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首页 论我国刑法中行为犯的概念(On the concept of behavior crime in…

论我国刑法中行为犯的概念(On the concept of behavior crime in Chinese Criminal Law).doc

论我国刑法中行为犯的概念(On the concept of …

丁Wanda
2018-01-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《论我国刑法中行为犯的概念(On the concept of behavior crime in Chinese Criminal Law)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

论我国刑法中行为犯的概念(OntheconceptofbehaviorcrimeinChineseCriminalLaw)论我国刑法中行为犯的概念(OntheconceptofbehaviorcrimeinChineseCriminalLaw)OntheconceptofbehaviorcrimeinChineseCriminalLawAuthor:ShiWeizhongAsanimportantcategoryofcriminallaw,behaviorcrime,althoughitisoftenusedbyscholarsandjudicialpractitioners,howisitsconcept,butthetheoreticalcirclelacksthoroughanddetaileddiscussionTherefore,therearemanyvague,contradictoryandevenwrongunderstandingaboutitWhetherhasthescientificconnotation,isthebehaviorcrimeincriminallawinthebasisofsurvivalanddevelopment,thispaperintendstostudy,inordertoadoptgoodadvicefromallquartersonthebasisofthecorrectinterpretationofcriminalbehaviorIdifferentunderstandingoftheconceptofbehaviorcrimebyChinesescholarsChinesescholarsonthedefinitionoftheconceptofconductcrimeisbasedontheabsorptionbehaviorofcriminallawcommittedinthepointofview,however,thisisnottheirunderstandingofthecopy,butthecombinationofthecharacteristicsofChina'scriminallawtheoryhasitsownfeatureandadvantagesinsomeaspectsTrouscrimealsorequirescertainresults,butitrequirestheresultisadangerousstate,theactualresultoftheactualdamageistheactualdamage"(Note:seeGaoMingxuan,editor:Chinesecriminallaw,RenminUniversityofChinapress,,)Thus,thecriminallawcirclesofourcountryhavemanydifferencesontheunderstandingofbehaviorcrime,bothinunderstandingtheconceptandthespecificformulationcontainsthecontentofthedifference,thisalsoleadstoactscommittedrelationshipwithothertypesofcrimeappearsverychaoticphenomenon,showingthelackofresearchesoncrimeproblemsatpresentTwo,theevaluationoftheabovedifferentunderstanding(I)twotheoreticalissuestobeclarifiedaboutthepositionofamobilecriminalInthecriminallawtheoryofthecontinentallawsystem,thebehaviorcrimeisgenerallycalledactioncrime,andthetwoarenotdifferentThetraditionalviewisthecrimecalledactcrime,thereasonisthatitbelievesthatthistypeofcrimeisoftenonceembarkedoniscompleted,ortoexecuteacrimeandsaidthecompletionofthecrimeatthesametime,thereisnotimebetweenthetwo,theobjectiveperformanceseemstohavea"move"Thiskindofunderstandingforthemajorityofactscommittedisappropriate,butintheconductcrime,therearesomecrimefromthecrimetohaveembarkedonaprocessofdevelopment,suchasthecrimeoffalseaccusation,nottoimplementthemeansofcrime,butfromitsstructure,stillneedtohavecertaindangerousorcriminalresultsthestate,sincethebehaviormadenodoubt,butnottoactcrimesummaryTherefore,thiskindofunderstandingisobviouslytoooldandrigid,anddoesnotconformtothecriminallegislationandthejudicialpracticeconditionSecondkindsofawarenesstoconductcrimeandactcrimeasthedeficiencyoftraditionalviewofdevelopment,andthedistinctionbetweenthetwo,tounderstandseparately,betterreflecttheactualperformanceofvariouscrimes,hasitsmeritsHowever,itregardsthetwoasthetwoindependentandjuxtaposedcrimetypes,butthereissomethingwrongwiththelogicattributionandthetypedivisionBecausethesocalledactcrimealthoughfromanobjectivepointofview,onlytobeginisenough,butithasa"process"inthebehavioraloffensethanjustbehavioraldifferences,thisdifferenceisnonessential,andcannotbethereasonforindependence,butshouldmakeinternalbehaviorasadivisionlevel,itisreasonableBycontrast,thethirdkindsofcognitionavoidthedefectsofthefirsttwokindsofcognition,andthusmorescientificallyrevealthepositionofthesocalled"actioncrime"Whatisworthstudyinghereiswhethertheterm"actionoffender"isusedscientificallyThedifferencebetweenactionsandactionsissubtleTheyareindeedthesamefromthepointofviewofthetwobodymovements,andinreallifemanypeopleconfusethemHowever,thisdoesnotmeanthatthereisnodifferencebetweenthetwoTheauthorbelievesthatthemaindifferencebetweenthetwoliesinthelackofindependentsignificanceincriminallaw,andtheactofindependentsignificanceForexample,manyworksinthedescriptionoftheorganiccombinationofbehaviorisoftenaseriesof"move"or"action",oftenforexample:shootingpistol,pistol,target,triggergunsHere,nomatterwhatactionlink,thereisnoindependentmeaning,onlytheseactionscombined,canberegardedasahomicideincriminallawOtherwise,equateactionswithactions,Killingatleastinthiscasemorethanfourcontinuous!That'sridiculousAtthesametime,"actcrime"inthesocalled"move"thatstartedtoimplement,althoughtimeisveryshort,buthereithasactuallymeansaindependentbehavior,andfullydemonstratedthenatureofitsbehaviorTodenythisistodenytheexistenceofsuchacrimeInaddition,constitutetheobjectiveelementsofcrimeinChina'scriminallaw,the"behavior",ratherthan"move",theuseoftheterm"actcrime"andsimilarlegislationandtheoryisconsistentinaddition,constitutiveelementsofcrime,includingactsandomissions,which,asthenegativecrimehighlightedthe"obligation"and"move"toitsphysicalmeaningonlyinthemovementTherefore,theauthorbelievesthatthenameof"actionoffender"isunscientific,anditissuggestedthatsuchbehavioroffenderbecalled"behavioroffense"",thereviewofabstractdangerouscrimesDifferentfromtraditionalcriminallawtheoryaccordingtothedangerousstate,thedangerouscrimeisdividedintotwokinds:oneistheconcretedangerouscrime,"referstothedangerousstateaselementsandprovisionsinthecriminallawprovisions,thejudgemustconsiderthespecificcase,onebyonejudge,andconstituteelementsoftheprotectionoflegalintereststhathavespecificwhenindanger,canonlybethedangerouscrimeofcrimetwoistheabstractdangerouscrime,"referstotheabstractdangerwithdangerouselementsofcrimebookAslongastheactmeetsthefactsdescribedintheconstitutiverequirements,itcanbedeemedashavingsuchabstractdanger,withoutwaitingforthejudgetodecideonthespecificcase"(Note:seeLinShantian:"criminallawtheory",Taiwan'spressFebruaryedition,pageth)Duetotheprovisionsofthecriminallawingeneraldidnotidentifytheabstractdanger,sothenatureandstatusofquestionsaboutitisstilladifficultprobleminsuspenseatthesametime,holdanegativeattitudetotheexistenceofabstractpotentialdamageisnolackofsuchpeopleandputforward,manyvaluableinsights(Note:seeXiongJing:thetheoryofbehaviorincriminallawPeople'scourtpress,November,firstedition,rdpages)TheauthorbelievesthatthesocalledAbstractdangerouscrime,thereisareview,itconfusesthetheoryofbehavioraloffenseHere,onlythetheoryofabstractdangerouscrimeisevaluatedsoastoclarifytherelationbetweenitandbehaviorcrimeWhatisabstractdangerThereisdisputebetweenformandsubstanceThespeakertoadopttheformthattheabstractdangerexistsornot,justtotheimplementationoftheprovisionsofthecriminallawacttobeintheformofjudgmentisenough,noneedtoconsiderthevariousspecificthingssubstantivejudgment,aslongastheprovisionsofthecriminallawactinaccordancewiththeimplementationofcertainactors,imposeapenalty,canthatappearedintheabstractdangerInexplainingtheabstractcontent,therearethreedifferentviews:A,theriskoflegislativereasonsThinkintheabstractdanger,riskfactorsagainsttheinterestsoflawdoesnotconstituteelements,butisakindoflegislativereason,therefore,aslongastheimplementationofelementswithacontentofbehavior,isadangerousB,preparingthedangerConsiderabstractdangerasaformofdangerthatisgenerallyconsideredtobedangerous,andspecifythescopeofpunishmentintheformof"actswhichcannotbeprescribedbylaw"Eveniftheparticularityofaparticularcasedoesnotthreatensocialrelations,thepunishmentisgenerallyconsideredasadangerTherefore,itisdangerousforthelegalsystemC,generaldangerItisconsideredthatanabstractdangerouscrimeneedsnoproofofitsspecificdanger,andthatthegeneraldangeroftheactitselfissufficientTheactprescribedbythelawoftheactordoesnotcausedangereveninspecificcircumstancesinothercases,thereisstilldanger(Note:seethethicknessofYamaguchi(Japan):Studiesondangerouscrimes,UniversityofTokyopress,September,th,stTheessenceof"abstractdanger,thatthespeakerisnotfrom"formaccordingtothelegalprovisionsoftheact"forjudgment,shouldconsiderthevariousspecificthingsfortheessenceofjudgment,thatistorecognizeAbstractdangerouscrimes,Theessentialsofabstractdangershouldstillbeestablished"(Note:seeChenPusheng:specialstudyofcriminallaw,Taiwanthreepeople'sbook,edition,fortyfourthpages)Itcanbeseenthattheformandessencearebasedondifferentpointofview,triestoabstractdangerouscrimetomakereasonableandvalidexplanation,althougheachhasitsadvantages,butalsohasitsownshort,aredifficulttosayscientifictheoryFirstofall,lookatform,itisobviousthatnomatterwhatkindofexplanationitisbasedon,itisonthepositionofnationalism,emphasizingtheauthorityofthelaw,andexcludingjudicialpersonnelfromtheresponsibilityofabstractdangerHowever,theriskasakindoffictionformgivingelementsoftheact,itisequivalenttoonlytheidentificationinspecificcases,andconductcrimeatthesametime,itisnottwoalthoughnotinfringedtheinterestsofdangerousbehavior,alsopreparedtheabstractdangerousoraccordingtothegeneralsituationtherewillbedangerousandaffirmitspunishment,thepunishmentscopeistoolarge,inevitablysubjectiveincrimination,ignoringtheprotectionofhumanrightsofcitizensMoreover,itdoesnotanswerthequestionwhythelawisintendedtomaketheabstractdanger,anditisdifficultforustomakeasatisfactoryexplanationofthepunishmentofabstractdangerouscrimesTheessencethatit"recognizestheabstractdangerouscrimes,althoughnotdangerous,alsomadeithappen,butcertainlynotsuitablefortheestablishmentofthecrime,"(Note:seeChenPusheng:the"criminallaw"specialstudyonTaiwan,Newburyedition,pagefortyfourth)Then,fromthepointofviewof"substance",weshouldcorrectthedeficiencyofform,anditspurposeistomakesurethatwecanalsomakethosewhohavenoviolationofthelegalinterestsofdangercomplywiththeconstitutiveelementsandactagainstthepunishmentHowever,becausenoabstractdangerouscriminallawregulations,iftheelementsofnature,specificallytodeterminethepresenceandabsenceofjudicialpersonnelmustwillbegiventherighttojudge,bytheirbehaviorevenwiththeelementsofthetextmeaning,alsofromthepointofessencetodenyitsabstractdanger,theresultwillinevitablyleadtojudicialpowerbeyondthelegislative,crimeandgoodatbreakingtheprevailingwindatthesametime,therealdangerjudgment,infactisenoughtocauseaspecificrisk,somerealharmresultsifso,notforthesocalledabstractdangerofexcess,nottomentiontothejudicialarbitraryprovidesanopportunityFromtheaboveanalysis,wecanseethatinthesenseofform,"abstractdangerouscrime"hastwokindsofpunishment,oneisbehaviorcrime,theotherisnotguiltyatallInessence,the"abstractdangerouscrime"isthesameastheintentofthespecificdangerouscrimeTherefore,theabstractdangerthatthetraditionalcriminallawadvocatesisnotnecessaryandpossibleAsNakayamaKenichi,aJapanesecriminalexpert,said,"whatiscalled'abstractdangerouscrime'is,onmostoccasions,dangerousifitissomethinginherentintheactitselfAccordingtotheexternalimplementationofcertainacts,canbedirectlyestablishedcrimeInthisregard,itisappropriatetocallit"purebehaviorcrime"or"actcrime"Inthiscase,evenifnoresult,thecrimeisalsoestablished"(Note:see(Japan)NakayamaKenichi:"generalcriminallaw",establishedthechurchfirstpublishedinMay,,pageth)Inviewofthis,theauthorbelievesthatthesocalleddangerouscrimeshouldonlybefromthe"concretedangerouscrime"meaningtograspthecriminallawcivilizationshowsspecificrisklimit,thetraditionalcriminalresponsibilityshouldbethe"abstractdangerouscrime"isunderstoodasthecategoryofbehavioraloffenceproperlyFromthiswecanseethatthethird,fifth,sixthpointsofviewarebasedontheconceptoftraditionaldangerouscrime,andtherelationshipbetweenthemandbehaviorcrimeisnaturallyambiguousandcontradictoryintheoryTherefore,theunderstandingofbehaviorcrimeisdifficulttobeaccurateandreasonable(two)aperspectiveofvariousunderstandingsFromourscholars'understandingofthebehaviorcrime,theyaredefinedasthestandardofthecrimeandtheresultofthecrime,whichisconsistentwiththecriminallawtheoryofthecontinentallawsystemAsweallknow,therearedifferentcharacteristicsbetweenthetwokindsofcriminaljurisprudenceInthecriminallawsystemofthecontinentallawsystem,Theformationorformationofacrimeisequivalenttothecrimeaccomplishedinprinciplebutinourcriminallawsystem,therearedifferencesbetweenthemTheyaredifferentformsofcrimeinthepremiseofmeetingtheconstitutiverequirementsofthecrimeWemustpayattentiontothisdifferencewhendefiningbehavioroffendersUnfortunately,somescholarsignorethistheoreticalpremiseandcopytheconceptofbehaviorcrimeinthecriminallawofthecontinentallawsystem,whichleadstothecontradictionofinterpretation,suchasthefirst,second,thirdpointsofviewBecauseaccordingtoitsdefinition,sinceaslongastheimplementationoftheactisenoughtoconstituteacrime"arecommitted,thentheintentionalhomicidebehaviorofpeopleaslongastheimplementationofthekillingbehaviorconstitutesacrime,willalsoconductcrimeThesamequestioncanalsobeputforwardtotheconsequentialoffense:sincetheresultisanecessaryelementofacrime,withouttheresult,itdoesnotconstituteacrimeWhatabouttheattemptedcrimeAlloftheseareclearlycontradictorytotheiroriginalintentionItisobviousthattheconceptofbehaviorcrime,whichisdirectlytransplantedfromthecriminallawofthecontinentallawsystem,isnotsuitableforgrowinginthesoilofcriminallawinchinaInordertoavoidambiguity,weshoulddirectlyandexplicitlyimplementthestandardof"accomplishedoffense"intheformulationofconceptsThefirst,second,thirdpointofviewinthisrespectisveryobviousForthesecond,fourth,fifthpointofview,itisemphasizedthatbehaviorcrimeisnotthestandardofaccomplishmentofcrime,butalsolimitstheresultofcrimetothescopeoftheresultofactualharmFromitsunderstandingoftheresultofthecrime,itiscorrectButthequestionhereis:whereisthepositionofthedangerouscrimeThefourth,fifthpointofviewisthatitisunderstoodasacrimetypejuxtaposedwithbehavioroffense,whichisitsredeemingfeatureInthisway,wemustreflectthedifferencebetweenthecrimeandthedangerouscrimeintheconceptofbehaviorcrime,sothatwecanplaytheboundaryfunctionoftheconceptDuetotheconsequencesofthecrimeisnotdangerouscrimeaccomplishedstandard,therefore,iftheimplementationoftheconceptoflimitfunction,itshouldbeintheconceptofconductcrimeatthesametimealsomarked"nolegalrisk"thecrimerestrictionButitdoesnotdothis,thentheconceptofsuchbehaviorisincomplete,thereisconfusionwithdangerouscrimedefectsAlthoughtherearenosuchdefectsinthesecondviews,itisunderstoodthatthedangerouscrimeisincludedinthebehaviorofthecrime,thereisapointofviewTobesure,adangerouscrimeistheresultofacertainactwithoutacertainactualresultInthisrespect,itisnotdifferentfrombehaviorcrimeHowever,itisworthnotingthat,duetothelegalrequirementsoftheobjectiveaspectsofthecrimeofdangerousbehaviorismorespecial,itmusthavethepropertythereisarealdangerofthecrime,andtoconductcrimesimplycommitcrimescanbeThiswilldeterminethedangerouscrimeinthecrimeandunaccomplished,developmentstage,basisofpunishmentandmanyotheraspectsaredifferentfromthebehaviorcrime,crime,judgmentprinciple,methodandthenatureofthelegislativetechnologyandstructureisuniqueTherefore,itisreasonableandnecessarytoregarditasacrimetypeindependentofbehaviorcrimeOnlybasedonthisunderstanding,behaviorcrimeisthecorrectchoiceoftheory,whichismoreconducivetothedevelopmentofcriminallawresearchInaddition,fromthepointofviewofthecrimeconceptitselfexpressions,roughlydividedintotwocategories:oneistheonlymentionofbehavior,suchasfirst,third,fourth,pointstheotheristhebehaviorfactors,throughthenegativeway,emphasizingresultsstatus,suchassecond,fifthkindsofviewsIfyoulikethesixthviewthat,accordingtothecrimeresultsincludingrealharmresultsanddangerousresultsview,onlyfromtheperspectiveofbehaviordefinedthebehaviorcrime,thereisnoreason,candrawtheboundariesandthebehaviorcrimecrimeandriskcrimeButthisdefinitionhaslostitsfoundationbecauseofitsignoranceoftheresultofcrimeSo,fromthecrimeresultsonlyharmresultsthecorrectjudgmentofitmustbedefinedfromtwoaspects,namelytheaffirmationoftheexistenceofcriminalactsandcriminalresultsornegativeresultofcrimelegalriskOnlythus,Theconceptofbehaviorcrimeisscientific,soastogivefullplaytothelimitsandfunctionsoftheconcept,andembodyallthecharacteristicsofthebehavioralcrimetotheutmostextentTosumup,theauthorbelievesthat,atpresent,theunderstandingofcriminalbehaviorinthefieldofcriminallawinChinaisreasonableingeneral,buttherearemanycontradictionsoromissionsReflectedintheconceptofbehavioraloffense,allwithsuchdefects,itisdifficulttoachieveareasonableandsatisfactoryTherefore,puttingforwardascientificconceptofbehaviorcrimeisthepremiseofunifyingcognitionanddeepeningresearchThreeConclusionBasedontheaboveanalysis,theauthorthinks,thebehaviormadeascientificdefinition,weshoulddothefollowing:thedefinitionoftheobjectisthebasiccrimesinspecificprovisionsofcriminallawclearlydefinetheirstandardsisthebasicconstitutionofcrimethathasaccomplishedformcontentelementsdecisiveeffectshighlightthebasiccriminalbehaviortheimplementationofbehaviorindicatesthecrimeresultsintheconductcrimestatusplaybehaviormadetheconceptoffunctionalboundariescoversvariousformsofbehaviorcrimeTherefore,theauthorputsforwardthefollowingconceptofbehaviorcrimeonthebasisofreferringtothescholars'variousunderstandingofbehaviorcrime:Referstothebehaviorcrime,aslongastheimplementationofthespecificprovisionsofcriminallawinaccordancewithcertainbasicconstitutivebehaviorisaccomplished,withoutoccurrenceofspecificcrimeorthelegalriskoftheresultofcrimeoccursthetypeofcrimeAsisthe"crime"asthestandardtodefinethebehaviorofcrime,isdirectedagainstthespecificprovisionsofcriminallawmustcompleteformofcrime,therelationshipbetweenthefirstclearcrime,thecompleteformofcrimeandtheirsignificanceGenerallyspeaking,thecompleteformofcrimecanbeunderstoodfromtwoperspectives:first,fromthepointofviewofthecriminal,thereisadevelopmentprocessofcrimeTwo,fromthepointofviewoflaw,theformofthecrimeistheconditionthatacertaincrimehasalreadyconformedtoalltheimportantelementsofacrimeconstitutedbythespecificprovisionsofthecriminallawScholarsfromdifferentangleshaveformeddifferentunderstandingsoftheaccomplishedcrimeorthecompletedformofcrimeBasedonthecriminalpointofview,theconclusioniscalledthetheoryoftherealizationofthepurposeofcrimeandthetheoryoftheoccurrenceofthecrime"Assomeonehaspointedout:"accomplished",thenamesuggests,isalreadyattainedInaccordancewiththeprovisionsofourcriminallaw,Twentieth'failed'is'attempted'andthecorollary'accomplishment'shouldbe'tosucceed'ThedictionaryofmodernChineseisinterpretedas'badideascometrue'or'achieveacertainpurpose'Accordingtothisexplanation,"accomplishedoffense"shouldbetheresultofapurposefulactionbyaperson,andthestateofbeingsatisfiedwithsomekindofdesire"Thesocalled"accomplishedoffense"shouldbe:"theperpetratoroftheendofthecriminalact,causingthecrimehewantedtohappen""(Note:seeChenYanhaiandZhangBoren:abriefanalysisofthedefinitionofcompletedoffense,whichcontainstheJournalofNorthwestUniversityofPoliticsandLaw,fourthissueofTheconclusionbasedonthelegalangleisthattheconstitutiveelementsofcrimeinthecurrentcriminallawcirclesarewellsaid"AccomplishedoffensereferstothebehavioroftheactorwhohasalreadypossessedalltheelementsofthebasicconstitutionofthecrimestipulatedinthecriminallawItissynonymouswiththeformofcrime,andappliestoallbasicformsofcrime,includingintentionalandnegligentcrimeSomecountrieshavemadethispointclear,suchasthetwelftharticleofthecriminalcodeofBrazil:"whenallelementsofthelawareclearlydefined,thecrimeisaccomplished""Ofcourse,atthispoint,somescholarshavedifferentviews,believesthat"thecompleteformofcrimeofthecrime,andcriminalpreparation,attemptedcrime,thediscontinuanceofcrimecrimeunfinishedrelativeconceptsexistincomparisonSincethenegligentcrimedoesnotexistfromitssubjectiveandobjectiveunity,thereisnoroomfortheincompleteformofcrime,anditsformofcompletionlosesitssignificanceandpossibility"(Note:seeGaoMingxuan,editorinchief:principlesofcriminallaw(volumesecond),RenminUniversityofChinapress,December,ppth)ActuallyThismethodofcognitionissomewhatsimplisticandformulaicCompletionofcrimeandincompleteformarenotnecessarilysymmetrical,andaccomplishedandattemptedarenotnecessarilyconcomitantThecompletionstateofcrimeisobjectiveexistence,anditisthenormalorstandardformofcrimeSincethenegligentcrimeisabasictypeoflaw,ithastheformofcompletionandistheonlyformofexistenceOtherwise,tobealienatedfromcriminalnegligenceTherefore,thereisnosuchthingasaformofaccomplishedoffenseIfadistinctionismadebetweenthecompletedandthecompletedforms,itisonlyagameofwordsortermsSincewehaveinsistedthatthecompletionofthecrimeisthebasiccomponentofthecrimeiscomplete,thatis,toachievetheformofcompletion,weshouldnothavethesamecriminalelementsofthecrimeofnegligenceexcludedIfthatisthecase,thereisnodoubtthatthecrimeofnegligenceexistsintheconstitutionofthecrimeIamafraiditisdifficulttoacceptthisconclusion
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