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首页 HYDROGEOLOGY - Imperial College London

HYDROGEOLOGY - Imperial College London.doc

HYDROGEOLOGY - Imperial College…

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2018-04-16 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《HYDROGEOLOGY - Imperial College Londondoc》,可适用于小学教育领域

HYDROGEOLOGYImperialCollegeLondonINTRODUCTIONtoHYDROGEOLOGYGeotechnicalterminologyreferredtoin“IntroducingGroundwater”MichaelPrice,ChapmanHall,,pWATERUNDERGROUNDPoresorvoidsPorosityUnsaturatedZone–SaturatedZoneWaterTableSubsurfaceWaterGroundwaterPermeabilityPermeableImpermeableConfinedConfiningLayersorBedsConfinedAquiferUnconfinedPotentiometricSurfaceWaterBalanceWaterCycleWATERCIRCULATIONWaterBalanceInterceptedPrecipitationInfiltrationTranspirationEvapoTranspirationRechargeInfiltrationCapacityOverlandFlowSurfaceRunoffTotalRunoffHortonianFlowInterflowPercolationHydrologicalCyclePerrault,Marritte,HalleyFirstQuantitativeHydrogeologistsCAVERNSCAPILLARIESStalactiteStalagmiteTravertineSurfaceTensionCapillaryFringeCapillaryWaterWaterTablewhereWaterPressure=AtmosphericPressureSpecificYieldRatio(ofGravityDrainedWaterreltoSaturatedVolofAquifer)SpecificRetentionIntermediateZone(PellicularWateratSpecificRetentionValue)SOILWATERWeatheringDegreeofSaturationFieldCapacity(WaterheldagainstGravity)PoreWaterSuctionSoilMoistureDeficit(SoilMoisturebelowFieldCapacity)WiltPermanentWiltingPoint(ofPlantduetoInadequateSoilWater)PotentialEvapotranspirationRootConstant(Soilmoisturedeficitvaluereachedbeforeplantsuselesswater)RainfallIntensityPreferentialFlowBypassFlow(inUnsaturatedZone)GROUNDWATERINMOTION(DARCY’SLAW)WATERMOVEMENTDatumLevel(Arbitrary)HydraulicHead=HeadaboveDatumHeadDifferenceManometerPressureHead–ElevationHeadPotentialEnergyKineticEnergyVelocityHeadDynamicHeadHEADLOSSHeadLossHydraulicGradient–HeadGradientStaticHeadFluidPotentialDARCY’SLAWDarcy’sLaw(darcys)HydraulicConductivityHomogeneousHeterogeneousIsotropyAnisotropyIntrinsicPermeabilityPorousMediumMacroscopicContinuumAPPLICATIONSOFDARCY’SLAWTransmissivityPiezometersVerticalHydraulicGradientFLOWTOAWELLFullyPenetratingBoreholeConeofDepressionPumpingwaterlevelRestwaterlevelDrawdownAquiferlossWelllossEfficiencyofthewellYielddepressioncurveLaminarflowReynold’snumberSpecificdischargeDynamicporosityProtectionzonesHeadHydraulicgradientHydraulicconductivityTransmissivityHomogeneousaquiferIsotropicaquiferAquiferlossWelllossMOREABOUTAQUIFERSPerchedacquiferPerchedwatertableWatertableacquifer(unconfined)ConfinedAquiferPotentiometricsurfacereplacedPiezometricsurfaceArtesianaquifers–confinedaquifersRechargeareaStoragecoefficientBarometricfluctuationBarometricefficiencyEffectiverainfallPrimarysecondaryporosityRocktypesasaquifersUKAquifers–chalk,PermoTriassicsandstonesSPRINGSRIVERS,DESERTSDROUGHTSCatchmentWatershedSurfacewatercatchmentGroundwatercatchmentRechargeareasDischargeareasSeepageSpringGainingstreamBaseflowLosingstreamPerennialstreamEphemeralstreamIntermittentstreamPerennialheadWinterbournesDischargeRiverstageStagehydrographStaffgaugeDischargehydrographGaugingstationStagedischargeorRatingcurveVelocityareastationCurrentmeterWeirFlumeBaseflowQuickflowBaseflowseparationcurveEffectiverainfallGreenhouseeffectEnhancedgreenhouseeffectDesertsWadisPluvialperiodsOasisWATERWELLSShaftsBoreholesCentrifugalpumpsImpellerElectricsubmersiblepumpStageTurbinepumpCasingorLiningtubesCementgroutSanitaryprotectionScreenDevelopmentFilterpackRotaryPercussiondrillingChiselBailerDrillingstringSpuddingactionWalkingbeamSandlineDrillpipeDrillingfluidFiltercakeRotarytableDownholehammerdrillingLostcirculationRotarycoringCorebarrelCrownCorecatcherMEASUREMENTSANDMODELSGeological–Hydrological–HydraulicconstraintsLysimeterUnderflowHydrogeologicalmapsRemotesensingGeophysicalexplorationResistivitysurveyingWellloggingSondeLogFormationloggingmethodsAquiferpropertiesHydraulicboundariesPermeametersFieldpumpingtestProductionwellorPumpedwellObservationwellDelayedyieldFlowmetersAquifermodelSandtankmodelAnaloguemodelResistancenetworkNodesSteadystateCalibratedmodelDigitalmodelFinitedifferencemodelModelboundariesWaterdivining–dowsing–waterwitchingWATERQUALITYEpidemiologyUniversalsolventAtomicnumberIonsCationsAnionsMoleculesDissociationfromprotonElectricaldipole(moleculewithpositiveandnegativechargedends)AcidAcidicBase–AlkalineNeutralpH–(logarithmofthereciprocalofthehydrogenionactivityinmolesperlitre)AcidrainMeteoricwaterConnatewaterJuvenilewaterChebotarevsequenceSabkhasSemipermeablemembraneOsmosisReverseosmosisMembranefiltrationTracersandtracingAtomicnumber–samenoofprotons–atomicmassvaries–neutronsvary–henceisotopesStableisotopesandradioisotopeswhichdecaytoisotopesofotherelementsRadiometricdatingTritiumFractionationPathogenicorganisms–IndicatororganismsPresumptivecoliformcountColonyformingunits(CFUs)FaecalcoliformcountPlaquesPlaqueformingunits(PFUs)Microorganism–MicrobeBiologicallymediatedreactionsMicrocosmBioremediationBacteriophagesBluebabysyndromeNitrite–NitrateNaturalmineralwater,Springwater,TablewaterGeothermaltemperaturegradient–GeothermalenergyGROUNDWATER–FRIENDORFOEPumpingstationDistributionReservoir–ServiceReservoirArtificialrechargeDemandRiveraugmentationNetgainConjunctiveuseTotalstressEffectivestressShearstrengthGroutCementgroutsParticulategroutsChemicalgroutsDewateringWellpointsJettingWHATGOESUPMUSTCOMEDOWNContaminationPollutionAdvectionDispersionMoleculardiffusionMechanicaldispersionAdsorptionPointsourcepollutionDiffusepollutionDispersedsourceLinesourcesContaminatedlandSanitarylandfillsGeomembraneCompositelinerEngineeredbarrier–NearfieldNaturalbarrier–FarfieldNonaqueousphaseliquidsNAPL’s–DNAPLs–LNAPLsSoilgassurveyLNAPLsBiodegradablePumpandtreatSoilvapourextractionSpargingCERCLAandSuperfundProtectinggroundwaterresourceHazardandriskAquifervulnerabilitytocontaminationPublicsourcesSourceprotectionzones(SPZs)Boreholecapturezones

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