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定语从句的翻译

标签: 从句? 定语? 种族歧视? 翻译? 伊斯兰教?

自由式定语从句

自由式定语从句是指一个句子中两个或两个以上不同成分带定语从句的情况。这种从句的先行词没有固定模式,在句中充当不同的句子成分,故该结构中的定语从句称为自由式定语从句。它们拆开来看,其实就是一个一个简单的定语从句,因此,其翻译也和简单的定语从句相同。

Examples:

Thus the Arab Umayyed Dynasty of caliphs, which had moved the capital from Medina to Damascus in 661, came to be regarded with much justification as a parasitic clique that had outlived its usefulness once the conquests were completed.

Chinese Translation No. 1:

人们开始理由充分地认为,阿拉伯麦伍德哈里发王朝阿拉伯伍麦叶里发王朝是征服战争完成后毫无作用的一个寄生集团;该王朝曾于661年从麦地那迁都大马士革?。

Chinese Translation No. 2:

阿拉伯麦伍德王朝的统治者们征服了……,于661年将首都从麦地那迁往大马士革,但此后他们便成了不折不扣的寄生虫。

?

嵌套式定语从句

嵌套式定语从句是指一个句子中定语从句套定语从句的情况。这种结构中的定语从句其实和自由式定语从句基本相似,拆开来也是一个独立的定语从句,只不过一个定语从句在另一个定语从句之中而已。

Examples:

Likewise in the east were the Seljuk Turks who had infiltrated from their Central Asian homeland into the Islamic Empire where they were employed as mercenaries by the Baghdad caliphs.

Chinese Translation No. 1:

同样,在东方是塞尔柱突厥人,他们从家乡中亚进入伊斯兰教帝国;在那里被巴格达哈里发雇为雇佣军。

Chinese Translation No. 2:

东边也是塞尔柱突厥人。他们从自己的家乡中亚地区来到伊斯兰教帝国,充当了巴格达哈里发的雇佣军。

?


并列式定语从句 ?

并列式定语从句是并列成分中的定语从句的简称,指一个句子中两个或两个以上并列成分均带定语从句的情况。

Examples:

?

?

This was a defensive pact, designed to protect Germany against the French, who aspired to recover the alsace-Lorraine provinces lost in 1871, and also to protect Austria-hungary against the Russians, with whom they continually clashed in the Balkans.

这是一个防御性的盟约,旨在保护德国人免受法国人的攻击,保护奥匈帝国免受俄国人的攻击;因为法国人想收复1871年失去的阿尔萨斯-洛林地区,而俄国人则在巴尔干半岛同奥匈帝国接连不断地发生冲突。?

?

一主二仆式定语从句?

?

Examples:

The old ways of earning a living was rivaled by new agricultural techniques, by commerce with hitherto unknown parts of the globe, and by new crafts with strange machines that saved labor and that ran without the traditional human or animal power.

古老的谋生之道正受到新农业技术、新贸易和新行业的挑战。其中,这些新兴的行业使用一些奇怪的机器。这些机器无需传统的人力和畜力,非常节省劳动力。?

?

And it helps to explain why so many inventions that were of Chinese origin or that had been known to the Greco-Romans, were fully developed and exploited ony by the Western Europeans.

它有助于说明,为什么发源于中国的许多发明和希腊罗马人所知道的许多发明,只是在西欧人手中才得到全面发展和充分利用。?

?

Consequently the manor was a self-sufficient village that was worked by serfs who were not free to leave, and who with their labor supported a hierarchy of lay and clerical lords.

?

因而,采邑是靠农奴经营的自给自足的村庄;农奴不能随便离开,并以其劳动养活教俗封建集团。?

?

Not Surprisingly, the most complex political structures appeared in the Sudan, where long distance trade was most highly developed and where Islamic influence was the strongest.

?

Chinese Translation No. 1:

毫不奇怪,苏丹出现了最复杂的政治组织,在那里,长途贸易发展得最快,伊斯兰教的影响最为强烈。?


Chinese Translation No. 2:

苏丹的长途贸易发展得最快,伊斯兰教的影响也最大。在那里出现最为复杂的政治组织是毫不奇怪的。

?

Our aim is to establish in Ghana a strong and progressive society ... where poverty and illiteracy no longer exist and disease is brought under control; and where our educational facilities provide all the children of Ghana with the best possible opportunities for the development of their potentialities.

我们的目标是要在加纳建立一个强大、进步的社会......在这里,贫困和文盲不再存在,疾病得到控制;在这里,我们的教育机构为加纳所有的孩子提供发展他们的潜力的最好机会。

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Even so the Lisbon government admitted in MARCH 1970 that a major attack had been launched by guerrillas who were armed with mortars and automatic weapons and who inflicted "many" Portuguese casualties.

?

即使如此,里斯本政府仍于1970年3月承认,配备迫击炮和自动武器的游击队已发动了一次大规模的进攻,使葡萄牙人蒙受"重大"伤亡。?

?

At one extreme are Hawaii and Brazil, where racial intermixture is extensive and continuing, and where racial discrimination is relatively minor.

Chinese Translation No.1:

处于一个极端的是夏威夷和巴西,在那里,种族混合十分广泛,而且正在继续进行,因此,种族歧视较少。?

Chinese Translation No.2:

最为典型的则要数夏威夷和巴西了。在这两个地方,种族混合非常普遍,而且将会有增无减;而相对来说,种族歧视问题就不怎么严重了。

?

?

He was also an old-line Stalinist who had spent 16 years in Hungarian jails in the interwar period and who was now unwilling to share authority with the "nationalist“ Hungarian Communists.

他还是一位老牌的斯大林主义者,曾在两次世界大战之间的时期内在匈牙利监狱呆了16年,因而这时不愿与"民族主义的"匈牙利共产党人分享权力。?

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Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised    in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

?

行为主义者认为, 如果儿童的成长环境里有许多刺激因素, 这些因素又有利于其适当反应能力的发展, 那么, 儿童的智力就会发展到较高的水平。

?

?

Prior to the twentieth century, women in novels were stereotypes of lacking any features that made them unique individuals and were also subject to numerous

restrictions imposed by the male-dominated culture.


在20世纪以前, 小说中的妇女像都是一个模式。她们没有任何特点, 因而无法成为具有个性的人; 他们还要屈从于由男性主宰的文化传统强加给他们的种种束缚。

?

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Although perhaps only 1 per cent of the life that has started somewhere will develop into highly complex and intelligent patterns, so vast is the number of planets that intelligent life is bound to be a natural part of the universe.


虽然在某处已经开始的生命中可能仅有百分之一会发展成高度复杂、有智慧的型式, 但是行星的数目如此之多, 以致有智慧的生命一定是宇宙的一个天然组成部分。

?

?

Taking his cue from Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, in which the heroine, Nora, leaves home because she resents her husband’s treating her like a child, the writer Lu Xun warned that Nora would need money to support herself; she must have economic rights to survive.

易卜生的剧作《玩偶之家》中的女主人公娜拉离家出走, 因为她憎恶她的丈夫像对待孩子一样来对待她。作家鲁迅从中得到启示, 从而告诫人们娜拉得需要钱来养活自己, 她要生存就必须有经济上的权利。



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