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Claire Colebrook-Irony.pdf

Claire Colebrook-Irony.pdf

上传者: 燕歌行2000 2017-07-25 评分 5 0 135 18 614 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《 Claire Colebrook-Ironypdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含IRONYInapostmoderneraofsimulation,masscommunicationanddisenchantment,howar符等。

IRONYInapostmoderneraofsimulation,masscommunicationanddisenchantment,howarewetodistinguishsincerityfromironyIronyisbothafigureofspeechmdashsayingonethingandmeaninganothermdashandanattitudetoexistence,inwhichtheironicsubjectadoptsapositionofscepticismandmistrustinrelationtoeverydaylanguageInthisclear,userfriendlyguide,ClaireColebrookprovidesanhistoricalandtheoreticaloverviewofirony,tracingitsdevelopmentfromSocratestothepresentday,andexploresthechallengethatironypresentstocommunicationandrepresentationinliteraturetodayThisistheessentialguideforanystudentofliterarytheorylookingtounravelthemanytheoriesofthiscomplexsubjectClaireColebrookteachesEnglishattheUniversityofEdinburghHerpublicationsincludeGillesDeleuze(),intheRoutledgeCriticalThinkersseries,andIronyintheWorkofPhilosophy()THENEWCRITICALIDIOMSERIESEDITOR:JOHNDRAKAKIS,UNIVERSITYOFSTIRLINGTheNewCriticalIdiomisaninvaluableseriesofintroductoryguidestotodayrsquoscriticalterminologyEachbookbullprovidesahandy,explanatoryguidetotheuse(andabuse)ofthetermbulloffersanoriginalanddistinctiveoverviewbyaleadingliteraryandculturalcriticbullrelatesthetermtothelargerfieldofculturalrepresentationWithastrongemphasisonclarity,livelydebateandthewidestpossiblebreadthofexamples,TheNewCriticalIdiomisanindispensableapproachtokeytopicsinliterarystudiesAlsoavailableinthisseries:AutobiographybyLindaAndersonClassbyGaryDayColonialismPostcolonialismbyAniaLoombaCrimeFictionbyJohnScaggsCultureMetaculturebyFrancisMulhernDiscoursebySaraMillsDramaticMonologuebyGlennisByronGendersbyDavidGloverandCoraKaplanGothicbyFredBottingHistoricismbyPaulHamiltonHumanismbyTonyDaviesIdeologybyDavidHawkesInterdisciplinaritybyJoeMoranIntertextualitybyGrahamAllenLiteraturebyPeterWiddowsonMetre,RhythmandVerseFormbyPhilipHobsbaumModernismbyPeterChildsMythbyLaurenceCoupeNarrativebyPaulCobleyParodybySimonDentithPastoralbyTerryGiffordRealismbyPamMorrisRomanticismbyAidanDayScienceFictionbyAdamRobertsSexualitybyJosephBristowStylisticsbyRichardBradfordTheUnconsciousbyAntonyEasthopeiiiIRONYClaireColebrookLONDONANDNEWYORKFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,ldquoTopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledgersquoscollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcoukrdquocopyClaireColebrookAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataColebrook,ClaireIronyClaireColebrookpcmmdash(Newcriticalidiom)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexIronyinliteratureITitleIISeriesPNCprimemdashdcISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)CONTENTSSERIESEDITORrsquoSPREFACEixACKNOWLEDGEMENTSxTheConceptofIronyTheHistoryofIrony:FromEironeiatoIroniaMedievalandRenaissanceIronyCosmic,TragicorDramaticIronyandEverydayIronyTheProblemofIronyDeterminingIronythroughValueThePhilosophyofIrony:PlatoandSocratesPlatorsquosSymposiumThePoliticsofIronyafterSocratesStableIronyandRecognitionRomanticIronyTheIronicFallIronyasaStyleofExistenceContradiction:Dostoevsky,Blake,SwiftGermanRomanticIrony:ContextsandDifferenceTheFracturedAbsoluteBeyondIronyandSubjectivity:ByronandSwiftTheIronicSubjectSwiftandUnreasonIronyagainstSatire:ByronIronyoutofContext:Derrida,NietzscheanddeManPoststructuralism:DerridaNietzscheDeconstructionandAffirmation:DerridaAllegoryandIrony:PauldeManSatireandtheLimitsofIrony:FromByronandSwifttoButlerTheLimitsofLanguageRomanticIdeology:McGannEthicsandPostmodernIronyTheIronicSubjectandHistoryPerformativePoliticsandGender:JudithButlerHumourandIrony:DeleuzeandGuattariHumourSatireandLiteraryHistoryTheLiterarySubjectandtheEmergenceofIronyJoyousStupidityPostmodernism,ParodyandIrony:Rorty,Hutcheon,Austen,JoyceandCarterRichardRorty:IronyandPragmatismLindaHutcheonandthePoliticsofPostmodernIronyFreeindirectStyle:AustenandJoycePostmodernImmanenceAngelaCarterviiConclusionGLOSSARYREFERENCESINDEXviiiSERIESEDITORrsquoSPREFACETheNewCriticalIdiomisaseriesofintroductorybookswhichseekstoextendthelexiconofliteraryterms,inordertoaddresstheradicalchangeswhichhavetakenplaceinthestudyofliteratureduringthelastdecadesofthetwentiethcenturyTheaimistoprovideclear,wellillustratedaccountsofthefullrangeofterminologycurrentlyinuse,andtoevolvehistoriesofitschangingusageThecurrentstateofthedisciplineofliterarystudiesisonewherethereisconsiderabledebateconcerningbasicquestionsofterminologyThisinvolves,amongotherthings,theboundarieswhichdistinguishtheliteraryfromthenonliterarythepositionofliteraturewithinthelargersphereofculturetherelationshipbetweenliteraturesofdifferentculturesandquestionsconcerningtherelationofliterarytootherculturalformswithinthecontextofinterdisciplinarystructuresItisclearthatthefieldofliterarycriticismandtheoryisadynamicandheterogeneousoneThepresentneedisforindividualvolumesontermswhichcombineclarityofexpositionwithanadventurousnessofperspectiveandabreadthofapplicationEachvolumewillcontainaspartofitsapparatussomeindicationofthedirectioninwhichthedefinitionofparticulartermsislikelytomove,aswellasexpandingthedisciplinaryboundarieswithinwhichsomeofthesetermshavebeentraditionallycontainedThiswillinvolvesomeresituationoftermswithinthelargerfieldofculturalrepresentation,andwillintroduceexamplesfromtheareaoffilmandthemodernmediainadditiontoexamplesfromavarietyofliterarytextsACKNOWLEDGEMENTSIwouldliketoacknowledgethecarefulcriticismandencouragementofferedbyLizThompsonandJohnDrakakisIamalso,asever,extremelygratefulforthedetailedandintelligentadviceofmygoodfriendDavidNeilTHECONCEPTOFIRONYDespiteitsunwieldycomplexity,ironyhasafrequentandcommondefinition:sayingwhatiscontrarytowhatismeant(Quintilianndash,),adefinitionthatisusuallyattributedtothefirstcenturyRomanoratorQuintilianwhowasalreadylookingbacktoSocratesandAncientGreekliteratureButthisdefinitionissosimplethatitcoverseverythingfromsimplefiguresofspeechtoentirehistoricalepochsIronycanmeanaslittleassaying,lsquoAnotherdayinparadisersquo,whentheweatherisappallingItcanalsorefertothehugeproblemsofpostmodernityourveryhistoricalcontextisironicbecausetodaynothingreallymeanswhatitsaysWeliveinaworldofquotation,pastiche,simulationandcynicism:ageneralandallencompassingironyIrony,then,bytheverysimplicityofitsdefinitionbecomescuriouslyindefinableTHEHISTORYOFIRONY:FROMEIRONEIATOIRONIAInthecomicplaysofAristophanes(ndashBC)eironeiareferredtolyingratherthancomplexdissimulationWheneironeia,notmuchlaterthanAristophanes,cametorefertoadissimulationthatwasnotdeceitfulbutclearlyrecognisable,andintendedtoberecognised,ironyintersectedwiththepoliticalproblemofhumanmeaningTheproblemofironyisatonewiththeproblemofpolitics:howdoweknowwhatothersreallymean,andonwhatbasiscanwesecurethesincerityandauthenticityofspeechThewordeironeiawasfirstusedtorefertoartfuldoublemeaningintheSocraticdialoguesofPlato,wherethewordisusedbothaspejorativemdashinthesenseoflyingmdashandaffirmatively,torefertoSocratesrsquocapacitytoconcealwhathereallymeansItwasthispracticeofconcealmentthatopenedtheWesternpoliticalphilosophicaltradition,foritisthroughtheartofplayingwithmeaningthattheinterlocutorsofadialoguearecompelledtoquestionthefundamentalconceptsofourlanguagePlatorsquosSocrateshas,fromQuintiliantothepresent,beenidentifiedwiththepracticeofironySocratesoftenspokeasthoughhewereignorantorrespectful,preciselywhenhewishedtoexposehisinterlocutorrsquosignoranceHewouldasksomeoneforthedefinitionoffriendshiporjusticeandthenallowtheconfidentandreadydefinitionsofeverydayspeechtobeexposedinalltheircontradictoryincompletenessBydemandingadefinitionfromthosewhopresentedthemselvesasmastersofwisdom,SocratesshowedhowsometermswerelessselfevidentanddefinitivethaneverydaymeaningwouldseemtosuggestItisnoaccidentthatSocratesusedironytochallengereceivedknowledgeandwisdomatahistoricalmomentwhenthecomfortandsecurityofsmallcommunitieswerebeingthreatenedbypoliticalexpansionandtheinclusionofotherculturesThetribalculturesofAncientGreecewereopeningouttoimperialexpansionandtheinclusionofothersItisatthismomentofculturalinsecuritymdashinthetransitionfromtheclosedcommunitytoapolisofcompetingviewpointsmdashthattheconceptofironyisformedEironeiaisnolongerlyingordeceitbutacomplexrhetoricalpracticewherebyonecansayonethingmdashsuchasSocratesrsquoclaimtobeignorantmdashbutmeanquiteanother,aswhenSocratesrsquoexposesthesupposedlywiseaslackinginallinsightSocratestriedtoshowthatitisalwayspossiblethatwhatwetaketobetheselfevidentsenseofacontextorcultureisfarfromobviousitmaybethatwhatisbeingsaidisnotmeantToday,despiteitsmajordifferences,lsquopostmodernrsquoironyalsohasthisdistancingfunction:wewearsdiscoclothingorlistentoscountryandwesternmusic,notbecausewearecommittedtoparticularstylesorsensesbutbecausewehavestartedtoquestionsincerityandcommitmentingeneraleverythingisaskitschanddatedaseverythingelse,soallwecandoisquoteanddissimulateButeveninaworldofpostmodernirony,theverysensethateverythingissomehowquotedorsimulatedreliesonalostsenseofthetrulyvaluableororiginalBothSocratesrsquoquestionsandthecontemporaryuseofparodyandquotationrelyondistinguishingbetweenthosestatementsandactionsthatwegenuinelyintendandthosethatwerepeatormimeonlytoexposetheiremptinessHowdoweacquirethesortofinsiderTHECONCEPTOFIRONYknowledgethatallowsustointerpretatextorcontextanddistinguishtheironicfromthenonironicHowdoweknowwhenaspeakerisnotsincereThischapterprovidesahistoryandoverviewofcompetingapproachestoironybutindoingsoitisalreadywithintheproblemofironyFortheverypracticeofchartingandexplainingaseriesofepochsandculturesreliesonbeingabletoidentifyandunderstandeachwriterrsquosspecificcultureorcontextInmanyways,then,wehavetobeironic:capableofmaintainingadistancefromanysingledefinitionorcontext,quotingandrepeatingvariousvoicesfromthepastButwealsohavetobewaryofironywehavetobesurethatthepastwegraspmeanswhatitseemstomeanItisapeculiarlymoderngesturetothinkofdifferingepochs,eachwiththeirownstandardoftruthInordertothinkoftherelativetruthanddifferenceofhistoricalcontextsorepochswehavetoimaginethatcertaincontextsmaybemeaningfulandcoherentandyetnolongerbeheldastrueWereadthesenseofpasttextsandcontextswithoutbelieforcommitment,seeingandrecognisingthelsquotruthsrsquoofthepastbutnotholdingtothosetruthsOnlywithsomeconceptofironyisitpossibletorangeacrossliteraryhistoryTheideaofpastcontextsthataremeaningfulinthemselvesbutwhicharenolongerlsquooursrsquorequirestheironicviewpointofdetachmentThroughironywecandiscernthemeaningorsenseofacontextwithoutparticipatingin,orbeingcommittedto,thatcontextHaydenWhite(,)arguesthattheverynotionofmodernhistoryisessentiallyironic:forthehistorianmustreadthepastasifthereweresomemeaningofthepastnotapparenttothepastitselfThepastalwaysmeansmorethanitexplicitlylsquosaysrsquoThehistorianmustnottakethepastatitswordbutalwaysbeotherthantheworldsshesurveysFurthermore,oncewebecomeawareof,andsensitiveto,thenotionofironyandspecifichistoricalcontextsitbecomespossibletoreadironybackintoearliertextsIronydestroystheimmediacyandsincerityoflifethroughironywedonotjustlivethemeaningsofourworld,wecanaskwhatthesemeaningsarereallysayingNotonly,then,doesironysharethefluidityandcontextdependencyofallgeneralconceptsitistheverynotionofironythatallowsustothinkofcompetinganddiscontinuouscontextsReadingironicallymeans,incomplexways,nottakingthingsattheirworditmeanslookingbeyondstandarduseandexchangetowhatthisorthatmightreallymeanThiscanbesimpleIfIsay,lsquoThisisparadise!rsquoandourcontextmdashtheweatheroutsidemdashisclearlyTHECONCEPTOFIRONYnotblissful,thenyouknowIambeingironicButwhathappensinliteraturewhere,preciselybecausetextscirculatefromothercontexts,wehavenoobviouscontexttorefertoIronythereforeraisesthequestionofliteraryinterpretation:ifweknowwhatawordmeansaccordingtoitscontext,howdoweknoworsecureapropercontextShakespeareandrama,forexample,wasoncereadandreceivedasasinceredefenceandrepresentationofthewellordered,premoderncosmos(Bradley)Suchareadingwaspossibleonlybecauseofa(then)widelysharednotionabouthistoricalcontext:theElizabethanworldviewwasoneofunquestioningbeliefandobediencetoordainedlaw(Lovejoy)Today,however,Shakespeareisoftenreadironically:notasawriterwhorepresentedthestandardworldview,butasadramatistwhodisplayedandinventedthatworldviewasapositiontobequestioned(DollimoreandSinfieldDrakakis)SuchnewreadingsarepossiblebecausecriticshaverecreatedthesupposedlyoriginalcontextAccordingtothenewhistoricistcriticismthatwasdominantinthes,contextsarenotpassivebackgroundstothetextswereadcontextsarecreatedbytexts,witheachtextalsopresentingtheinstabilitiesandinsecuritiesofcontextAtextisneverjustwhatitsaysitalsodisplaystheproductionandforceofdifferentwaysofspeakingAccordingtoStephenGreenblatt,theRenaissancewasaneraofcompetingandcontestedrepresentations(Greenblatt)TextswereanythingbutsinceretheypresentedstandardElizabethanmythsofpowerasmythsTheverypracticeofrereadingthepastandofsuspectingthatallthosetextsthatwereoncereadassinceremightactuallybecriticalofthepowertheydescribedependsuponthestructureofironyItisalwayspossible,particularlyifwequestionorreinventacontext,thatatextcanbereadashavingameaningotherthanwhatitsaysThetwentiethcenturywriterJorgeLuisBorgesgivesastunningexampleofhoweventhemostsacredtextscanbeexposedtoironyInlsquoPierreMenard,AuthorofDonQuixotersquo,BorgesdescribestheprojectofatwentiethcenturyauthorwhosetshimselfthetaskofrewritingMigueldeCervantesrsquoDonQuixoteSimplytranscribingthenovelwouldbetoofacileatask,soPierreMenarddecidestoprojecthimselfintothepositionoftheoriginalCervantesEventually,heproducesoneidenticalparagraphofthelsquooriginalrsquotextOfcoursethiscompletelyidenticalparagraphisstunninglyironic,fortheverycircumstanceofitsnewcontextgivesitanentirelytransformedsenseBorgesthensuggeststhatallthetextsofWesternculturecouldbenefitTHECONCEPTOFIRONYfromthisimaginativedeviceWhatifweweretoimagineTheImitationofChristasauthoredbyJamesJoyce(Borges,)Thisprocessofironicrereading,wherewedaretoimagineatextassomehowmeaningsomethingotherthanwhatitexplicitlysays,characterisesmuchofwhatcountsasliterarycriticismIndeed,onecouldarguemdashasmanytwentiethcenturycriticsweretodomdashthatliteratureischaracterisedbyitspotentialforirony,itscapacitytomeansomethingotherthanacommonsenseoreverydayuseoflanguageToseeShakespeareasironicisnotjusttoseehim,asaplaywright,asdistancedfromtheworldhepresentsItisalsoarecognitionofourcapacityasreaderstoquestionwhetheraliterarytextisatonewithwhatitlsquosaysrsquoforatextcanalwaysbereadasifitwerepresentingorlsquomentioningrsquoaworldview,ratherthanintendingthatworldviewThisisonemodeofirony:awriterusesallthefiguresandconventionsofacontextwhilerefrainingfrombelieforcommitmentWecanimagineanauthorbehindtheworkwhopresentscertainpositionsbutdoesnotreallyintendormeanwhatissaidItispossibletoreadShakespeareironically,notbecausewearesecureaboutcontext,butbecausetheveryideaofwhatcountedastheElizabethancontextis,andwas,upforquestionShakespearewouldbereadassincereandnonironicifwesimplybelievedintheRenaissancepastasatimeofunquestioneddutyandbeliefhewouldbeironic,however,ifwefeltthathisdrama,asart,displayedthatbeliefinordertoshowitslimitsandfragilityNowadaystherearecountlessbooksandarticlesreferringtotheironyofmedieval,RenaissanceandevenbiblicaltextsSuchforaysintothepastarejustifiedbythecontinualuseofthewordironiathroughouttheMiddleAgesAuthorsasearlyasBede(ndash)andErasmusfoundironiainthebible(Knox,)Theircitedexampleswerethoseofexplicitmockery,suchasthetauntmadebythechiefpriestsandelderstoChrist:lsquoProphesytous,OChrist,whoheisthatsmoteyoursquo(Matthewxxvi)Today,though,theanalysisofironyinbiblicalandancienttextsextendsbeyondsuchisolatedandexplicitexamplestoanironythatpervadesthetextasawhole(CameryHoggattDukeGoodPlank)WhatneedstobeunderstoodinanyhistoryofironyisthecomplexandironicprocessoflsquoreadingbackrsquoOncewehavetheconceptandtheoryofironyitispossibletodiscernironicstrandsinliteraturethatdidnot,itself,useortheorisetheconceptofironyBeforetheexplicitandextendedtheorisationofironyinthenineteenthcentury,ironywasarecognisedbutminorandsubordinateTHECONCEPTOFIRONYfigureofspeechThefirstsignificantinstancesoftheGreekwordeironeiaoccurinthedialoguesofPlato(ndashBC),withreferencetoSocratesItisherethateironeianolongermeantstraightforwardlying,asitdidforAristophanes,butanintendedsimulationwhichtheaudienceorhearerwasmeanttorecogniseAswewillseeinthenextchapter,SocraticironywasdefinednotjustastheuseofironyinconversationbutalsoasanentirepersonalityAristotle(ndashBC)alsoreferredtoirony,mostnotablyinhisEthicsandRhetoric,butitwasthePlatonicandSocraticusethatbecamedefinitiveforlaterthoughtAristotlersquosironistwas,likePlatorsquosSocrates,onewhoplayeddownorconcealedhisvirtuesandintelligence(AristotleNicomacheanEthicsndash,)AristotleregardedsuchanironicpersonalityasneitherperniciousnoridealIronywasnotavicebutitwasfarfrombeingavirtueThetrulyvirtuouscitizenwouldbeneitherboastful,norironic,butsincereinhisselfpresentationItwouldseemtomakesense,then,tolookatSocratesastheverybeginningofironyForitwasinPlatorsquosSocraticdialoguesthatironyreferredtobothacomplexfigureofspeechandthecreationofanenigmaticpersonalityManynineteenthandtwentiethcenturywritershavedonejustthis,andplacedSocratesatthecentreoftheconceptofirony(KierkegaardNehamasand)*SomegosofarastosaythatSocratesrsquoironicpersonalityinauguratedapeculiarlyWesternsensibility(Lefebvre,Vlastos,,)Hisirony,orhiscapacitynottoaccepteverydayvaluesandconceptsbutliveinastateofperpetualquestion,isthebirthofphilosophy,ethicsandconsciousnessTheproblemwithseeingSocratesastheoriginofirony,andironyastheessenceofWesternconsciousness,isthattheawarenessofSocratesandSocraticironywasvirtuallyabsentfrommedievalandRenaissanceworksonironyandrhetoricAlthoughQuintilianreferredtoSocrates,itwashisdistinctionbetweenverbalirony,asafigureofspeech,andironyasanextendedfigureofthoughtthatledtoastrictlyrhetoricaltraditionofdefiningironyIronywasexplainedbyisolatedliteraryexamples,suchasthoseQuintilianhimselfdrewfromHomerandVirgil,andnotbythecomplexityoftheSocraticpersonalityTheLatinmanualsonrhetoricwrittenupuntilthe*DatesinsquarebracketsarethoseoffirstpublicationDatesincurvedbracketsarethoseofmoderneditionslistedinthereferences,andpagenumbersrefertotheseTHECONCEPTOFIRONYRenaissanceknewtheGreeksourcesprimarilythroughwhatwasavailableofCiceroandQuintilianEvenintheRenaissance,whentheSocraticdialoguesandthefullerworksofCicerobecameavailable,ironiawasnotconsideredtobethefullscalemodeofSocraticexistencethatitwasfornineteenthcenturywritersIroniawasatropeorfigureofspeech,anartfulwayofusinglanguageUntiltheRenaissance,ironywastheorisedwithinrhetoricandwasoftenlistedasatypeofallegory:asonewayamongothersforsayingonethingandmeaninganotherWhentheGreekandLatindescriptionsofSocratesbecameavailabletoRenaissancewriters,ironywasstillnotwhatitwastobecomefortheRomantics(anattitudetoexistence)IronywasarhetoricalmethodTheLatinrhetoricalmanualsknownintheMiddleAgeshadtheirorigininjuridicalandmanifestlypoliticalsituationstheyinstructedhowbesttoconstructspeechesforthepurposesofdefence,praiseorpublicpersuasi

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