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首页 Do Tornadoes Really Twist.pdf

Do Tornadoes Really Twist.pdf

Do Tornadoes Really Twist.pdf

上传者: 云水禅心RUN 2018-01-12 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Do Tornadoes Really Twistpdf》,可适用于幼儿教育领域,主题内容包含DOTORNADOESREALLYTWISTQuestionsandAnswersAboutTornadoesandHurricanesBYMELV符等。

DOTORNADOESREALLYTWISTQuestionsandAnswersAboutTornadoesandHurricanesBYMELVINANDGILDABERGERILLUSTRATEDBYHIGGINSBONDKEYTOABBREVIATIONScm=centimetercentimetreha=hectarekm=kilometerkilometrekm=squarekilometerkilometrekph=kilometerskilometresperhourmph=milesperhourt=tonneOC=degreesCelsiusForJudyKoppel,atreasuredcousinandanoutstandingteachermdashMANDGBERGERTomyyoungestsister,CynthiaHigginsOwsinski,MD,abrilliantanddynamicyoungwomanwhoistakingtheworldbystormmdashHIGGINSBONDCONTENTSIntroductionbullTORNADOES:WHATANDWHYbullTORNADOES:WHENANDWHEREbullHURRICANES:WHATANDWHYbullHURRICANES:WHENANDWHEREbullIndexbullAbouttheAuthorsandIllustratorbullTextcopyrightcopybyMelvinBergerandGildaBergerIllustrationscopyrightcopybyBarbaraHigginsBondAllrightsreservedPublishedbyScholasticIncSCHOLASTICandassociatedlogosaretrademarksandorregisteredtrademarksofScholasticIncNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,orstoredinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutwrittenpermissionofthepublisherForinformationregardingpermission,writetoScholasticInc,Attention:PermissionsDepartment,Broadway,NewYork,NYISBNBookdesignbyDavidSaylorandNancySabatoPrintedintheUSAFirstprinting,MarchExpertreader:DrKeithSeitterAmericanMeteorologicalSocietyBoston,MassachusettsINTRODUCTIONTornadoesandhurricanesareamongthemostviolentandterrifyingofallnaturaleventsNoonewhohaslivedthroughthemeverforgetsthestrengthandfuryofthesestormsPerhapsyoursquovebeencaughtinatornadoorhurricaneOryoumayhaveseenpicturesontelevisionorreadaboutthemEitherway,youprobablyhavelotsofquestionsDoyouwonder:HowthesestormsstartWhenandweretheystrikeHowmuchdamagetheydoWhetherpeoplecanstopatornadoWhichwastheworsthurricaneinhistoryWhatyoushoulddoduringatornadoorhurricaneDoTornadoesReallyTwistanswersallthesequestionsmdashandmany,manymoreItalsogiveslotsofinformationandweirdfactsyoucanusetoastoundandamazeyourfriendsSowhatareyouwaitingforTurnthepageandenterthescaryworldoftornadoesandhurricanes!TORNADOES:WHATANDWHYDotornadoesreallytwistYesAtthecenterofthestorm,tornadowindsspinaroundatveryhighspeedsSometwistandtwirlatmorethanmiles(km)anhour!TornadowindsarethehardestblowingwindsonEarthSmallwonderthattornadoesarecalledtwisters!WhatisatornadoAseverewindstormYouknowitrsquosatornadowhenyouspotatwisting,spinningfunnelreachingdownfromahugedarkcloudThefunnellookslikeahugeelephanttrunkswayingbackandforthAtornadofunnelcanbefeet(m)toslightlyovermile(km)wideSomefunnelsdonotextendtotheearthOtherstouchdownandraceacrosslandStillothersskiporleapfromonepointtoanotherTheytouchdown,plowapathofdestruction,andriseupintotheairWhatcoloraretornadofunnelsMostarewhiteorclearincoloratfirstTheymayevenseemtoshimmerinthelightWhentheytouchtheground,however,thefunnelsturnblackordarkgrayastheysweepuptonsofdirt,dust,anddebrisWhathappensbeforeatornadoAseverethunderstormstrikestheareaVeryfewthunderstormsproducetornadoesButeverytornadoisformedbyaparentthunderstormThisdiagramshowstornadowindstwistingcounterclockwiseDohailstonesfallbeforeatornadoQuiteoftenThestrongthunderstormsthatcreatetornadoesoftenproducehailstonesaswellHailstonesformwhenwindscarryraindropsuptowhereitisverycoldTheraindropsfreezeandbecomebitsoficeTheicylumpsstarttofallandcollidewithdropsofwaterinthecloudsThewaterfreezesontotheicybits,makingthemgrowlargerThishappensagainandagainuntiltheicylumpsarebigandheavyThentheyfalltotheearthashailstonesHowdotornadoesgrowoutofthunderstormsNooneisquitesureScientistshaveseveraltheoriesabouthowtornadoesformandareworkinghardtounderstandthembetterSomeseverethunderstormsproducethepowerful,twistingwindsofatornadoButmostthunderstormsdonotandscientistsaretryingtofindoutwhyDotornadowindsalwaystwistinthesamedirectionNoIntheNorthernHemisphere,mosttornadoestwistcounterclockwiseIntheSouthernHemisphere,mosttwistclockwiseHowbigaretornadoesNotbigatallTornadoesareusuallylessthanmile(km)wideandtravelalongpathsthatarenomorethanmiles(km)longTornadoesmaybesmall,buttheirpowerandviolencecausegreatdevastationThismapshowstornadotracksfromanumberofthunderstormsthatoccurredonAprilandofWNESIllinoisMissouriArkansasMississippiIndianaKentuckyTennesseeAlabamaGeorgiaOhioPennsylvaniaWestVirginiaVirginiaNorthCarolinaSouthCarolinaHowlongdotornadoeslastUsuallylessthanonehourSometornadoesdieoutinjustafewminutesGroupsoftornadoessometimesformataboutthesametimeThesetornadoesstrikeoneafteranother,creatingstormyconditionsforseveralhoursInwhichdirectiondotornadoesmoveIntheUnitedStates,mostmovefromthesouthwesttothenortheastThisisbecausetornadoestravelwiththeirparentthunderstorms,whichusuallygointhisdirectionWeatherexpertsmapthemovementoftornadoesbymarkingthetrackstornadoesleavewhentheytouchtheearthHowfastdotornadoesmoveAboutmiles(km)anhourThemostdangerousonesreachspeedsashighasmiles(km)anhour!ThefastestmovingtornadoonrecordoccurredonMarch,ThestormpassedthroughthemiddleoftheUnitedStatesatthespeedofafreighttrainmdashuptomiles(km)anhour!DotornadoesmakenoiseYesThepowerfulspinningfunnelwindoftenmakesashrillhissingorwhistlingnoisethatyoucanhearformilesaroundSomesaythesoundislikethebuzzingofamillionbeesWhenthetornadotouchesdownandripsacrosstheearth,thesoundchangesThehissbecomesaloud,deafeningroarPeoplecompareittothenoiseofjumbojetstakingoffatthesametime!OtherssayitismorelikethesoundofaspeedingtrainrumblingthroughanarrowtunnelEitherway,thenoiseofatornadoisnotonethatyouwouldsoonforget!DotornadoesmakehousesexplodeNoInthepastscientiststhoughttornadoescreatedavacuumthatmadehousesexplodeButnowtheyknowthatrsquosnottrueHousesoftenjustseemtohaveexplodedbecausethestrongwindsblowofftheirroofsandwallsHowmuchdamagedotornadoescausePlentyThepowerfultwistingwindsofatornadocanpickupobjectsasbigastrains,carrythemaloft,andthensmashthemdownonthegroundDoyourememberthetornadoinTheWizardofOzThestormcomestoKansas,picksupDorothyrsquoshouse,andcarriesitfar,farawaytothemagicallandofOz!Thatwasjustamovie,buttornadoeshaveliftedwholehousesofftheirfoundationsandmovedthemmanyfeet(meters)awayTornadodamagestayswithinanarrowpathAhouseononesideofastreetmaybesmashedtobitsAhouseontheothersidewilloftennotevenhaveonebrokenwindowAretornadoesalwaysviolentYesButsometimesthetornadorsquoswindsliftupobjectsandthensetthemdownsafelyOnetornadopickedupacrateofeggs,carriedityards(m),andplaceditonthegroundwithoutcrackingasingleshell!AnothertornadonearAncona,Italy,inSeptemberhoistedacarriagewithasleepingbabyfeet(m)intotheairItthensetthecarriagedownnearlyfeet(m)awaymdashwithoutevenwakingthechild!WhathappenswhenatornadopassesoverwaterYougetawaterspoutInsteadofpullingupdirtanddebris,thetornadopullsupwaterMostwaterspoutslastaboutahalfhourThefunnelwindsspinmoreslowlyoverwaterthanoverlandWaterspoutTORNADOES:WHENANDWHEREWhendotornadoesoccurAllyearlongButmosttornadoescomebetweenAprilandJune,withthehighestnumberinMayThefewestoccurduringDecemberandJanuaryTornadoescanformatanytimeofdayornightButmostdeveloplateintheafternoon,thewarmesttimeofthedayThelargestnumbertouchdownbetweenandPMWheredomosttornadoesstrikeThemidsectionoftheUnitedStatesandCanadaButeverystateoftheUnitedStates,includingAlaskaandHawaii,hashadatleastonetornadoTherecordformosttornadoesintheUnitedStateswassetinAprilDuringonehourperiod,tornadoesslammedthroughtheSouthandMidwest!WhatisTornadoAlleyAstretchoflandinthemiddleoftheUnitedStatesTornadoAlleyincludespartsofTexas,Oklahoma,Kansas,Missouri,Nebraska,Arkansas,Iowa,Alabama,Florida,andMississippiMoretornadoespassthroughthisareathananywhereelseintheworldThunderstormsforminTornadoAlleywhencoldairflowingacrosstheRockyMountainsmeetswarmairflowingupfromtheGulfofMexicoOnlyafewofthethousandsofthunderstormsthatformthereproducetornadoesTornadoAlleyTexasOklahomaKansasNebraskaMissouriMississippiIowaArkansasAlabamaFloridaNumberoftornadoesper,squaremiles(,squarekilometers)ndashtornadoesndashtornadoesndashtornadoesmorethantornadoesAtornadoapproaches,HowmanytornadoesoccureachyearintheUnitedStatesAboutBecauseitissohuge,TexashasmoretornadoesthananyotherstatemdashanaverageofayearIn,andagainin,twistersstruckthisstateButcentralOklahomaisstruckbytornadoesmoreoftenthananyplaceelseintheworldCanmountainsstopatornadoNoEveryonceinawhiletornadoesdooccurinmountainouscountryAgoodexampleisthetornadothatpassednearJackson,Wyoming,onJuly,Thestormsweptovermountainsashighas,feet(,m)withoutthewindslosingtheirforceCantornadoesstrikemorethanonceinthesameplaceTheysurecanTwotornadoeshitthecityofAustin,Texas,withinahalfhouronMay,OklahomaCityhasbeenstrucktimesinthelastyears,makingittheldquoMostTornadoBatteredCityrdquointheentirecountryWhichwastheworsttornadoofalltimeThetornadoofMarch,ThiswildstormmostlymovedinastraightlinefromMissouritoIndianaSinceitoccurredlongbeforetheNationalWeatherServiceissuedtornadowatchesandwarnings,thestormcaughtmanypeopleoffguard,withouttimetorunforshelterEverythingaboutthetornadowasmonstrous:bullPathmdashmiles(km)bullDurationmdashhoursbullSpeedmdashashighasmiles(km)anhourbullNumberinjuredmdash,peoplebullWidthmdashmile(km)bullNumberkilledmdashpeoplebullAreaofdestructionmdashsquaremiles(km)bullCostmdash$millionWhichtornadohadthelongestpathThetwisterofMay,Thisstormsmashedapathmiles(km)long,fromthetownofLouisiana,Missouri,allthewaytoJenningsCounty,IndianaWhichtornadoalmostwipedoutatownTheonethatstruckthesmalltownofCoatesville,Indiana,population,ontheeveningofMarch,Thedestructivewindsleveledfouroutofeveryfivebuildings,killedpeople,andinjuredmoreWhendidaseriesoftornadoesstrikestatesAprilndash,AclusteroftornadoesstruckpartsofstatesExpertstellusthestormclaimedlives,sent,peopletothehospital,andcaused$millionindamageThenumberofinjuredsoaredbecausepeopledidnotpayattentiontothetornadowarningsanddidnrsquotknowhowtostaysafeduringthestormWhichtornadotookthemostlivesAtornadointhecountryofBangladeshonApril,Thedreadfulstormleft,peopledeadHowmanydieintornadoeseachyearintheUSAboutpeopleBetweenandtheaverageyearlydeathtollintheUnitedStateswasIntheyearssincethen,asthewarningsystemimproved,thenumberhasdroppedsubstantiallyByfar,theworstsingleyearwaswhenpeoplelosttheirlivesintornadoesWhataresomeunusualtornadofactsThetornadoofApril,,toreapartahousenearMarshall,Missouri,anddroppedtheheavytimbersmiles(km)awayThewindsoftheJune,,tornadoblewallthewateroutoftheWestForkRiverinWestVirginiaforafewminutesThetornadoofJune,,suckedawomanoutofawindowinherElDorado,Kansas,homeThewindscarriedherfeet(m)andgentlydroppedhertothegroundShelandedinapileofstormdebrisRightnexttoherwasaphonographrecordofthesongldquoStormyWeatherrdquo!CantrainssurvivetornadoesNotiftheyrsquoreinthepathofatornadoApowerfultornadostruckamovingtrainnearMoorhead,Minnesota,onMay,Thestormliftedanton(t)railroadcarwithpassengersoffthetracksanddroppeditinaditchfeet(m)awayAtraincarryingbrandnewcarswaspassingthroughOhiowhenatornadohitInjustafewminutes,thetornadobrokethewindowsofeverysinglecarWhichtornadowasthestrangestofallTheonethattoucheddowninGreatBend,Kansas,inNovemberThestrongwindsofthistornadobullblewachecktoPalmyra,Nebraskamdashafullmiles(km)awaymdashthefarthestthatatornadohasevercarrieddebrisbullpickedupsome,ducksandthenrainedthemdowntotheearthbullrippedoffonewallofGrantJonesrsquosgrocerystore,butdidnrsquotdisturbthecansandboxesontheshelvesagainstthatwallDespiteallthathappenedinGreatBend,farmersmiles(km)awayknewnothingofthetornado!WhostudiestornadoesWeatherscientistscalledmeteorologistsFromtheground,theytracktheparentthunderstormsoftornadoeswithradarSatellitesfollowthemovementofthestormsfromhighupinspaceMeteorologistsalsolaunchplanesandballoonsintoareasaroundatornadotolearnaboutthesurroundingwindsandweatherconditionsHowdoscientistsratetornadoesBytheFujitaPearson,orF,scaleScientistsratetheweakertornadoesForFThemostviolenttornadoes,ratedForF,dothemostdamageandcausethemostdeathsWINDSPEEDDAMAGEFndashmph(ndashkph)Fndashmph(ndashkph)Fndashmph(ndashkph)Fndashmph(ndashkph)Fndashmph(ndashkph)Fndashmph(ndashkph)IsanyplacesafefromtornadoesNoNoplace,includingrivers,lakes,andmountains,issafefromtornadoesSomesignsblowndowntreebranchesbrokenTreessnappedwindowsshatteredTreesuprootedbuildingroofstornoffMosttreesoverturnedbuildingwallsrippedawaytrainswreckedBighousesdestroyedcarsthrownoffroadBighousescarriedlongdistancescarstossedintotheairInstrumentsareattachedtotheweatherballoonInsideatornadocellarWhatisatornadowatchAforecastfrommeteorologistsattheStormPredictionCenterinNorman,Oklahoma,thatatornadoispossibleinyourareaMeteorologistsbroadcastthenewsoverradioandtelevisionTheytelllistenersthatatornadomaydevelopinthenextfewhoursWhatisatornadowarningAnalertissuedbythelocalNationalWeatherServiceofficethatatornadohasbeensightedorpickedupbyweatherradarAtornadowarningletsyouknowatornadorsquosexpectedpathandurgesthoseatrisktoseekshelterimmediatelyWhatshouldyoudooutdoorsinatornadoRuntothenearesttornadocellarIfthisisnotpossible,lieflatinaditchorlowpartofthegroundCoveryourheadwithyourhandsRememberthatflyingdebrisfromtornadoescausesmostdeathsandinjuriesIfyoursquoreinanautomobile,getoutrightawayDonottrytooutrunatornadoTakeshelterinahouseorotherbuildingWhatshouldyoudoindoorsinatornadoMovetoanundergroundshelter,suchasabasementIfnoshelterisavailable,takecoverinaninsidecloset,bathroom,orhallwayonthelowestfloorYoucanalsogetunderamattressandcoveryourheadwithyourhandsStayawayfromwindowsTheglassmayshatterAlso,whentherersquosthunderandlightning,avoidtouchingmetalobjectsorexposedwiresIfyoursquoreinamobilehome,leaveandtakeshelterinanotherbuildingoraditchTornadoesliftandwreckmobilehomesasiftheyweremadeofpaperHURRICANES:WHATANDWHYWhatisahurricaneAlarge,donutshapedstormwithheavyrainandstrongwindsblowingaroundacalmcenterHurricanesarethebiggestandmostdestructivestormsonEarthWhatisthedifferencebetweenhurricanesandtornadoesHurricanesarehugeTornadoesaremuchsmallerHurricanesaremadeupofmanythunderstormsandraincloudswithheavyrainfallTornadoes,ontheotherhand,areformedbyonethunderstormandhavelittlerainHurricanesformoverwarmoceanwaterMosttornadoesformoverlandHowarehurricanesliketornadoesBothhavestrongwindsblowingaroundincirclesratherthaninstraightlinesBothusuallykeepmovingAndbothhaveverystrongupdraftsthatcarrywarm,moistairhighupintheatmosphereWhathappensbeforeahurricaneWindsblowhardandthereisalotofmoistureintheairThelevelofthesearisesandthewatersgetveryroughAsthehurricanebuilds,theoceanrisesdangerouslyhighwithhugewaves,calledoceanswellsHowisahurricanebornAnareaoflowpressureformsoveratropicalseaThesunbeatsdownandwarmsthewatertoatleastdegreesFahrenheit(oC)ThiswarmstheairItalsoaddslotsofmoisturetotheairThewarm,moistairstartstoriseTheupwardmovementoftheairsoonformsaclusterofthunderstormsandrainclouds,withheavyrainsandthunderandlightningSometimesthesestormsandcloudscometogetherinaparticularwaymdashandahurricaneisbornHowdoesahurricanedevelopWarm,moistaircontinuestoriseTheupdraftsucksinstillmoreairTherushingairstartstospinaroundingiganticspiralwindsWhenthewindsreachaspeedofmiles(km)anhour,itrsquosatropicalstormEveryyearabouttropicalstormsforminseasoffthecoastoftheUnitedStatesInaboutofeverytropicalstorms,therainfallkeepsgettingheavierAtthesametime,thespinningwindsblowfasterandharderWhenwindsreachmiles(km)anhour,thetropicalstormbecomesahurricaneHowbigarehurricanesMostareaboutmiles(km)acrossTheverylargesthurricanesforminthePacificOceanTheymayhavediametersgreaterthan,miles(,km)HurricanesalsoextendwayupabovesealevelMonsterhurricanesmayreachashighasmiles(km)intotheairHowmanyhurricanesformeveryyearWorldwide,abouthurricanesformintropicalseasTheyusuallymoveincurvedpathswestwardandawayfromtheequatoruntiltheyreachcoolerwateranddieoutAnaverageofabouthurricanesformintheAtlanticOceaneveryyearWheredoesthewordhurricanecomefromProbablyfromtheSpanishwordhuracanButtheremaybeothersourcesAccordingtoGuatemalanfolklore,thegodofstormyweatherisHunrakan,andthegodofthunderandlightningisHurakanInSuriname,peopleusethewordhyroacantomeandevilAnywayyoulookatit,hurricanespellstroubleHowfastdohurricanewindsblowAtleastmiles(km)anhourInfact,astormisnrsquotcalledahurricaneuntilitswindsreachthisspeedAroundthecenterofthehurricanethewindsmayreachspeedsashighasmiles(km)anhourOnlythemightywindsofatornadoblowfasterandharderInwhichdirectionsdohurricanewindsblowCounterclockwiseintheNorthernHemisphere,clockwiseintheSouthernHemisphereDohurricanesstayinonespotNoAlmostallAtlanticOceanhurricanesworktheirwaywestandnorthOften,thehurricanesrsquoheavywindsandpouringrainscrashdownwithgreatfuryonAtlanticOceancoastlinesHowlongdoesittakeforahurricanetopassoverheadNearlyhoursForthefirsthoursorso,poundingrainsandstrongwindsmovethroughtheareaThestormtopplestrees,destroyshouses,wreckscars,andtearsdownelectricallinesPiecesofdebrisshootpastlikebulletsThen,suddenly,thewindsandrainstopwhilethecalmcenterofthehurricanepassesoverheadThepeacemaylastfromafewminutestoanhourorsoThen,theotherpartofthestormarrivesThewindsareoftenaspowerfulasbefore,butblowfromtheoppositedirectionItmaybeanotherhoursbeforetheweatherfinallyclearsWNESATLANTICOCEANGulfofMexicoHurricanescanmovebackandforthbetweentheoceanandthelandastheytravelTheeyeofahurricaneasitlooksfromspaceWhatistheeyeofahurricaneThecalmcenterofthehurricaneOnaveragetheeyeofahurricaneisaboutmiles(km)acrossTheeye,inaway,isliketheholeinagiantdonutsurroundedbytheextremelyfastblowingwindsofthehurricaneTheeyeshiftswithinthestormastheentirestormmovesforwardWhyistheeyedangerousBecauseittricksyouintobelievingthestormisoverSomepeoplegooutdoorswhenthecalmcenterpassesoverheadThen,theymaybeinjuredorkilledwhentheotherhalfofthehurricanearrivesButtheeyecanalsobeablessingSailorsoftenusethecalmasachancetotietheirboatsdownbeforetherestofthestormmovesinAndbirdsoftenflysafelyintheeyeofthehurricaneHowfastdohurricanestravelAboutmiles(km)anhourInoneday,ahurricanemaycoveraboutmiles(km)Fromspace,theswirlingcloudsofamovinghurricanelookmuchlikeaspinningtopslidingoverseaandlandHowlongdohurricaneslastAboutdaysTherecordisaboutamonthAhurricanestartstofadeasitrunsoutofheatormoistureAhurricanemovingovercolderoceanwaterscoolsoffLessrainstartstofallWhenitpassesoverdryland,itlosesitssupplyofmoistairThewindsgraduallyslowdown,eventhoughtherainfallandfloodingmaycontinueSoontheweatherclearsandthehurricaneisoverDotornadoesandhurricaneseveroccurtogetherYes,oftenAsmanyasoneofeveryfourhurricanescontainsatleastonetornado,andsomehurricanesproducemanytornadoesInfact,theworstdamageofHurricaneAndrewinAugustmayhavecomefromtornadoeswithinthehurricaneEventhoughtornadoesandhurricanesoccurtogether,mostofthesetornadoesareweakerthanthosethatformoverthemidwesternUnitedStatesWhatarehurricanerainbandsSpiralsofthick,heavycloudsthatunleashtorrentsofrainBetweentherainbandsarelightcloudsthatproducelittleornorainfallDohurricanesusuallybringlightningYesmdashmostlyintherainbandsThepowerfulwinds,hardrains,andswirlingcloudsofahurricaneelectrifythecloudsGiantsparksofelectricityflashwithinacloud,fromonecloudtoanother,orfromacloudtothegroundWeseethesetoweringsparksaslightningHowmuchrainfallsfromahurricaneLotsTheraininatypicalhurricanemakesthewaterinaswimmingpoolriseaboutinches(cm)Butabighurricanecandumpasmuchasinches

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