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首页 DOC-外来人口在赫尔辛基居住政策方针外文翻译-其他专业.doc

DOC-外来人口在赫尔辛基居住政策方针外文翻译-其他专业.doc

DOC-外来人口在赫尔辛基居住政策方针外文翻译-其他专业.doc

上传者: 我讨厌现在de自己 2017-12-20 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《DOC-外来人口在赫尔辛基居住政策方针外文翻译-其他专业doc》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含DOC外来人口在赫尔辛基居住政策方针外文翻译其他专业中文字本科毕业设计(论文)外文翻译原文:Policyapproachestoresidentia符等。

DOC外来人口在赫尔辛基居住政策方针外文翻译其他专业中文字本科毕业设计(论文)外文翻译原文:PolicyapproachestoresidentialsegregationofimmigrantsinHelsinkiMixingpolicieshaveconstitutedanimportantpartofurbanplanninginHelsinkisincethesPlannersandhousingofficialshavestrivedtocreateandsustainspatiallybalancedurbandevelopmentthroughpoliciesoftenureandsocialmixingTherationaleformixingpoliciesisrootedinthenationalethosofegalitarianwelfarepoliticsAsociallyandspatiallybalancedcitystructurehasbeenperceivedasabasisforajustandequalsociety,andhousingpolicies,includinghousingallowancesaswellastheproductionandallocationofaffordable,decentstandarddwellings,areperceivedasoneofthemeanstopursueitTenuremix,inparticular,isthoughttohavepositivesocialandeconomicoutcomesfortheentirecityThemaingoalofmixinghasbeentopreventtheaccumulationofsocialproblemsinanygivendistrictInHelsinki,tenuremixhasbeenimplementedbyenforcingareabasedtenurequotasfortheproductionofnewdwellingsMixingoftenuretypeshastakenplacemainlyattheneighlevel,butalsowithinblocksandhousingestatesUrbanrenewalprogramhavealsobeenusedtodiversifyahomogeneoushousingstockinsomeolderresidentialdistrictsInaddition,mixingpolicieshavebeenimplementedthroughpracticesofsocialmixingincouncilhousingallocationLowincomehouseholdsaredispersedamongthebetteroffwhencouncildwellingsareallocatedThosewiththemosturgentneedforhousingaregivenfirstpriorityHowever,theprincipleissometimesbreachedinordertopreventresidentialsegregationForinstance,accordingtothehousingpolicymemorandumfortheyears–:Ontheotherhand,attemptstogeneratesocialmixingdonotoverridepeople’sownfreedomtochoosewheretheywanttoliveSincethemids,councilhousingapplicantshavebeenabletospecifytheareasinwhichtheywishtolive,whichmeansthatcouncildwellingsinotherdistrictsarenotofferedtothemInaddition,applicants’requestsforcertainfacilitiesImmigrants’housingissueswereincorporatedintoexistingmixingpoliciesinHelsinkiatthebeginningofthesResidentialsegregationofimmigrantswasidentifiedasamatterofconcernbyaworkinggroupthatwassetuptodraftanimmigrantpolicyproposalforthecitycouncilinMembersoftheworkinggrouplistedhousingasoneofthebasiccommunalservicesandsuggestedthatpreventingethnicresidentialsegregationwastobeincludedasoneoftheobjectivesoftheimmigrantpolicyAccordingtotheirproposal:HelsinkihousingpricesrelativetotheincomeoflocalpeopleisverycheapThegeneralurbanapartmentpricespersquaremeterintoSpecificallystated,peopleusedtocalculatethetotalpriceofthehousingareaistheusableareaofrealhand,thereisno"floorarea"concept,norwillthecorridor,elevator,allsharingspaceinsidethepropertyBuyersareusuallyyoungpeopleThetotalareaofthehousenaturallynotlarge,small,morethanfortysquaremeters,largeeightyorninetymeters,manydonothavebalconyFortheoutsider,thisisnotonetopaymoneytheycannotAlthoughnotexpressedexplicitly,itappearsthatresidentialsegregationisthoughttohinderimmigrants’integrationintoFinnishsocietyandincreasetheirriskofwealthPotentialsegregationwouldalsoposeachallengetotheprevailingegalitarianethosofasociallyandspatiallyjustsocietyPositiveimpactsofethnicclustering,suchasmutualsupportgeneratedbylivingclosetoeachother,arenotconsideredinthepolicyproposalHowever,itmaywellbethatthesekindsofpositiveaspectshaveinfluencedtheworkinggroup’sreasoningandraisedassumptionsabouttheimmigrants’tendencytoselfsegregateAsHieberthavenoted,suchbenefitsofclusteringareoftenusedtogivereasonsforthepurportedvoluntarysegregationofethnicminoritiesHighwayaround,mostare"blocks"IftheirrelativelylargemobilityAndincomeisnothighAsrentinthesuburbsaremoreabletotakeFinlandisahighwelfarestate,butalsosparselypopulated,eveniftheincomeisnothigh,getholdofdecenthousingisalsonotdifficultThefactispeopleliveoutsidethedistrictforthelivingconditionsareverygood,andtasteallthemunicipalfacilities,thegovernmenthasregularlysenttocleanupthehousetosomepeople,takingabath(forexample,drinkingalcoholintothesemidisabledpeople)butroomabitsmaller,thedensitytoobig,somegeographicaldifferencesAccordingtothememorandum,immigrants’culturalbackgroundandtheirwishestoliveclosetorelativesormembersoftheirownethnicgrouparerespectedwhencouncildwellingsgrowThischangeoftoneisinlinewiththegeneralchangesincouncilhousingallocationatthetime:sincethemidsallcouncilhousingapplicantshavebeenabletospecifywhichtheywishtoliveinThehousingmemorandumsofHelsinkioverlookimmigrants’housingissuesalmostcompletelyHousingquotas,earmarkedforrefugeesandFinns,areaccountedforbutthecausesandconsequencesofethnicresidentialsegregationarenotexplicitlydiscussedThetwohousingpolicymemorandumsfortheyears–and–formtheonlyexceptionHerein,spatialdispersalofimmigrantsistobepromoted,asitisfearedthatsegregationcouldtriggerlocalconflicts,increaseracismandhinderimmigrants’integrationintothehostsocietyNevertheless,positivenotionsofclusteringarealsobroughtupSpatialconcentrationsareacknowledgedtostrengthenimmigrants‘feelingsofbelonging’,supportcommunityformationandtherebyprovideabasisforasuccessfulintegrationManagementCentreofFinland,saidthefinancialcrisis,housingpricesbegantodeclineinFinland,Finland,PresidentMaLilarealestatebrokeragefirm,saidinHelsinki,FinlandhasbecomethebiggesthousingpricedeclineintheareaHelsinkiinSeptemberpricesdecreasedanaveragereductionof,andtheduplexstructureandthelargerofwhichhousingpricesdecreasedsignificantly,down,sinceMarchhasbeentheaveragepricepersquaremeterfellaboutReducedpricesformostofthesemigrantsisalsoagoodopportunitytobuyahouseAccordingtoPhillipsresidentialsegregationisnotsociallyproblematicperse,butithasnegativeconsequenceswhenlinkedwithdeprivationOnthebasisofouranalysis,itseemsthatitispreciselythesekindsofconsequences,wealthofvulnerableethnicminorities,ThatHelsinkiofficialshavebeenmostafraidofCombatingresidentialsegregationofimmigrants,namelyrefugeesandotherlowincomeimmigrants,hasthereforebeenhighlyemphasized,evenifpositiveaspectsofclusteringarealsoacknowledgedAlthough,Helsinki’smixingpolicieshavebeenfairlyexplicitintheirgoal,theyhavenotspecifiedwhatlevelofconcentrationistoomuch,orhowtheambitiousgoalsofspatialdispersalshouldbecarriedoutonagrassrootlevelWhenpolicieslackclearinstructionsonpracticalimplementation,muchroomisleftforindividualdecisionsandinterpretationofhousingInsuchsituationsassumptionsandreasoningbehindthepracticesofcouncilhousingallocationbecomeparticularlycrucialInHelsinki,decisionsoncouncilhousingallocationarebasedonacasespecificreasoningWhenvacanciesappear,housingofficialschoosenewresidentsonthebasisofhousingapplicants’ownrequestsandtheresidentcompositionofabuildingIfthebuildinginquestionhousesmanyimmigrantsalready,andespeciallyifthereareseverallargefamilies,officialstrytodirectprospectiveimmigranthouseholdsintootherbuildingsandchooseanotherapplicantinsteadThelogicbehindthedecisionsisdescribedwellbytwointervieweeswhorefertoanotionof‘‘commonsense’’:Thegovernmentsectorparticularlyofteachers,policeandnursesintheselowincomemiddleclassfamiliesandsomehaveappliedforgovernmentsubsidiesofforeignworkersTheincomeofthesefamiliesisoftenhigherthanthestandardapplicationforrentalsubsidies,butalsoonthefreemarketeconomycannotaffordthefamilytypehousingMostrepresentativeofthetakaSurrey,nearlyonethirdofhousingissocialhousing,theaffordablerentalhousingbythecitygovernmentandallothernonprofitorganizationsAnotheronethirdofthoseaffectedbypriceregulation,thehousingcanbefreelytradedoronlyresidencehousingTheremainingonethirdofprivatecapitalinvestmentintheconstructionofhousing,pricesfullyliberalized"threeonethird"model,ingeneral,abitlikeChina'slowrenthousing,affordablehousing,andhousing,buttheproportionofthedivisiontodetermine,especiallyinrealestateonlyonethirdofChina,itisworthconsideringSource:JHousandtheBuiltEnviron():译文:外来人口在赫尔辛基居住政策方针世纪年代以来在赫尔辛基混合政策已成为对城市规划的重要组成部分。规划师和住房官员一直努力创造和维持着通过混合使用权和社会政策的空间均衡来发展城市。对于混合政策的理由是源自于外来人员的政治平等的福利。一个平衡的社会城市空间结构应该是被理解为是一个基础的公正的平等的社会而住房政策包括住房津贴以及生产和负担得起住房费用以及体面的住房分配标准是我们一直所追求的。任期混合尤其是被认为是积极的社会和经济发展下的整个城市的成果。混合政策的主要目标是防止社会问题的积累(即问题逐渐扩大)。在过去十年中赫尔辛基市里已经建造了许多针对外来人员的新的住房和建筑质量高、居住密度高、交通易达和绿地充足的住宅社区。当然大多数人会想知道赫尔辛基如何能够实现高质量的多住户单元住房。赫尔辛基市副市长Penttilä负责城市规划和房地产对他来讲答案很简单。由于赫尔辛基市拥有百分之七十的土地所以赫尔辛基对开发其拥有土地的方式有高度的可控性。加上来自房产税的收入不到城市预算的百分之八(相比之下典型的加拿大自治城市约为百分之四十)因此赫尔辛基继续建立非隔离的市场和经济上补贴住房的长期政策是可行的使以市场为导向的美学和补贴单元之间几乎没有明显的差异。赫尔辛基拥有,个租住单位个价格和质量受控(HITAS)单位和个居住权公寓房为城市,居民提供近百分之二十五的住房。而对于外来人口则可以提供百分之十八的住房。为了支持高品质的房屋单位总数年前城市建立了HITAS部负责管理通过私营部门建造的住房开发项目从而监测开发商的建设成本保证了很高的住房质量。这也是一个城市的惯常做法在任何项目推出投标之前举行设计比赛鼓励房屋设计的持续创新。为了帮助促进赫尔辛基新区的改造重建规划外来人员的住房问题早在世纪年代开始就已经纳入现有的在赫尔辛基混合政策之中了。外来人员的居住隔离被认为是一个令人关注的问题。所以就成立了一个工作组并且成立了一个草案而市议会在年的移民政策会议上也通过建议。赫尔辛基的房价相对于当地人的收入来说非常便宜。市区的一般公寓每平方米售价在到欧元。特别声明人家计算总价用的住房面积是实实在在到手的实用面积根本没有“建筑面积”的概念也不会把楼道、电梯、物业用房都算进去。这类公寓算是比较便宜的住宅所以购买者通常是年轻人。房子的总面积自然也不大小的有四十多平方米大的八九十平方米很多都没有阳台。对于外来人员来说这并不是一比他们不能支付的资金。而对于高速公路周围多数是一些“街区”。而这些街区多数是针对外来人口的。由于他们流动性比较大。并且收入不是很高。像在郊区的房租是比较能够承担。芬兰是高福利国家又地广人稀即使收入不高弄个像样的住房也并不困难。而事实上是针对外来人口居住的街区的居住条件也挺不错的一切市政设施俱全政府还定期派人来给某些人收拾屋子、洗澡(例如喝酒喝成半残疾的人)只不过屋子小了些、密度大了些、地理位置差了些。这也是外来人口住房不可避免的缺点。芬兰首都赫尔辛基住房备忘录经常几乎完全忽视移民的居住问题。住房配额,对于接受救助芬兰外来人口来说是相对一种供小于求的状况。但是这两种住房时间交易日的形式作为唯一的例外,在此,空间传播移民被提升,因政策备忘录的为人们担心会引发的种族隔离的局部冲突,增加种族主义和妨碍移民的融入主流社会。然而,一些积极的概念也在逐渐出现并且慢慢成熟。并且必须要强调的是空间浓度可以被认为可以增加外来人口的住房归属感。芬兰管理中心称由于受金融危机影响芬兰房价开始走低芬房地产经纪公司总裁马利拉称赫尔辛基目前已成为芬兰房市价格降幅最大的区域。赫尔辛基市年月房价明显下降平均降幅在之间其中复式结构和面积较大住房价格明显下降同比下降自月份以来每平米价格已平均下降了约欧元。这些降低的价格对于大多数外来人口来说又是一个很好的买房机会。而政府的部门特别关注教师、警察和护士这些中产阶层中收入较低的家庭和一些申请了政府补助的外来人员。这些家庭的收入往往高于申请租房补贴的标准,但是同时又承担不起自由经济市场上的家庭型住房。最具代表的是塔卡萨里,针对越来越多的外来人口他们提供近三分之一的住房是社会性住房,这些住房租金价格适中,由市政府和其他一些非营利机构所有。另外三分之一是一些受价格调控、可以自由买卖的住房或只有居住权的住房。剩下的三分之一是私有资金投资建造的住房,价格完全放开。雅塔卡萨里“三个三分之一”的模式,大体上有点像中国的廉租房、经济适用房以及商品房,但其比例的划分确定,尤其是商品房只占到三分之一,对中国来说很值得思考。出处:美DhalmannVilkama,《赫尔辛基外来移民住房政策》HousandtheBuiltEnviron,第卷:

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