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Arts of Contact Zone.pdf

Arts of Contact Zone.pdf

上传者: 用户tyttachwhj 2017-07-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Arts of Contact Zonepdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含ArtsoftheContactZoneAuthor(s):MaryLouisePrattSource:Profession,ofession(),符等。

ArtsoftheContactZoneAuthor(s):MaryLouisePrattSource:Profession,ofession(),ppPublishedby:ModernLanguageAssociationStableURL:http:wwwjstororgstableAccessed::UTCJSTORisanotforprofitservicethathelpsscholars,researchers,andstudentsdiscover,use,andbuilduponawiderangeofcontentinatrusteddigitalarchiveWeuseinformationtechnologyandtoolstoincreaseproductivityandfacilitatenewformsofscholarshipFormoreinformationaboutJSTOR,pleasecontactsupportjstororgYouruseoftheJSTORarchiveindicatesyouracceptanceoftheTermsConditionsofUse,availableathttp:aboutjstororgtermsModernLanguageAssociationiscollaboratingwithJSTORtodigitize,preserveandextendaccesstoProfessionThiscontentdownloadedfromonTue,Apr::UTCAllusesubjecttohttp:aboutjstororgtermsArtsoftheContactZoneMaryLouisePrattWheneverthesubjectofliteracycomesup,whatoftenpopsfirstintomymindisaconversationIoverheardeightyearsagobetweenmysonSamandhisbestfriend,Willie,agedsixandseven,respectively:Whydon#tyoutrademeManyTrailsforCarlYatsYesitsYastrumscrumThat#snothowyousayit,dummy,it#sCarlYesYesoh,Idon#tknowSamandWilliehadjustdiscoveredbaseballcardsManyTrailswastheirdecoding,withthehelpoffirstgradeEnglishphonics,ofthenameMannyTrilloThenametheywerequiterightlystumpedonwasCarlYastremskiThatwasthefirsttimeIrememberedseeingthemputtheirincipientliteracytotheirownuse,andIwasofcoursethrilledSamandWillielearnedalotaboutphonicsthatyearbytryingtodeciphersurnamesonbaseballcards,andalotaboutcities,states,heights,weights,placesofbirth,stagesoflifeIntheyears,thatfollowed,IwatchedSamapplyhisarithmeticskillstoworkingoutbattingaveragesandsubtractingretirementyearsfromrookieyearsIwatchedhimdevelopsensesofpatterningandorderbyarrangingandrearranginghiscardsforhoursonend,andaestheticjudgmentbycomparingdifferentphotos,differentseries,layouts,andcolorschemesAmericangeographyandhistorytookshapeinhismindthroughbaseballcardsMuchofhissocialliferevolvedaroundtradingthem,andhelearnedaboutexchange,fairness,trust,theimportanceofprocessesasopposedtoresults,whatitmeanstogetcheated,takenadvantageof,evenrobbedBaseballcardswerethemediumofhiseconomiclifetooNowherebettertolearnthepowerandarbitrarinessofmoney,theabsolutedivorcebetweenusevalueandexchangevalue,notionsoflongandshortterminvestment,thepossibilityofpersonalvaluesthatareindependentofmarketvaluesBaseballcardsmeantbaseballcardshows,wheretherewasmuchtobelearnedaboutadultworldsaswellAndbaseballcardsopenedthedoortobaseballbooks,shelvesandshelvesofencyclopedias,magazines,histories,biographies,novels,booksofjokes,anecdotes,cartoons,evenpoemsSamlearnedthehistoryofAmericanracismandthestruggleagainstitthroughbaseballhesawthedepressionandtwoworldwarsfrombehindhomeplateHelearnedthemeaningofcornmodifiedlabor,whatitmeansforone#sbodyandtalentstobeownedanddispensedbyanotherHeknowssomethingaboutJapan,Taiwan,Cuba,andCentralAmericaandhowmenandboysdothingsthereThroughthehistoryandexperienceofbaseballstadiumshethoughtaboutarchitecture,light,wind,topography,meteorology,thedynamicsofpublicspaceHelearnedthemeaningofexpertise,ofknowingaboutsomethingwellenoughthatyoucanstartaconversationwithastrangerandfeelsureofholdingyourownEvenwithanadultespeciallywithanadultThroughouthispreadolescentyears,baseballhistorywasSam#sluminouspointofcontactwithgrownups,hislifelinetocaringAnd,ofcourse,allthistimehewasalsoplayingbaseball,strugglinghiswaythroughthestagesofthelocalLittleLeaguesystem,luckyenoughtobeaprettygoodplayer,lovingthegameandcomingtoknowdeeplyhisstrengthsandweaknessesLiteracybeganforSamwiththenewlypronounceablenamesonthepicturecardsandbroughthimwhathasbeeneasilythebroadest,mostvaried,mostenduring,andmostintegratedexperienceofhisthirteenyearlifeLikemanyparents,IwasdelightedtoseeschoolinggiveSamthetoolswithwhichtofindandopenallthesedoorsAtthesametimeIfounditunforgivablethatschoolingitselfgavehimnothingremotelyasmeaningfultodo,letaloneanythingthatwouldactuallytakehimbeyondthereferential,masculinistethosofbaseballanditsloreHowever,Iwasnotinvitedheretospeakasaparent,norasanexpertonliteracyIwasaskedtospeakasanMLAmemberworkingintheeliteacademyInthatcapacitymycontributionisundoubtedlysupposedtobeabstract,irrelevant,andanchoredoutsidetherealworldIwouldn#tdreamofdisappointinganyoneIproposeimmediatelytoheadbackseveralcenturiestoatextthathasafewpointsincommonwithbaseballcardsandraisesthoughtsaboutwhatTonySarmiento,inhiscommentstotheconference,callednewvisionsofliteracyInaPeruvianistnamedRichardPietschmannwasexploringintheDanishRoyalArchiveinCopenhagenandcameTheauthorisProfessorofSpanishandComparativeLiteratureandDirectorofthePrograminModernThoughtandLiteratureatStanfordUniversityThispaperwaspresentedasthekeynoteaddressattheResponsibilitiesforLiteracyconferenceinPittsburgh,Pennsylvania,inSeptemberThiscontentdownloadedfromonTue,Apr::UTCAllusesubjecttohttp:aboutjstororgtermsArtsoftheContactZoneacrossamanuscriptItwasdatedinthecityofCuzcoinPeru,intheyear,somefortyyearsafterthefinalfalloftheIncaempiretotheSpanishandsignedwithanunmistakablyAndeanindigenousname:FelipeGuamanPomadeAyalaWritteninamixtureofQuechuaandungrammatical,expressiveSpanish,themanuscriptwasaletteraddressedbyanunknownbutapparentlyliterateAndeantoKingPhilipIIIofSpainWhatstunnedPietschmannwasthattheletterwastwelvehundredpageslongTherewerealmosteighthundredpagesofwrittentextandfourhundredofcaptionedlinedrawingsItwastitledTheFirstNewChronicleandGoodGovernmentNooneknew(orknows)howthemanuscriptgottothelibraryinCopenhagenorhowlongithadbeenthereNoone,itappeared,hadeverbotheredtoreaditorfiguredouthowQuechuawasnotthoughtofasawrittenlanguagein,norAndeancultureasaliterateculturePietschmannpreparedapaperonhisfind,whichhepresentedinLondonin,ayearaftertherediscoveryofMachuPicchubyHiramBinghamReception,byaninternationalcongressofAmericanists,wasapparentlyconfusedIttooktwentyfiveyearsforafacsimileeditionoftheworktoappear,inParisItwasnottillthelates,aspositivistreadinghabitsgavewaytointerpretivestudiesandcolonialelitismstopostcolonialpluralisms,thatWesternscholarsfoundwaysofreadingGuamanPomasNewChronicleandGoodGovernmentastheextraordinaryinterculturaltourdeforcethatitwasThelettergotthere,onlyyearstoolate,amiracleandaterribletragedyIproposetosayafewmorewordsaboutthiserstwhileunreadabletext,inordertolayoutsomethoughtsaboutwritingandliteracyinwhatIliketocallthecontactzonesIusethistermtorefertosocialspaceswhereculturesmeet,clash,andgrapplewitheachother,oftenincontextsofhighlyasymmetricalrelationsofpower,suchascolonialism,slavery,ortheiraftermathsastheyarelivedoutinmanypartsoftheworldtodayEventuallyIwillusethetermtoreconsiderthemodelsofcommunitythatmanyofusrelyoninteachingandtheorizingandthatareunderchallengetodayBirstalittlemoreaboutGuamanPomasgiantlettertoPhilipIIIInsofarasanythingisknownabouthimatall,GuamanPomaexemplifiedthesocioculturalcomplexitiesproducedbyconquestandempireHewasanindigenousAndeanwhoclaimednobleIncadescentandwhohadadopted(atleastinsomesense)ChristianityHemayhaveworkedintheSpanishcolonialadministrationasaninterpreter,scribe,orassistanttoaSpanishtaxcollectorasamediator,inshortHesayshelearnedtowritefromhishalfbrother,amestizowhoseSpanishfatherhadgivenhimaccesstoreligiouseducationGuamanPomaslettertothekingiswrittenintwolanguages(SpanishandQuechua)andtwopartsThefirstiscalledtheNuevacoronica#NewChronicleThetitleisimportantThechronicleofcoursewasthemainwritingapparatusthroughwhichtheSpanishrepresentedtheirAmericanconqueststothemselvesItconstitutedoneofthemainofficialdiscoursesInwritinganewchronicle,GuamanPomatookovertheofficialSpanishgenreforhisownendsThoseendswere,roughly,toconstructanewpictureoftheworld,apictureofaChristianworldwithAndeanratherthanEuropeanpeoplesatthecenterofitCuzco,notJerusalemIntheNewChronicleGuamanPomabeginsbyrewritingtheChristianhistoryoftheworldfromAdamandEve(fig),incorporatingtheAmerindiansintoitasoffspringofoneofthesonsofNoahHeidentifiesfiveagesofChristianhistorythathelinksinparallelwiththefiveagesofcanonicalAndeanhistoryseparatebutequaltrajectoriesthatdivergewithNoahandreintersectnotwithColumbusbutwithSaintBartholomew,claimedtohaveprecededColumbusintheAmericasInacoupleofhundredpages,GuamanPomaconstructsaveritableencyclopediaofIncaandpreIncaEtPPiMERMWOOWEVAI^JFigAdamandEveThiscontentdownloadedfromonTue,Apr::UTCAllusesubjecttohttp:aboutjstororgtermsMaryLouisePratthistory,customs,laws,socialforms,publicoffices,anddynasticleadersThedepictionsresembleEuropeanmannersandcustomsdescription,butalsoreproducethemeticulousdetailwithwhichknowledgeinIncasocietywasstoredonquipuszndintheoralmemoriesofeldersGuamanPomasNewChronicleisaninstanceofwhatIhaveproposedtocallanautoethnographictext,bywhichImeanatextinwhichpeopleundertaketodescribethemselvesinwaysthatengagewithrepresentationsothershavemadeofthemThusifethnographictextsarethoseinwhichEuropeanmetropolitansubjectsrepresenttothemselvestheirothers(usuallytheirconqueredothers),autoethnographictextsarerepresentationsthatthesodefinedothersconstructinresponsetoorindialoguewiththosetextsAutoethnographictextsarenot,then,whatareusuallythoughtofasautochthonousformsofexpressionorselfrepresentation(astheAndeanquipuswere)RathertheyinvolveaselectivecollaborationwithandappropriationofidiomsofthemetropolisortheconquerorThesearemergedorinfiltratedtovaryingdegreeswithindigenousidiomstocreateselfrepresentationsintendedtointerveneinmetropolitanmodesofunderstandingAutoethnographicworksareoftenaddressedtokiteFigConquistaMeetingofSpaniardandIncaTheIncasaysinQuechua,YoueatthisgoldSpaniardrepliesinSpanish,WeeatthisgoldbothmetropolitanaudiencesandthespeakersowncommunityTheirreceptionisthushighlyindeterminateSuchtextsoftenconstituteamarginalizedgroupspointofentryintothedominantcircuitsofprintcultureItisinterestingtothink,forexample,ofAmericanslaveautobiographyinitsautoethnographicdimensions,whichinsomerespectsdistinguishitfromEuramericanautobiographicaltraditionTheconceptmighthelpexplainwhysomeoftheearliestpublishedwritingbyChicanastooktheformoffolkloricmannersandcustomssketcheswritteninEnglishandpublishedinEnglishlanguagenewspapersorfolkloremagazines(seeTreviiio)Autoethnographicrepresentationofteninvolvesconcretecollaborationsbetweenpeople,asbetweenliterateexslavesandabolitionistintellectuals,orbetweenGuamanPomaandtheIncaelderswhowerehisinformantsOften,asinGuamanPoma,itinvolvesmorethanonelanguageInrecentdecadesautoethnography,critique,andresistancehavereconnectedwithwritinginacontemporarycreationofthecontactzone,thetestimonioGuamanPomasNewChronicleendswitharevisionistaccountoftheSpanishconquest,which,heargues,shouldhavebeenapeacefulencounterofequalswiththepotentialforbenefitingboth,borthemindlessgreedoftheSpanishHeparodiesSpanishhistoryFollowingcontactwiththeIncas,hewrites,InallCastille,therewasagreatcommotionAlldayandatnightintheirdreamstheSpaniardsweresaying#Yndias,yndias,oro,plata,oro,platadelPiru#(Indies,Indies,gold,silver,gold,silverfromPeru)(fig)TheSpanish,hewrites,broughtnothingofvaluetosharewiththeAndeans,nothingbutarmorandgunsconlacodiciadeoro,plata,oroyplata,yndias,alasYndias,Piru(withthelustforgold,silver,goldandsilver,Indies,theIndies,Peru)()Iquotethesewordsasanexampleofaconqueredsubjectusingtheconquerorslanguagetoconstructaparodic,oppositionalrepresentationoftheconquerorsownspeechGuamanPomamirrorsbacktotheSpanish(intheirlanguage,whichisalientohim)animageofthemselvesthattheyoftensuppressandwillthereforesurelyrecognizeSucharethedynamicsoflanguage,writing,andrepresentationincontactzonesThesecondhalfoftheepistlecontinuesthecritiqueItistitledBuengobiernoyjusticia#GoodGovernmentandJustice#andcombinesadescriptionofcolonialsocietyintheAndeanregionwithapassionatedenunciationofSpanishexploitationandabuse(These,atthetimehewaswriting,weredecimatingthepopulationofthej^ndesatagenocidalrateInfact,thepotentiallossofthelaborforcebecameamaincauseforreformofthesystem)GuamanPomasmostimplacablehostilityisinvokedbyThiscontentdownloadedfromonTue,Apr::UTCAllusesubjecttohttp:aboutjstororgtermsArtsoftheContactZonetheclergy,followedbythedreadedcorregidorestorcolonialoverseers(fig)Healsopraisesgoodworks,Christianhabits,andjustmenwherehefindsthem,andoffersatlengthhisviewsastowhatconstitutesgoodgovernmentandjusticeTheIndies,heargues,shouldbeadministeredthroughacollaborationofIncaandSpanishelitesTheepistleendswithanimaginaryquestionandanswersessioninwhich,inareversalofhierarchy,thekingisdepictedaskingGuamanPomaquestionsabouthowtoreformtheempireadialogueimaginedacrossthemanylinesthatdividetheAndeanscribefromtheimperialmonarch,andinwhichthesubordinatedsubjectsinglehandedlygiveshimselfauthorityinthecolonizerslanguageandverbalrepertoireInaway,itworkedthisextraordinarytextdidgetwrittenbutinawayitdidnot,fortheletterneverreacheditsaddresseeTograsptheimportofGuamanPomasproject,oneneedstokeepinmindthattheIncashadnosystemofwritingTheirhugeempireissaidtobetheonlyknowninstanceofafullblownbureaucraticstatesocietybuiltandadministeredwithoutwritingGuamanPomaconstructshistextbyappropriatingandadaptingpiecesoftherepresentationalrepertoireoftheinvadersHedoesFigCorregidordeminasCatalogofSpanishabusesofindigenouslaborforcenotsimplyimitateorreproduceitheselectsandadaptsitalongAndeanlinestoexpress(bilingually,mindyou)AndeaninterestsandaspirationsEthnographershaveusedthetermtransculturationtodescribeprocesseswherebymembersofsubordinatedormarginalgroupsselectandinventfrommaterialstransmittedbyadominantormetropolitancultureTheterm,originallycoinedbyCubansociologistFernandoOrtizinthes,aimedtoreplaceoverlyreductiveconceptsofacculturationandassimilationusedtocharacterizecultureunderconquestWhilesubordinatepeoplesdonotusuallycontrolwhatemanatesfromthedominantculture,theydodeterminetovaryingextentswhatgetsabsorbedintotheirownandwhatitgetsusedforTransculturation,likeautoethnography,isaphenomenonofthecontactzoneAsscholarshaverealizedonlyrelativelyrecently,thetransculturalcharacterofGuamanPomastextisintricatelyapparentinitsvisualaswellasitswrittencomponentThegenreofthefourhundredlinedrawingsisEuropeanthereseemstohavebeennotraditionofrepresentationaldrawingamongtheIncasbutintheirexecutiontheydeployspecificallyAndeansystemsofspatialsymbolismthatexpressAndeanvaluesandaspirationsInfigure,forinstance,Adamisdepictedonthelefthandsidebelowthesun,whileEveisontherighthandsidebelowthemoon,andslighdylowerthanAdamThetwoaredividedbythediagonalofAdamsdiggingstickInAndeanspatialsymbolism,thediagonaldescendingfromthesunmarksthebasiclineofpowerandauthoritydividingupperfromlower,malefromfemale,dominantfromsubordinateInfigure,theIncaappearsinthesamepositionasAdam,withtheSpaniardopposite,andthetwoatthesameheightInfigure,depictingSpanishabusesofpower,thesymbolicpatternisreversedTheSpaniardisinahighpositionindicatingdominance,butonthewrong(righthand)sideThediagonalsofhislanceandthatoftheservantdoingthefloggingmarkoutalineofillegitimate,thoughreal,powerTheAndeanfigurescontinuetooccupythelefthandsideofthepicture,butclearlyasvictimsGuamanPomawrotethattheSpanishconquesthadproducedunmundoalreves#aworldinreverseInsum,GuamanPomastextistrulyaproductofthecontactzoneIfonethinksofcultures,orliteratures,asdiscrete,coherentlystructured,monolingualedifices,GuamanPomastext,andindeedanyautoethnographicwork,appearsanomalousorchaoticasitapparendydidtotheEuropeanscholarsPietschmannspoketoinIfonedoesnotthinkofculturesthisway,thenGuamanPomastextissimplyheterogeneous,astheAndeanregionwasitselfandremainstodaySuchatextisheterogeneousonThiscontentdownloadedfromonTue,Apr::UTCAllusesubjecttohttp:aboutjstororgtermsMaryLouisePrattthereceptionendaswellastheproductionend:itwillreadverydifferentlytopeopleindifferentpositionsinthecontactzoneBecauseitdeploysEuropeanandAndeansystemsofmeaningmaking,theletternecessarilymeansdifferentlytobilingualSpanishQuechuaspeakersandtomonolingualspeakersineitherlanguagethedrawingsmeandifferentlytomonoculturalreaders,SpanishorAndean,andtobiculturalreadersrespondingtotheAndeansymbolicstructuresembodiedinEuropeangenresIntheAndesintheearlysthereexistedaliteratepublicwithconsiderableinterculturalcompetenceanddegreesofbilingualismUnfortunately,suchacommunitydidnotexistintheSpanishcourtwithwhichGuamanPomawastryingtomakecontactItisinterestingtonotethatinthesameyearGuamanPomasentoffhisletter,atextbyanotherPeruvianwasadoptedinofficialcirclesinSpainasthecanonicalChristianmediationbetweentheSpanishconquestandIncahistoryItwasanotherhugeencyclopedicwork,titledtheRoyalCommentariesoftheIncas,written,tellingly,byamestizo,IncaGarcilasodelaVegaLikethemestizohalfbrotherwhotaughtGuamanPomatoreadandwrite,IncaGarcilasowasthesonofanIncaprincessandaSpanishofficial,andhadlivedinSpainsincehewasseventeenThoughhetoospokeQuechua,hisbookiswrittenineloquent,standardSpanish,withoutillustrationsWhileGuamanPoma#slife#sworksatsomewhereunread,theRoyalCommentarieswaseditedandreeditedinSpainandtheNewWorld,amediationthatcodedtheAndeanpastandpresentinwaysthoughtunthreateningtocolonialhierarchyThetextualhierarchypersists:theRoyalCommentariestodayremainsastapleitemonPhDreadinglistsinSpanish,whiletheNewChronicleandGoodGovernment,despitethereadyavailabilityofseveralfineeditions,isnotHowever,thoughGuamanPoma#stextdidnotreachitsdestination,thetransculturalcurrentsofexpressionitexemplifiescontinuedtoevolveintheAndes,astheystilldo,lessinwritingthaninstorytelling,ritual,song,dancedrama,paintingandsculpture,dress,textileart,formsofgovernance,religiousbelief,andmanyothervernacularartformsAllexpresstheeffectsoflongtermcontactandintractable,unequalconflictAutoethnography,transculturation,critique,collaboration,bilingualism,mediation,parody,denunciation,imaginarydialogue,vernacularexpressionthesearesomeoftheliterateartsofthecontactzoneMiscomprehension,incomprehension,deadletters,unreadmasterpieces,absoluteheterogeneityofmeaningthesearesomeoftheperilsofwritinginthecontactzoneTheyallliveamongustodayinthetransnationalizedmetropolisoftheUnitedStatesandarebecomingmorewidelyvisible,morepressing,and,likeGuamanPoma#stext,moredecipherabletothosewhooncewouldhaveignoredthemindefenseofastable,centeredsenseofknowledgeandrealityContactandCommunityTheideaofthecontactzoneisintendedinparttocontrastwithideasofcommunitythatunderliemuchofthethinkingaboutlanguage,communication,andculturethatgetsdoneintheacademyAcoupleofyearsago,thinkingaboutthelinguistictheoriesIknew,ItriedtomakesenseofaUtopianqualitythatoftenseemedtocharacterizesocialanalysesoflanguagebytheacademyLanguageswereseenaslivinginspeechcommunities,andthesetendedtobetheorizedasdiscrete,selfdefined,coherententities,heldtogetherbyahomogeneouscompetenceorgrammarsharedidenticallyandequallyamongallthemembersThisabstractideaofthespeechcommunityseemedtoreflect,amongotherthings,theUtopianwaymodernnationsconceiveofthemselvesaswhatBenedictAndersoncallsimaginedcommunitiesInabookofthattitle,Andersonobservesthatwiththepossibleexceptionofwhathecallsprimordialvillages,humancommunitiesexistasimaginedentitlesinwhichpeoplewillneverknowmostoftheirfellowmembers,meetthemorevenhearofthem,yetinthemindsofeachlivestheimageoftheircommunionCommunitiesaredistinguished,hegoesontosay,notbytheirfalsitygenuineness,butbythestyleinwhichtheyareimagined(emphasismine)AndersonproposesthreefeaturesthatcharacterizethestyleinwhichthemodernnationisimaginedFirst,itisimaginedaslimited,byfinite,ifelastic,boundariessecond,itisimaginedassovereign,and,third,itisimaginedasfraternal,adeep,horizontalcomradeshipforwhichmillionsofpeoplearepreparednotsomuchtokillaswillinglytodieq

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