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首页 A Rhetoric of the Unreal.pdf

A Rhetoric of the Unreal.pdf

A Rhetoric of the Unreal.pdf

上传者: 燕歌行2000 2017-07-25 评分 3 0 2 0 11 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《A Rhetoric of the Unrealpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含Thisbookisastudyofawiderangeoffiction,fromshortstoriestotalesofhorror,from符等。

Thisbookisastudyofawiderangeoffiction,fromshortstoriestotalesofhorror,fromfairytalesandromancestosciencefiction,towhichtheratherlooseterm#fantastic#hasoftenbeenappliedCuttingacrossthiswidefield,ProfessorBrookeRoseexaminesinaclearandprecisewaytheessentialdifferencesbetweenthesetypesofnarrativeagainstthebackgroundofrealisticfictionIndoingso,sheemploysmanyofthemethodsofmodernliterarytheoryfromRussianformalismtostructuralism,whileatthesametimebringingtotheseapproachesasharpcriticalintuitionandsoundcommonsenseofherownTherangeoftextsconsideredisbroad:fromPoeandJames(threechaptersaredevotedtoanalysesofTheTurnoftheScrew)toTolkienandthenewsciencefiction,fromFlannO#BrientotheAmericanpostmodernistschool,viasomeoftheFrenchexperimentsofthefifties,sixties,andseventiesProfessorBrookeRosefirstachievedprominenceintheliteraryworldwithAgrammarofMetaphor,publishedin,andhersubsequentpublicationsincludeAZBCofEzraPound()aswellasanumberofnovelsandshortstoriesHernewbookshouldproveasourceofstimulatipntoallteachersandstudentsofmodernliterarytheoryandgenre,aswellasthoseinterestedin#fantastic#literature#Herbookisremarkableforitssheerrangeofinterest,touchingonjustabouteverymajortopicinmoderncriticaltheoryandnarrativepoeticsItisimpossibletogivemorethanthebaresthintofthisbook#srichvarietyofthemes#BritishBookNews#adazzlinglybrainywriterwhoconveysunfamiliarideasandattitudesinafamiliar,apprehensiblemannerSheisanextraordinarilyacuteandsuggestivereader#BernardBergonziinEncounterCoverdesignbyKenFarnhillRhetoricoftheUnrealARhetoricoftheUnrealStudiesinnarrativeandstructure,especiallyofthefantasticCHRISTINEBROOKEROSECAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridgeLondonNewYorkNewRochelleMelbourneSydneyPublishedbythePressSyndicateoftheUniversityofCambridgeThePittBuilding,TrumpingtonStreet,CambridgeCBRPEastthStreet,NewYork,NY,USABeaconsfieldParade,MiddlePark,Melbourne,AustraliacopyCambridgeUniversityPressFirstpublishedFirstpaperbackeditionPrintedinGreatBritainattheUniversityPress,CambridgeBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataBrookeRose,ChristineArhetoricoftheunreal,Fantasticfiction,EuropeanHistoryandcriticismEuropeanfictionthcenturyHistoryandcriticismITitle##PNISBNhardcoversISBNXpaperbackContentsAcknowledgementspageviiPartIThereal,theunrealandtherhetoricTherealandtheunrealTherhetoricPartIIMethodandnonmethodingenreanalysisHistoricgenrestheoreticalgenres:TodorovonthefantasticSciencefictionandrealisticfictionPartIIIThepurefantastic:typesofanalysisTheencodedreaderTheTurnoftheScrewanditscritics:anessayinnonmethodologyTheTurnoftheScrew:mirrorstructuresasbasicstructuresThesurfacestructuresinTheTurnoftheScrewPartIVTheunrealasreal:themodernmarvellousTheevilring:realismandthemarvellousTitanplus:thenewsciencefiction(VonnegutandMcElroy)PartVTherealasunreal:somemoderntextsTherealasunreal:RobbeGrilletTransgressionsEximplosionsvviCONTENTSMetafictionandsurfiction:asimplerformalapproachNotesBibliographyIndexAcknowledgementsThefollowingchaptersarerevisedversionsofessaysoriginallypublishedinvariousreviewsPartofchapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle,#RoundandroundtheJakobsondiagram:asurvey#inTheHebrewUniversityStudiesinLiterature,vol,no()Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#Historicalgenrestheoreticalgenres:adiscussionofTodorovonthefantastic#inNewLiteraryHistory,vol,no()Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#Thereaderhoodofman#inTheReaderintheText,editedbySusanSuleimanandIngeCrosman,andisreprintedbypermissionofPrincetonUniversityPress,Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#Thesquirmofthetrueanessayinnonmethodology#inPoeticsandTheoryofLiterature,vol,no()Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#Thelongglassesmdashastructuralanalysis#inPoeticsandTheoryofLiterature,vol,no()Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#Surfacestructuresinnarrative#inPoeticsandTheoryofLiterature,vol,no()Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#Theevilring:realismandthemarvellous#inPoeticsToday,vol,no()Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#BaroqueimaginationofRobbeGrillet#inModernFictionStudies,vol,no()Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#Transgressions:anessaymdashsayonthenovelnovelnovel#inContemporaryLiterature,vol,no()Chapterwasoriginallypublishedunderthetitle#Wheredowegofromhere#inGranta()vuPARTIThereal,theunrealandtherhetoricTherealandtheunrealThatthiscenturyisundergoingarealitycrisishasbecomeabanality,easilyandpragmaticallyshruggedoffPerhapsitisinfactundergoingacrisisoftheimaginationafatigue,adecadenceAndrhetoriciansusuallyappearintimesofdecadence,thatis,whenstablevaluesdisappear,whenformsbreakdownandnewonesappear,coexistingwithalltheoldonesTheirtaskisthentotrytomakesenseofwhatishappeningbyworkingoutreasonedtypologiesofstructuresandtryingtoaccountfor#deviationsfromthenorm#(thenormbeingwhatthey,andpeoplegenerally,havebeenusedto)Butsincetheyhavetostart,humbly,withsimplestructures,theirattemptsneverwhollyaccountfortheexplosionsofformstakingplacearoundthem,theybecomemoreandmorecomplex,morecumbersome,themselvesmore#deviating#fromtheirownoriginalprinciples,moreandmoreselfquestioningTodaytherhetoricians,ofinnumerablekinds,aremorevolublethantheyhavebeenforcenturies,andsincetheliteraryworkofartisitselfarhetoricalsystem,superimposing,onthefirstarbitrarysystemofnaturallanguages,yetanothersystemofrepresentation,thecomplicationsofmodernrhetorichavebecomebothfascinatinganddiscouragingFascinatingforitself,inaselfreflexingwaythatitselfreflectswhatishappeningintheworkofart,butdiscouragingandconfusingforothersThedefenceofthereader,thejournalistandtheteacherisusuallytorejectallthisasnonsenseand,ineffect,tostaywithorpropagatewhatevernotionstheywerebroughtuponThereisasimilarsplitinattitudesto#reality#Forprofessionalphilosophers,thecommonsensedivisionthatdefinestherealasthephysicalandempirical,andtheunrealasthemetaphysicalhaseverbeencontested,fromPlatowhoregardedourfamiliarrealityasmereshadowsofperfectideas(truer,somore#real#),tomodernIPTHEREALANDTHERHETORICpostHegelianssuchasDerrida,forwhom#truth#isforeverpostponed(seep),andmodernphilosophygenerally,whichhaslongcometorecognisethatthebruteontologicalfactisinaccessibletous,sincemancanonlyrepresentitthroughhismanyarbitrarysystems,includinglanguageandthelanguagesofscienceThedifferencehereisthat,whereasthevariousrhetoricsaresimplydismissedorignoredbytheaveragereader,thesensethatempiricalrealityisnotassecureasitusedtobeisnowpervasiveatalllevelsofsocietyCertainlywhatusedtobecalledempiricalreality,ortheworld,seemstohavebecomemoreandmoreunreal,andwhathaslongbeenregardedasunrealismoreandmoreturnedtoorstudiedastheonly#true#or#anotherandequallyvalid#realityWitness,forexample,Foucaultonmadness(),Laingonschizophreniaasabreakthrough(),andsincethenwhatShoshannaFelman()calls#cetteinflationdiscursivepourlafolie#aswellaspsychicresearchonparanormalphenomenaor,onamoregenerallevel,thereturnofreligiousbelief,thevastriseofoccultism,mysticalsects,drugs,andtherenewedwavesofideologicalandreligiousfanaticismsThisapparentandforthemomentstillpartial(andperhapstransient)inversionofrealunrealisperfectlylogical:ifthe#real#hascometoseemunreal,itisnaturaltoturntothe#unreal#asreal:thetwopropositionsareinterrelatedThis#naturalness#howeverisduetoman#sneedtoimposesignificanceontheempiricalrealityaroundhim,whichinitselfiswithoutsignificanceButofcourse,theverystatementthattheontologicalfactisitselfwithoutsignificanceisasignifyingstatement,imposingaviewofrealityasnonsignificant,imposing,thatis,thesignificanceofnonsignificanceacontradictionwhichseemstoescapeCleacutementRossetwho,inabriefbutremarkablebook{Lereacuteeltraiteacutedel#idiotie,),firstdemonstratesthatallrealityisbothnecessarilydetermined(invirtueoftheidentityprinciplethatA=A)andnecessarilyfortuitousinthesensethatitisnotnecessarilythisorthat,butcannotescapethenecessityofbeingsomething(ieanything)Thispropertyinherenttoallrealityofbeingbothfortuitousanddeterminedhecalls#theinsignificanceofthereal#,andwhatmakesrealitytipoverintononsenseispreciselythenecessityweimposeonitofalwaysbeingsignificant(pp)Theonlyenigmathen,forRosset,istheontologicalfact,thatis,thenecessityofbeingsomething(anything)isvalidforallrealityexceptingonlythefactofitsexistenceSimilarly,allsignificanceTHEREALgiventotherealisillusory,exceptingonlythefactthatitis(p)But,hesays,weperceiverealityaseithernecessaryorfortuitousWhenanoccurrenceorobjectseemstousbothnecessaryandnonnecessary,thisisanisolatedperception,atoncesanctionedbylaughter(asincertaintypesofhumour)orbyirritation(aswhenlosingagameofchess,themovesofwhicharebothnecessaryandfortuitous,pp)Oragain,therearefourmainmeansofaccesstotherealinitsnecessaryfortuitousnonsignificance,itsmerebeingitself(its#idiocy#intheoriginalsenseofsingular,unique):thatofthedrunk,whoseseeingdoubleisasuperficialopticalphenomenon(itiswewhoseedouble),andwhoinfactseesthingsintheirprodigiousontologicalsingularitythatofapersonsuddenlybereftoflove,whoseesthingsdivestedofallemotionalinvestment(washbasinsexist,coffeeexists)thatoftheworkofartandthatofphilosophy,whichsumsuptheotherthreeinthesensethatthephilosophicalstate,inPlato#swords,isastateofbeingperpetuallydrunk,inlove,andanartistAllotherperceptionsoftherealpassthroughthedouble,themirrorimage,the#valueadded#ofsignificance(ppmdash,mdash)Andthedoublehasthreemainfunctions:()practicaltodisplacesomehowarealitythatmustatallcostbeevacuated(AisA,butalsoequaltoallitsdoubles)()metaphysicaltomakerealityless#idiotic#byendowingitwithanothermeaning()fantasmatictoproduceanobjectlackinginanincompleteworldandthusaccountfordesireAllthesebetrayarefusaltoapprehendtherealinitssingularity(pp)However,thedirectaccesstotherealwhichRossetgenerouslyattributestoartandphilosophyissurelyhighlyambiguous,foronhisownshowing(hedealswithmanyliterarytexts,aswellaswithwhathecallsthephilosophiesof(a)the#illusionist#,whichstemsfromHegel,and(b)the#incurable#,whichstemsfromKant),botharelargelyanddeeplyinvolvedinthisdoubledvision,andphilosophynottheleast,sincethenotionoftheincompleteworldandindeedallidealismgoesbacktoPlato(seealsoRosset)Thisquestionofresponsibilityapart,theremayseemtobeanapparentcontradictionintheveryfactthatRossetisconstantly#interpreting#orgivingsignificancetothemanyliteraryworkshementions(fromSophoclestoacomicstripbyHerge),andtothephilosophieshediscusses,evenifitisonlyhissignificancethatrealityhasnosignificanceThecontradictionisonlyapparent,atleastasfarastheworksareconcerned,foritisattworemovesfromtheTHEREALANDTHERHETORICcontradictionImentionedabovewhenIsaidthathisviewofrealityasnonsignificantisitselfasignifyingstatementAnystatementinlanguagemustsignify,butliteraryworksformyetanothersignifyingsystemThetextsheislookingatandinterpretingarenot#reality#butmanmade#artefacts#(Frye),#secondarymodellingsystems#(Lotman),ormeaningmakingmachines,justlikephilosophies,ideologiesoranyothermeaningmakingmachines,whichheinterpretsassuch,andquitelegitimatelywithinhispostulatesThedifferencebetweenphilosophicalsystemsandartsystemsisthatphilosophicalsystemsarewhollyandavowedmeaningmakingmachines,whiletheartsystemsdisplayagraduatingscalefromworksthatareavowedmeaningmakingmachinesorclaimtobe,andworksthatcomeascloseascommunicationsystemscantomereontojlogicalexistence(#pure#poetry,#concrete#poetry,abstractart,music)butofcourseeventhesehaveatleast#thestructuralsignificanceofsimilarityanddifference,onwhichallcommunicationsystems(andultimatelyallcriticism)arebasedIfsignificanceisnecessity,asopposedtofortuitousnesswhichseemstousmeaningless,itiscertainlytruethat,onamuchmorepopularlevelthanthatofphilosophers,thiscenturyseemstousmoreandmorefortuitousdespiteallourattemptsatrationalplanning,scientificanalysisandsystembuilding(includingrhetoric)Neverbeforehavethemeaningmakingmeansatourdisposal(linguistic,economic,political,scientific)appearedsoinadequate,notonlytocopewiththeenormityoftheproblemswecontinuetocreate(sinceeveryapparentsolutioncreatesnewproblems),butsimplytoexplaintheworldThisseemstobethecenturywhich,despiteorbecauseofthepaceoftechnologicaladvance,hastakenthelongest,relativetothatpace,toemergefromthementalhabitsofthepreviouscenturyWeknowthatalltheoldsecurevalueshavegone,thataradicalchangeisoccurringwhichmanmustundergoorperish,yetwesomehowgoonasif,ensconcedstillinrelicsofnineteenthcenturyideologies,inawaywhichothertimesinparallelsituationsapparentlydidnotApparently,becauseitseemssointhemidstofitandretrospectivelyButthistooisprobablyanillusionofculture,ofhistorybookswhichimposetheirneatlysignificantpatternsofperiodscalmlysucceedingeachotherasweturntothenextchapter,whatevertheanguishandturmoilwehavejustreadaboutInoneofhismostimportantbooks(,espp),FrankKermodearguespersuasivelyagainstthisillusionofculture,andTHEREALshowsthatalthough#thereisapowerfuleschatologicalelementinmodernthought#(themodernapocalypse),itiscommonplacebutwrong#totalkaboutourhistoricalsituationasuniquelyterribleandinawayprivileged,acardinalpointoftime#Eschatologicalanxietyhasalwaysexisted,itwasevenafeatureofMesopotamianculture,hetellsus,butsince#itattachesitselftotheeschatologicalmeansavailable,itisassociatedwithchangingimages#Thebookisimportantforthelinksitestablisheswithphilosophicalandartsystems,and,moreparticularly,withnarrativeliterature,whichmostclearlyfulfilsourneedfor#abeginning,amiddleandanend#Onthathighlevel,IagreewithKermode,butsinceIamheretryingtoaccountforthereturnofthefantasticinallitsforms,someofichwereuntilnotsolongagoignoredordespisedbyintellectualsascrude,Ishallstaywiththispervasive#senseofanending#asitisunderstood(inmyview)morepopularlyThereare,wefeel,someessentialdifferencesbetweenthiscentury#scrisisandthoseundergonebyothersOne,obviouseventothelayman,isthattheverynotionofprogressisnowuntenableinitssecurenineteenthcenturysenseofman#sperfectibilityindeedinthemoralsphereweseemonthecontrarytobecapableofregressingseveralcenturies,orrather,ofmaking#progresses#ininiquityunimaginablebeforeAnotheristhatmanisnowwhollydecentralised,havingbeenpartiallysobytheCopernicanrevolution,afterwhichmanplacedhiscentreinhumanconsciousnessButnowthistoohasbeendethroned,after,ontheonehand,Freud#s#Copernicanrevolution#anditssequelsand,ontheother,theadvancesinmodernphysics,whichquestionedtheverypossibilityoftotalisation,ofpostulatinganordered,systemisableuniverseAfterEinstein#sequivalenceofmatterandenergy,afterdeBroglie#sdualnatureofparticleandlightwave,afterPlanck#sdemonstrationthatenergyisemittedindiscontinuousquanta,andHeisenberg#suncertaintyprinciplewhichreplacedthedeterminismofclassicalphysicswithastateofprobabilityandrandomness,andshowedthatobservablephenomenaareaffectedbytheinstrumentobservingthem,acertaintoleranceofambiguitywasintroducedintoscience,andmanisnowfacedwithaphilosophyofindeterminacyandamultivalentlogicAsZavarzadeh(:)pointsout,theprevalentculturalmetaphor,nowmoreorlessbanalised,isnolongerthatoforder,or#organicunity#,butthatofentropyThirdly,andequallybanalised,manhaslearntthatheismortalTHEREALANDTHERHETORICnotofcourseinthesensethatheasanindividualmustdie,forhehasalwaysknownthat,andhascopedwithitinvarioussignifyingwaysEvenwithinthatknowledgeofindividualdeath,thereisavastdifferencebetweenknowingthatI(orX,whomIlove)mustdie,andbeingawarethatwhenIdiemywholeworldofcognitionandallthatIhavelovedandinvestedwithsignificancemustalsodisappearwithmycognitionofitThistoo,however,manhascopedwithbysimplydenyingit,throughvariousfictionswhichinsomewayenablethisverylove,insomepurifiedformorother,toconquerdeathThesefictionsarethefruitofdesire,andare#true#inrepresentingtheundeniablefactthatdesire,thoughbydefinitionofanabsentobject,ischannelledtowardsspecificandpresentobjectsandtherebyappearstoconquerindividualdeathinworksofmanthatjremainafterhim,andmoreusuallyinprogeny,notjustasrepetitionofselfbutascreationofanothersignifyingcomplexNeverbefore,itisfelt,hasmanbeensosquarelyfacedwiththepossibleannihilationofmankindandallhisworks,hisplanetandperhapsmoreCertainlytheendoftheworldhasalwaysbeenpresentinhisfictions,andsurgesespeciallyatamillenium,butthisnotionwasitselfpartofhissurvivalfictions:heasindividualcouldbesavedWehavenosuchgenerallyacceptedfictionstoday,unlessofcoursewewishindividuallytoretainoneofthoseTheseessentialdifferences,andnodoubtothers,aredeeplylinkedtothesensewehavethattherealhasbecomeunrealIfsignificanceisnecessityandfortuitousnessmeaningless,howhasthesituationbecomenecessaryInthepopularview,itistheresultofrationalscience,basedonnecessaryconnections,scienceonwhichwehadbasedallourhopes,andwhichhas#letusdown#,withwhatseemstothelaymanwhollyfortuitousdiscoveriesInhismaniaforsignificance,manlooksformoralmeaningshisownguilt,or,displaced,themythofthemadscientistOrhelooksformysticalmeanings:man,notcontentwiththecreatedlight,hasdiscoveredtheuncreatedlight,thesecretoftheuniverse(insomeversions,longknownbutundivulgedbythewisemenofancientocculttraditions)manPrometheus,ormanLuciferThesecantakeoptimisticforms:manwillbewise,willcontrolthisforce,andmerelymanipulateitsexistencetopreventitsuseorthisforcewillbethesolutiontothedeathoftheplanetbyothermeansthesemeanshoweverbeingalsotheresultofunwisdomgreed,sloth,powergames,sothattheforcewillenableustogoonbeinggreedy,polluting,powerfulSuchmythshavealwaysexisted,butneverbeforehavetheybeenTHEREALsodangerously,yetsoobviously(foranymantosee)ambiguous,selfcancelling,#meaningless#,perchedsovisibly,atoneandthesametime,onthenecessaryandthefortuitousmdashpopularlyexemplified,ontheonehand,inthevastandrationalscientificapparatus,evenwithbuiltinfailsafe,and,ontheother,inthefamouspressingofthebuttonTheburdenofthismeaninglesssituationbeingunbearable,wenaturallyescape,andeasily,intoourmorefamiliarreality,endowedwithsignificancebyourdesire,whateveritmightbe,anddisplacethemeaninglesssituationintoamerebackdrop,apocalypticnodoubt,butabackdropweceasetoseeThisdisplacementalsopartlyexplainsthebanalisationofthescientific#marvellous#:sincetheexcitementofthemoonlanding,nobodycaresmuchaboutRussianscirclingtheearthforsixmonthsoraPioneerphotographingSaturnItis#meaningless#Inversely,naturefilmshaverendered#marvellous#whatisperfectlynaturalandhappeningallthetime,everywherearoundus,unperceivedbyusbeforethetelescopiclensandacceleratedfilmingThenthistoobecomesbanalised,fromrepetitionButthemeaninglesspursuesusdailyeveninthatmorefamiliarreality,inthealltoovisiblecontradictionsofourdiscourseforexampleinthewayinwhichalldiscoursemanipulatesusanddoesn#tevenbothertohidethefactinthepurposefulinflationofanitembythemedia,followedbydowntoningorinexplicablesilenceindailycatastrophesthatweceasetoreactto,guiltilyofcourse,sothatwedoreact,andhysterically,assoonasweareinsomewayinvolved,personally,orbyproxyoffriendsorfortuitouspresence,ornationally,byproxyofclosegeographicalorpoliticalconnection,thatis,throughvestedinterests,throughinvestmentofsignificanceAndthissignificance,ifnotitselfobviousatonce,isgiventousbythemediawhocanwhipuportonedownorobliterateatwilljustasabestsellercanbecreatedwholesale,orthedeathofafilmstarbecomeaworldeventjuxtaposedwithalocalgenocide,oranalliancewithadictatorpresentedasnecessary,andquietlydroppedwheninconvenientIsay#alldiscourse#becauseitisfashionabletopickontheobviousones,likethemediaabove,orpublicity,butnodiscourseisinnocent,fromthesupposedlyneutral

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