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首页 用功能对等理论研究旅游文本的翻译

用功能对等理论研究旅游文本的翻译.doc

用功能对等理论研究旅游文本的翻译

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2019-04-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《用功能对等理论研究旅游文本的翻译doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

编号:河南大学届本科毕业论文AStudyofTouristTextsTranslationfromthePerspectiveofFunctionalEquivalence用功能对等理论研究旅游文本的翻译论文作者名称:姚立月作者学号:所在学院:外语学院所学专业:英语语言文学导师姓名、职称:侯健助教论文完成时间:AStudyofTouristTextsTranslationfromthePerspectiveofFunctionalEquivalence用功能对等理论研究旅游文本的翻译YaoLiyueCollegeofForeignLanguagesHenanUniversityMayAcknowledgmentsIwouldliketoexpressmygratitudetomanypeoplewhohaveprovidedmewithvaluableadvicesandrevisionsthroughthedifficultcourseofmyundergraduatethesisMydeepestgratitudegoesfirsttoMrHou,mysupervisor,forhisconstantencouragementandguidanceHehashelpedmethroughallthestagesofwritingthisthesisHeartfeltthanksarealsoduetoallmycompetentteachersinCollegeofForeignLanguagesatHenanUniversityTheirconsistentandilluminatinginstructionsaretreasureinmywholelifeFinally,mythankswouldgotomybelovedfriendsandfamilymembersfortheirlovingconsiderationsandgreatconfidenceinmethroughalltheseyearsOnlywithyoursinceresupport,canIreachthepresentsuccessAbstractAbstractAlthoughChinahasdevelopedinboundtourismforyearsandaccomplishallengesfortranslators,asthefollowingexampleshows:“慈母手中线,游子身上衣。临行密密缝,意恐迟迟归。谁言寸草心,报得三春晖。”这是唐朝著名诗人孟郊的经典之作。德清是孟郊的故乡。“ThreadinthehandsofalovingmotherTurnstoclothesonthetravelingsonSheaddsstitchaftertightstitchuntilheleavesandworriesabouthisreturnAgrassbladeisbathedinspringsunHowcanitsinchsizedheartreturnsuchlove”ThisisthegreatpoetinTangDynasty,MengjiaosclassicsDeqingisMengjiaoshometownInthisexample,thepoemisquotedintheintroductionofDeqingCountyinHuzhou,whichisthehometownofthepoetMengiiaoMengiiaomaybeahouseholdnamefortheChinesereadersandthewriterusethepoemtoproducedeeperimpressiononChinesereadersFloweryStyleofWritingComparingwiththeEnglishtouristtexts,Chinesetouristtextsaremoreornate,or“flowery”ItisatraditionthattheChinesehavedevelopedgreatfavorofflowerywordsandlyricalwritingsfromancienttimesManyChinesewritersofscenicdescriptions,influencedbyChineseliterature,havespecialfavoritetorhythmicalprosestyle,neatparallelstructureandelegantdescriptionsAsaresult,manyChinesetouristtextsarecharacterizedbygorgeousdictionandtheabuseofadjectives,fourcharacterphrasesChinesefeaturedfourcharacterphrasescompoundsrevealtheaestheticvalueofChineseBalancedinformandsoundingwithemphasisonmeaning,theyaregenerallyregardedastherefinedexpressions,sincemanyofthemarederivedfromtherichChineseliterarytraditionForexample:山海相连,岚光晦明,峰峦叠嶂,怪石嶙峋,深涧幽谷,碧海仙居,缥缈海市,构成了崂山幽邃文袤、离奇多变的天然之美。峰顶耸立,层峦叠嶂,深涧幽谷,奇峰异石,有“天然雕塑公园"之称。Inthisshortdescription,fourcharacterphrasesareusedtoachieverhythmandparallelismwhichdepictamagnificentviewbeforeChinesereadersSomeofthesefourcharacterphrasesdonothavepracticalmeaningsSoitisnoteasyfortranslatorstorenderthesetextsChapterThreeTouristTextTranslationRequirementsandCriteriaofTouristTextTranslationTheprinciplesorthecriteriaoftranslationarenotonlyanormformeasuringthequalityoftranslationbutalsoanultimategoalfortranslatorstopursuitAlexanderFraserTytler,anEnglishtranslationtheoreticianhasputforwardthecriteriawhichclaimedthatatranslationshouldbemadeorjudgedbythreefundamentalsinthelastdecadeofthethcentury:()Atranslationshouldgiveacompletetranscriptoftheideasoftheoriginalwork()Thestyleandmannerofwritingshouldbeofthesamecharacterasthatoftheoriginal()Atranslationshouldhavealltheeaseoftheoriginalcomposition(ChenHongwei,:)Foralongtime,thetranslatorsareboundtotheliteraltranslationtheorybythetranslationtraditions,andtheyhavelittlefreedomtoshowtheircreativityButthefunctionorintentionoftranslatingtouristtextsisquitedifferentfromthosetextssuchaslegaldocuments,scientificreports,andGovernmentDocuments,etcItissuccessfulifatranslationcanadequatelyreachtheintendedpurposeofthetargettextBecausethefunctionoftouristtextsistotransmitChineseuniqueculturaltotheforeigntouristsandtoarousetheircuriositytotravel,thetranslationshouldbeinterestingtothetargetreadersButChinesereadersandEnglishreadersbelongtodifferentculturebackgrounds,sothequalityofatouristtranslationmustbeevaluatedbythedegreeoftheculturalexchangeonthebasisofthereadabilityofthetranslatedversionandofthereceptivenessofthereadersInconclusion,thecriterionforCEtouristtranslationdemandsatranslatormakethepromotionofChineseculturebearinmind,andexpressasmuchculturalinformationaspossibletotheforeignersTouristTextTranslationandCultureTranslationandculturearecloselylinkedEveryculturehasitsparticularpointofviewoftheworldanditsownthinkingpatternTranslationastheconnectorbetweenthesourcelanguageandthetargetlanguageisusedtoconveytheuniquecultureandtoachievethebettercommunicationInthetranslationprocess,culturalinformationinonelanguagecanbeconveyedinanotherlanguageInthisprocess,newconcepts,newgenresandnewdevicesareintroducedintoatargetcultureThisisindeedacommunicatingprocessfacilitatedbymeansoftranslationThehistoryoftranslationis,inaway,“thehistoryoftheshapingpowerofonecultureuponanotherAsNord()putsit,“Translatingmeanscomparingcultures”,aforeignculturecanonlybeapperceivedbymeansofcomparisonwithourowncultureIntheprocessofthiscomparison,translatorsinterpretsourceculturephenomenainthelightoftheirownculturespecificknowledgeofthatculture,fromeithertheinsideortheoutside,dependingonwhetherthetranslationisfromorintothetranslatorsnativelanguageandcultureAgoodtouristtexttranslatedinaculturalperspectivecanimmeasurablycontributetomutualunderstandingandculturalexchangesespeciallyforthoseforeignvisitorswhoknowlittleornothingaboutChinesecultureAcombinationofgeneralintroductionwithculturalinterpretationwillbetterdisplaythefunctionsoftouristtextsTransculturalactionorcommunicationacrossculturebarriershastotakeaccountofculturaldifferenceswithregardtobehavior,evaluationandcommunicativesituationsNidaalsosays,“Fortrulysuccessfultranslating,biculturalismisevenmoreimportantthanbilingualism”(Nida,:)ChapterFourStrategiesandMethodsofTouristTextTranslationTranslationStrategiesTouristtextstranslationisbynomeansaneasytaskfortranslatorstocomplete,sincetherearesomanyobscuritiesfortranslatorstocopewiththattranslationalwaysrequirestranslatorstobeequippedwithlinguisticcompetenceandculturalperceptionSothefollowingpartistofindoutsomepracticalstrategiesfortouristtexttranslationAsisstatedinpreviouschapters,touristtextcombinesinformativeandvocativefunctionsTheultimatepurposeofanytouristtextsistoachieveitsvocativefunction,namelytoattractoverseastouriststovisitthescenicattractionsinChinaBasedonsuchpurposeandfunction,translatorshavetopleasethereaderbyadaptingtheformandcontentofChinesetextwhiletakingtheirbackgroundknowledge,expectations,culturalbackgroundandaestheticsintoconsiderationInthecasewherethevocativefunctionispredominant,“onemightbejustifiedforplayingdownorevenomittingcertaininformationifitobstructstheappellativefunction”(Nord,:)Onthebasisofthisviewpoint,theinformationwhichisregardedbyforeignvisitorsasirrelevanttothesubjectofsourcetextorinsignificantshouldbedeletedintranslationTranslatorhastheresponsibilitytointroducetherichcultureofChinatothewesterners,whichisanotherpurposeofCE,touristtranslationthatshouldnotbeforgottenInthiscase,translatorshouldadoptaforeigntranslationstrategywhentranslatingtheculturalphenomenasuchasthecustoms,thewaysofliving,theemotionsofChinesepeopleandthepropernamesIfcultureloadedinformationisindeednotunderstandabletothetargetreaderbecauseoflanguageandculturalbarrier,translatormayaddsomeexplanationinthetargettextEnglishlanguagereadershavetheirinbornsocioculturalbackgroundandaestheticpsychologywhichmaketheshapeofthewritingstyleofEnglishtouristtextsAccordingtothesetranslationtheories,translatorshavetopleasethereaderbyadaptingtheformandcontentofChinesetextwhiletakingtheirbackgroundknowledge,expectations,culturalbackgroundandaestheticsintoconsiderationTheinformationwhichisregardedbyforeignvisitorsasirrelevanttothesubjectofsourcetextorinsignificantshouldbedeletedintranslationTranslationMethodsAdditionAdditionisusuallyemployedintranslatingnamesofpersonsandplaces,dynasties,historicaleventsandliteraryquotations,etcbysupplyingnecessaryinformationonthebasisofaccuratecomprehensionoftheoriginaltextsEnglishandChinesearetwoentirelydifferentlanguagesandeachhasitsowncharacteristicsoflanguage,historicalandculturalbackgroundTherefore,itisnecessaryfortranslatorstoprovidesomeadditionalinformationtoassisttouriststounderstandExample:南京夫子庙是用来供奉古代中国伟大的思想家、教育家孔子的地方。其始建于宋朝,曾于清朝年间重建过。Fortheforeigntourists,theycanhardlyknowthespecialterm“宋朝”and“清朝”ThuswhentranslatingthemintoEnglish,wehadbetteraddtheyearSothepropertranslationis:NanjingConfuciusTempleisforconsecratingandworshipingConfucius,thegreatthinkerandeducatorofancientChinaNanjingConfuciusTemplewasbuiltinSongDynasty(AD)andoncewasrebuiltinQingDynasty(AD)Example:五四广场是为纪念“五四运动”而命名的。MaythSquareisnamedtohonortheMaythMovementwhichtookplaceinThetranslatoraddedtheyearwhentheMaythMovementtookplaceIftherewasnosuchexplanation,foreignerswouldfeelconfusedwiththemovement,becausetheyneitherknowwhatkindofthemovementisnorunderstandthehistoricalmeaningofthismovementDeletionThisprocessistoomitunnecessaryandmeaninglessinformationFromtheaboveanalysis,itisknownthatthewaysofexpressingideasaredifferentbetweenChineseandwesternpeopleChinesepeopleliketoquoteorcitetheclassicsorthepoemstoaddsomeartisticvaluetotheirwritings,whiletheforeignersprefertheplainanddirectwaytoexpresswhattheythinkSointranslating,toensurethefluencyandconcisenessofthetranslatedtext,itispropertoomitsomeuselessredundantinformationandmaketheversionunderstandableNidasaysthat“totranslatepreciselyoutofthesourcelanguageisnottoobservethenumberofwords,buttheperfectsenseandmeaning”(Nida,:)ThetranslatorhastherighttodecidewhichpartshouldbetranslatedordeletedProperdeletionshouldbeappliedintranslatingChinesetouristtextswithallusionsandquotations,flowerydescription,andunnecessaryinformation,whichotherwisemightresultinoverloadedcommunicativeeffectExample:从二十世纪年代初,青岛就成为一座景色秀美,气候宜人的旅游城市和避暑胜地。沙滩上海风习习,山丘绵延不断,再加上欧式的红顶建筑和绿树,绘成一幅美妙的画卷,成为观光、度假的好去处,也是商会洽谈和举办展览的好地方。“Earlyinthes,QingdaobecameafamoustouristcityandasummerresortQingdaohasbeautifulsceneryandapleasantclimateWindingbeaches,undulatinghills,EuropeanstyleredroofedhousesandgreentreespaintafabulouspictureTheareaisanexcellentplaceforsightseers,holidaymakersandforholdingbusinesstalksandexhibitions”TheaboveunderlinedsentenceinChinesetouristtextisalongsentencewhichconsistsofseveralclausesIftranslatedwordforword,theEnglishversionislikelytocausemanyreadingdifficultiesThusthetranslatordeletessomeredundantinformationAnotherexample,example:巫峡两岸,群山相拥,云遮雾绕,奇峰异岭隐没其间,宛如仙境。景色奇妙处要数巫山十二峰,而尤以神女峰独具神韵。巡游于此恍若漫步于大自然的艺术画廊,美不胜收。“OnthebankoftheWuGorgearemistcoveredfairylandlikemountainsandgrotesquepeaksThemostmarvelousscenehereisthetwelvemountainspeaks,andinparticular,GoddessMountPeakTocruisehereislikewanderinginanaturalartgalleryComparingthesetwotexts,itisobviousthatthetranslatorturnstheparallelstructurecompletelytodirectandconcisewordsintheEnglishversionForexample,“独具神韵”insourcetextistranslatedas“andinparticular”Andattheendofthesourcetext,“美不胜收”isdeletedtoavoidrepetitionExplanationExplanationreferstoaliteralinterpretationforwords,phrasesandsentencesIncaseswhenwords,phrases,andsentencesarenotfamiliartoforeignvisitors,itisnecessarytoexplainandofferthemenoughmessages,whichisnotintermsofculturalbackgroundinformation,buttheequivalentmeaningofthelexemesInthisway,thereadercanunderstandtheinnermeaningandfindthetranslatedtextmoredelightful,intelligibleandappealingExample:现在人们常说的峨嵋山,主要指的是大峨山。大峨和二峨两山,远远望去宛若嵘首峨眉,细而长,美而艳,如《水经注》所记:“秋日清澄,望见两山相对如峨眉焉。峨嵋山之名由此而来。……Theterm…MountEmeimainlyreferstoDaeMountainInthedistance,theDasandErsmountainslooklikeamothspairofantennasthatextendlongandslenderinapicturesquefashionJustasthebookCommentaryontheWaterwaysClassicsputit,…Onafineautumnday,thetwomountainsstandoppositeeachotherlikeamothsantennashencethename,Emeiliterallymeans…MothsBrows”(XiaoQianhui,)Comparingtheoriginaltextwiththetranslationversion,theauthorfindsthetranslatoraddsanattributiveclause,“literallymeans…MothsBrows”inthetranslatedtextThisistheexplanationofthenameofEmei,whichmakesthereaderlearnabouttheoriginofthisnameTherefore,thereaderwillhaveaclearunderstandingofthename,andhaveadeepimpressionoftheplaceandimaginetheshapeofMountEmeiAnalogyAnalogyintranslationissuchamethodaswordsarecreatedintheimitationofotherwordsthathavesimilarfeaturesinordertoshortenthedistancebetweenforeignreadersandtheChinesecultureThatistosay,usetheirfamiliarthingstocompareandtointerpretthedifferentobjectscanmakethereadersfeelclosetothetargettextNordsays“reallifepresentssituationswhereequivalenceisnotpossibleandinsomecases,notevendesired”(Nord,)Intouristtexts,analogycanalsobeausefulstrategytodealwithcultureblanksWhenitisdifficulttotranslatetheChinesecharacterizeditemsandtheomissionofthemislikewiseimpossible,culturalanalogycanbetakenintoconsiderationAnalogyisaconciseandeffectivewaytointroducecharactersandspotstoaddresseesfromadifferentcultureManyChinesehistoricalcelebritiesandeventsareintroducedtotheforeignersinthiswayItwillmakeiteasierforwesternerstounderstandandappreciatethesignificanceoftheChinesecultureExample:故宫耗时年,整个工程于年结束。“TheconstructionoftheForbiddenCitytookyears,andwasfinishedin,yearsbeforeChristopherColumbusdiscoveredtheNewWorld”(YaoBaorongandHanQi,:)Forforeigners,theyearisnomorethanayearWhenitisanalogizedwiththegreatevent,thediscoveryoftheNewWorld,theinterestoftheforeigntouristsisarousedInLanxi(兰溪)countyofZhejiangProvince,thereisamonumenttoJigongItsays“济公劫富济贫,深受穷苦人民爱戴。”Example:“Jigong,RobinHoodinChina,robbedtherichandhelpedthepoor(LiuHuimeiandYangShoukang,:)Inthisexample,JigongiscomparedtoRobinHood,withwhomeverywesternerisquitefamiliarLikeJigong,heisaherointhewesterncultureenjoyingloveandesteemoftheforeignersThroughthisanalogy,foreignreaderscaneasilyunderstandthereasonwhyChinesepeoplelikehimsomuchParaphraseDuetoculturaldifferencesbetweenChinaandWesterncountrieswemaynotfindinEnglishtheequivalentsofmanyobjectsinChineseWhenthewords,phrases,sentencesintheoriginalversionaretoodifficulttounderstand,paraphraseshouldbeappliedParaphrase,whichisdifferentfromexplanation,referstorewordingofapieceofwriting,statement,etcindifferentwordsThatistosay,wecanusemorecommonwordstotranslatetheoriginal,yetthemeaningisreservedNida(:)alsoholdsthesimilarviewaboutthispoint:Whenartifactsthatexistinasourcelanguagedonotcorrespondtoanythinginareceptorlanguage,theresatendencytoparaphrasethethingortoemployadescriptiveequivalentExample:元宵节那天,各家各户装点彩灯,准备糯米面做的元宵,煮着吃或炸着吃。“OntheLanternFestival(whichfallsonthethofthefirstlunarmonth),everyhouseholdisdecoratedwithcolorfullanternsandpreparesYuanXiao,akindofrounddumplingmadeofglutinousriceflourwithsweetorsaltedfillings,whichisboiledorfriedWecannotfindanequivalentof“YuanXiao”inEnglish,sothebestmethodtoinformforeignersaboutthisspecialChinesefoodistoparaphraseitManyothertermsuniqueinChinaaretranslatedthiswaywithparaphrasesothattheforeignreadersmayobtaininsightintoChinesecultureAsforparaphrasemethodwealsohavethefollowingexamples:哈达hada(apieceofpurewhitesilkusedasagreetinggiftforhonorableguestsespeciallybyTibetanpeople)华表huabiao(marblepillarcarvedwithcloudsanddragonmotifs)火锅huoguo(acontainerwithaheaterunderit,usedforcookingorkeepingfoodwarm,especiallyatthetable)粽子zongzi(specialpyramidshapeddumplingswhichpeopleeatinthethmonthoftheChineselunarcalendar)RewritingThespecificfeatureofthetouristtextsdeterminesthatitisimpossibleforthetranslatorstoexplainallthedifficultwordsorusageinalimitedlengthofpassageInthiscase,rewritingworksmoreeffectivelyRewriting,asoneofthetranslationmethods,referstoamoredramaticadjustmentofthecontentsorthestructureofthesourcetexttomaketheversionunderstandable,readableandenjoyableSowedbetteradjustthesequenceofgivensentencessoastomakethemidiomaticsoundingExample:四川西部,有一处美妙的去处。它背倚眠山主峰雪宝顶,树木苍翠,花香袭人,鸟声婉转,流水潺潺。这就是松潘县的黄龙。“OneofSichuansfinestscenicspotsisHuanglong(YellowDragon),whichliesinSongpanCountyjustbeneathXuebao,themainpeakoftheMinshanMountainItslushgreenforests,filledwithfragrantflower,bubblingstreams,andsongbirds,arerichinhistoricalinterestaswellasnaturalbeauty”ThesourcetextisatraditionalChineseone,withthetopicsentencenormallycominglastOwingtothedifferentthoughtpatternsofChineseandwesterners,theEnglishversionhasrearrangedthestructureofthesourcetextThewholetextisdividedintotwosentenceswiththetopicsentence“松潘县的黄龙”leadingatthebeginningofthetargettext,followedbydetaileddescriptioninsequenceSummaryConsideringthepeculiarfeaturesoftouristtexts,thischaptertakestheaboveexamplesasillustrationsItisobviousthatthetranslatorshavesuchanexcessivefreedomintranslationthattheyhaveaddition,deletion,explanation,analogy,paraphrase,andrewritingtomakethetranslationfluentandcomprehensibleHoweverthemethodsmentionedarefarformexhaustiveSometimestheyarelikelytobeoverlappedwitheachotherandcouldbeusedtogetherThefunctionsofthetouristtextsrequirethetranslatortotakethetextasintegrityandtoadoptpropermethodsAnymethodusedintranslationshouldbetargetlanguagereaderoriented,thatistosay,tobestmeettheneedsandpreferencesoftheforeigntouristsInawordthetranslationofChinesetouristtextsshouldattachimportancetotheinformationprovidedforthetouriststofulfillitsvocativeandinformativefunctionsUnderthiscircumstance,theapplicationofthesemethodsshouldbebasedontheanalysisoftheoriginaltextwiththeaimtopromoteoverseastouristsinterestinChineseuniquecultureConclusionChinaisoneofthefewcountriesintheworldwhichisendowedwithabundanttouristresourcesWiththeeverdeepeningofChinasreformandopeninguppolicy,increasingnumbersofoverseasvisitorscometoChinaHistoricalandculturalrelics,beautifulsceneriesandinterestingnationalcustomsareallpreferenceoftheWesternersTheboominginternationaltouristindustryneedswelltranslatedtouristtextseagerlytoprovidequalifiedtravelinginformationtoarousemorepotentialtouristsinteresttovisitacertaindestinationinChinaThetouristtexttranslationisaspecialkindofcrossculturalcommunicationTheaimoftouristtexttranslationhasbecomeculturalexchangeInthethesispresentedSkopostheory,NewmarkstexttypologyandNidasfunctionalequivalencearetakenasatheoreticalframeworkThetouristtextfeaturesacombinationofinformativeandvocativefunctions,whichisalsothebasicpurposeoftouristtexttranslationBecauseofthespecificnatureofthetouristtexts,andtheculturaldifferencesbetweenChinaandwesterncountries,thetranslationdifficultieslieinthetreatmentofdifferentlanguagestylesaswellasintheculturalblanksAccordingtoSkopostheory,theintendedpurposeofthetargettextdeterminestheoveralltranslationpractice,includingthechoiceoftranslationstrategiesmethodsThetranslator,basedontheanalysisofthesourcetext,shouldconsiderthecriteriaoftouristtexttranslationfromculturalperspectivesThecriterionrequiresthetranslatorstotrytheirbesttoconveyasmanyculturalmessagesaspossibletoachievetheintendedfunctionofthetargettextSomeflexibletranslationmethodsofaddition,deletion,explanation,analogy,paraphraseandrewritingaresuggestedThoughfarfromexhaustive,inpractice,thesemethodsaleofsomevalueforthetranslatortodealwiththeculturalproblemsandtheydoshedlightonfuturetouristtexttranslationTouristtexttranslationisbynomeansaneasyjobTouristtexthasvarioustypesthusitstranslationisreallycomplicatedTosomeextentthethesishasdonesomehelptoimprovethequalityoftouristtextHowever,whathasbeendiscussedaboveisonlyalimitedpartofthepossiblemethods,andfurtherresearchesinthisfieldareexpectedtoexploremorestrategiestostepupthedevelopmentofChina'stourismBibliographyCastelloandErikTouristInformationTexts:aCorpusbasedStudyofFourRelateGenresItaly:UnipressEugene,ANidaTowardAscienceofTranslationLeiden:EJBrillEugene,ANidaTheTheoryandPracticeofTranslationLeiden:EJBrillEugene,ANidaTranslatingMeaningLondon:EnglishLanguageInstituteEugene,ANidaLanguageCultureandTranslationShanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguagesEducationPressEugene,ANidaLanguageCultureandTranslatingShanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducationPressGutter,EATranslationandRelevance:CognitionandContextOxford:BlackwellNewmark,PeterAtextbookoftranslationNewYork:PrenticeHallInternationalNord,CTranslationasapurposefulActivityManchester:StJeromepublishingTylorandEdwardBPrimitiveCultureNewYork:Brentanos陈刚,,旅游翻译与涉外导游。北京:中国对外翻译出版公司。陈宏薇,,新编汉英翻译教程。上海:上海外语教育出版社。刘慧梅、杨寿康主编,,从文化的角度看旅游资料的英译,中国翻译():。郭瑞娟,,文本类型理论与旅游资料英译,郑州航空工业管理学院学报():。国家旅游局,,走遍中国中国优秀导游词精选(山水风光篇)。北京:中国旅游出版社。汪宝荣,,旅游文化的英译:归化与异化以绍兴著名景点为例,中国科技翻译():。张培基译注,,英译中国现代散文选(二)。上海:上海外语教育出版社
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