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首页 中石油职称英语 2010版书

中石油职称英语 2010版书.doc

中石油职称英语 2010版书

我悄悄说希望爱你每一天
2019-05-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《中石油职称英语 2010版书doc》,可适用于综合领域

EnglishisaCrazyLanguage英语是一门疯狂的语言Let'sfaceitEnglishisacrazylanguageThereisnoeggineggplantnorhaminhamburgerneitherapplenorpineinpineappleEnglishmuffinsweren'tinventedinEnglandnorFrenchfriesinFranceSweetmeatsarecandieswhilesweetbreads,whicharen'tsweet,aremeat让我们接受现实吧英语是一种疯狂的语言。茄子(eggplant字面意为鸡蛋植物)里并没有鸡蛋汉堡包(hamburger字面意为火腿夹饼)里也没有火腿。同样菠萝(pineapple字面意为松树苹果)里既没有松鼠也没有苹果。松饼(Englishmuffin字面意为英式松饼)并不是英国人发明的而炸薯条(Frenchfries字面意为法式油炸食品)也不是法国人的发明。“甜肉”(sweetmeat)指的是蜜饯而“甜面包”(sweetbread)不是甜的它指的是牛杂碎。WetakeEnglishforgrantedButifweexploreitsparadoxes,wefindthatquicksandcanworkslowly,boxingringsaresquareandaguineapigisneitherfromGuineanorisitapigAndwhyitisthatwriterswritebutfingersdon'tfing,grocersdon'tgroceandhammersdon'thamIfthepluraloftoothisteeth,whyisn'tthepluralofboothbeethIfyouhaveonegoose,twogeese,whynotonemoose,twomeese,oroneindex,twoindices我们理所当然地接受了英语的一切但是如果我们分析一下英语中似是而非的情况我们马上就会发现“快的沙子”(quicksand流沙也指陷阱困境)往往走得很慢“拳击的圆圈”(boxingrings拳击场)是方的“几内亚猪”(guineapig天竺鼠)既不是来自几内亚也不是猪。还有既然名词作家(writers)去掉词尾的rs就lowthisgroundThebravemen,livinganddead,whostruggledhere,haveconsecratedit,faraboveourpoorpowertoaddordetractTheworldwilllittlenotenorlongrememberAnadjective"long"isusuallynotfollowedbyaverb"remember"Youmayneedtouseanadverbialformof"long"oracommabefore"remember"whatwesayhere,butitcanneverforgetwhattheydidhereItisforus,theliving,ratherThiswordusuallyaddslittleandshouldbeomittedtobededicatedheretotheunfinishedworkwhich"That"isalmostalwayspreferredinthissituationIfyoureallymean"which,"thenitusuallyneedstobeprecededbyacomma,See"Help"keyformoreinformationtheywhofoughtherehavethusfarsonoblyadvancedItisratherThiswordusuallyaddslittleandshouldbeomittedforustobeherededicatedtothegreattaskremainingbeforeus:thatfromthesehonoreddeadwetakeincreaseddevotiontothatcauseforwhichtheygavethelastfullmeasureofdevotionthatweherehighlyrevolvethatthesedeadUsually"these"shouldbefollowedbyapluralnounshallnothavediedinvainthatthisnation,underGod,shallhaveanewbirthoffreedomandthatgovernmentofthepeople,bythepeople,forthepeople,shallnotperishfromtheearthProblemsdetected:、但是从更广泛的意义上来说我们无权把这块土地奉献给他们也无力神圣化这片土地。那些活着的和死去的曾在这里战斗过的英雄才使这片土地成为神圣之地而非我们的微薄之力所能增减。世人不会注意也不会长久记得我们今天在这里说了些什么但是勇士们在这里做过的事将永远不会被忘记。倒是我们这些活着的人应该继续英雄们为之战斗并使之前进的未竟事业。我们应该要更加忠诚于先烈为之牺牲的事业为摆在我们面前的伟大任务继续献身我们在这里下定决心不能让他们的鲜血白流这个国家在上帝的保佑下将获得自由的新生。这个民有、民治、民享的政府将与世长存。That'ssomethingAsoftenasI'vereadthisspeech,gettingalumpinmythroateverytimeI'veneverdetectedonestylisticproblem,muchlessShowshowlittleIknow、真是奇迹!每当我阅读这篇演讲词的时候总感觉心情激动如鲠在喉。我却从未发现过它有一处文体错误更不用说它有处错误了。这表明我的知识何等贫乏啊!ButIsupposewereallyshouldn'texpectanythingbetterfromsomeonewhogrewupinalogcabin,hoofedtoaoneroomSchoolhouseandnevermadeittocollege、但是我们不应该苛求一个在小木屋里长大徒步到那所只有一间屋子的学校上学后来也没有上成大学的人他也不可能把话讲得再好了。Wemightremember,though,thatAbeLincolnwasatastylisticdisadvantagewhenhewrotehisGettysburgAddressThepoorguydidn'thavea"Help"keytopush、然而我们也许应当记住:亚伯·林肯写葛底斯堡演讲稿时他实在没有很好的条件来讲求文体修辞。可怜的家伙那时并没有计算机上的“求助”键可使用。(本篇原文中括号内的斜体字因文字浅显故不加译文。--编者)ASandpipertoBringYouJoy矶鹞带来快乐ShewassixyearsoldwhenIfirstmetheronthebeachnearwhereIliveIdrivetothisbeach,adistanceofthreeorfourmiles,whenevertheworldbeginstocloseinonmeShewasbuildingasandcastleorsomethingandlookedup,hereyesasblueasthesea我第一次和她在那个海滩上相遇时她整六岁。这个海滩离我的住处约有三、四英里。每当我心情压抑感到烦恼时就驱车上哪儿去。当时她正在用沙子堆积一个城堡似的东西。看到我来她抬起头来望着我那双眼睛像大海般深邃、湛蓝。“Hello,”shesaidIansweredwithanod,notreallyinthemoodtobotherwithasmallchild“您好!”她说。我点了点头作为回答说实在的我没有心思跟一个小女孩费神。“I'mbuilding,”shesaid“我在盖房子呢!”她又说。“IseethatWhatisit”Iasked,notcaring“我看见了。这盖的是什么房子呢?”我心不在焉地问道。“Oh,Idon'tknow,Ijustlikethefeelofsand”“噢我不知道我就是喜欢摸沙子的感觉。”Thatsoundsgood,Ithought,andslippedoffmyshoesAsandpiperglidedby这倒有意思我边想边脱掉鞋子。蓦地一只矶鹞从一旁滑翔而过。“That'sajoy,”thechildsaid孩子见了说:“那是快乐。”“It'sawhat”“是什么?”“It'sajoyMymamasayssandpiperscometobringusjoy”“是快乐矶鹞能给人们带来快乐妈妈说的。”Thebirdwentglissadingdownthebeach“Goodbyejoy,”Imutteredtomyself,“hellopain,”andturnedtowalkonIwasdepressedmylifeseemedcompletelyoutofbalance那只矶鹞顺着海滨飞走了。“再见了快乐”我自言自语道“痛苦来临了。”并转身走开。我很沮丧因为我现在的生活一团糟。“What'syourname”Shewouldn'tgiveup“您叫什么名字啊?”她还不罢休。“Ruth,”Ianswered“I'mRuthPeterson”“鲁思”我回答“我叫鲁思彼得森。”“Mine'sWendyI'msix”“我叫温迪我六岁了。”“Hi,Wendy”“你好温迪。”我叫到。Shegiggled“You'refunny,”shesaid“您真逗!”她咯咯地笑了。InspiteofmygloomIlaughedtooandwalkedon尽管心绪不佳我也不由得笑了起来一边往前走着。Hermusicalgigglefollowedme她那清脆悦耳的笑声依然追随着我。“Comeagain,MrsP,”shecalled“We'llhaveanotherhappyday”“您下次再来彼太太。咱们再快乐地玩一天!”她喊着。Thedaysandweeksthatfollowedbelongtoothers:agroupofunrulyBoyScouts,PTAmeetings,andailingmother那以后的好几个星期我忙得不可开交没有一点闲暇:负责一群调皮捣蛋的童子军参加家长教师联谊会还要照顾生病的母亲。ThesunwasshiningonemorningasItookmyhandsoutofthedishwater“Ineedasandpiper,”Isaidtomyself,gatheringupmycoatTheeverchangingbalmoftheseashoreawaitedmeThebreezewaschilly,butIstrodealong,tryingtorecapturetheserenityIneededIhadforgottenthechildandwasstartledwhensheappeared一个阳光光明媚的上午我洗完碗碟心想:“我需要一只矶鹞。”于是穿上外套向海滩走去。海岸不断变化的芳香依然在等着我。微风有些刺骨但是我依然大步走着我多么渴望重新处于安静宁谧之中啊!我早已忘掉了那个孩子所以当她出现在我面前时不免吃了一惊。“Hello,MrsP,”shesaid“Doyouwanttoplay”“您好彼太太!”她说“你想玩吗?”“Whatdidyouhaveinmind”Iasked,withatwingeofannoyance“你想玩什么?”带着一丝厌烦我反问她。“Idon'tknow,yousay”“我不知道您说吧。”“Howaboutcharades”Iaskedsarcastically“猜字谜怎么样?”我挖苦地问。Thetinklinglaughterburstforthagain“Idon'tknowwhatthatis”“我不知道那是什么”她说着又发出一阵银铃般的笑声。“Thenlet'sjustwalk”Lookingather,Inoticedthedelicatefairnessofherface“那么咱们一块儿走走吧。”我望着她看到了娇嫩而皙白的脸。“Wheredoyoulive”Iasked“你住在哪儿?”我问她。“Overthere”ShepointedtowardarowofsummercottagesStrange,Ithought,inwinter“那边!”她用小手指着远处一排夏季避暑的小别墅。我感到纳闷现在是冬天啊。“Wheredoyougotoschool”“你在哪儿上学呢?”“Idon'tgotoschoolMommysayswe'reonvacation”“我不上学妈妈说我们在度假。”Shechatteredlittlegirltalkaswestrolledupthebeach,butmymindwasonotherthingsWhenIleftforhome,WendysaidithadbeenahappydayFeelingsurprisinglybetter,Ismiledatherandagreed我们漫步走上海滩她一路上叽叽喳喳地说着小姑娘们的话。可是我却心事重重。当我要回家时温迪说这是快乐的一天。奇怪的是我的心情也感到舒坦多了。于是我同意地报以一笑。Threeweekslater,IrushedtomybeachinastateofnearpanicIwasinnomoodtoevengreetWendyIthoughtIsawhermotherontheporchandfeltlikedemandingshekeepherchildathome三个星期后我在近乎慌乱的心境下直奔海滩。我甚至没心情跟温迪打招呼。看见她妈妈在走廊上我有一种去命令她让她的小孩呆在家里的冲动。“Look,ifyoudon'tmind,”IsaidcrosslywhenWendycaughtupwithme,“I'dratherbealonetoday”温迪赶上了我我气呼呼地对她说:“要是你不介意我今天想一个人待着。”Sheseemsunusuallypaleandoutofbreath她的脸看上去异常苍白还有点喘不过气来。“Why”sheasked“为什么?”她问。Iturnedtoherandshouted,“Becausemymotherdied!”andthought,myGod,whywasIsayingthistoalittlechild我转身对她吼道:“因为我妈妈死了!”然后我又想:天啊我为什么跟一个小孩讲这些?“Oh,”shesaidquietly,“thenthisisabadday”“哦”她轻轻地说“这么说今天是个糟糕的日子。”“Yes,andyesterdayandthedaybeforeandoh,goaway!”“是”我说“昨天也是前天也是唉。你走开!”“Didithurt”“很痛吗?”她问。“Didwhathurt”Iwasexasperatedwithher,withmyself“什么?”我对她对我自己都很恼火。“Whenshedied”“她死的时候?”“Ofcourseithurt!”Isnapped,misunderstanding,wrappedupinmyselfIstrodeoff“当然痛了!!!!”我怒气冲冲地说完全沉浸在自己的思绪中。我误会了她的意思。我大步走开了。Amonthorsoafterthat,whenInextwenttothebeach,shewasn'tthereFeelingguilty,ashamedandadmittingtomyselfImissedher,IwentuptothecottageaftermywalkandknockedatthedoorAdrawnlookingyoungwomanwithhoneycoloredhairopenedthedoor大约一个月以后我再次到海滩上去她却不在那儿。我感到自责和羞愧同时也承认我有点想她了于是就在散步之后走到那所房子前敲了敲门。一个有着蜜色头发、看上去很憔悴的女人把门打开了。“Hello,”Isaid“I'mRuthPetersonImissedyourlittlegirltodayandwonderedwhereshewas”“你好。”我说“我是鲁思彼得森。我很想念你的女儿她在哪儿呢?”“Ohyes,MrsPeterson,pleasecomeinWendytalkedofyousomuchI'mafraidIallowedhertobotheryouIfshewasanuisance,please,acceptmyapologies”“哦是彼得森太太请进。温迪经常说起你。恐怕她给你添麻烦了。如果她打扰到了你我向你道歉。”“Notatallshe'sadelightfulchild,”Isaid,suddenlyrealizingthatImeantit“Whereisshe”“哪儿的话!她很可爱的。”我说着突然意识到自己也真的是这么想的。“她在哪儿呢?”“Wendydiedlastweek,MrsPetersonShehadleukemiaMaybeshedidn'ttellyou”“温迪上周去世了彼得森太太。她有白血病可能她没告诉你。”Struckdumb,IgropedforachairMybreathcaught我目瞪口呆摸索着找了一把椅子感觉自己透不过气来。“Shelovedthisbeachsowhensheaskedtocome,wecouldn'tsaynoSheseemedsomuchbetterhereandhadalotofwhatshecalledhappydaysButthelastfewweeks,shedeclinedrapidly”hervoicefaltered,“SheleftsomethingforyouifonlyIcanfinditCouldyouwaitamomentwhileIlook”“她喜欢这片海滩所以当她请求我们到这儿来的时候我们没法说不。在这儿她的情形好像改善了许多她还说她过得很开心。但是上几周她的情况急剧恶化……”她的声音颤抖起来“她给你留了一样东西。要是我能找到它就好了。你能稍等一下吗?我这就去找。”Inoddedstupidly,mymindracingforsomething,anything,tosaytothislovelyyoungwoman我呆呆地点点头心中急切地搜寻着此刻可以跟这位可爱的年轻女士讲的词句。Shehandedmeasmearedenvelope,withMRSPprintedinbold,childishlettersInsidewasadrawinginbrightcrayonhuesayellowbeach,abluesea,andabrownbirdUnderneathwascarefullyprinted:她把一个自己模糊的信封递给了我。信封上“彼太太”这几个字用得是孩子气的黑体字。信封里是一张用亮色蜡笔画的画黄色的海滩蓝色的海还有一只棕色的鸟。下方认真地写着:ASANDPIPERTOBRINGYOUJOY矶鹞带给你快乐。Tearswelledupinmyeyes,andaheartthathadalmostforgottentoloveopenedwideItookWendy'smotherinmyarms“I'msosorry,I'msorry,I'msosorry,”Imutteredoverandover,andwewepttogether泪水涌上了我的眼睛一颗几乎已经忘记去爱的心扉开了。我拥抱了温迪的母亲不停地小声说道:“对不起对不起对不起!”我们都哭了。ThepreciouslittlepictureisframednowandhangsinmystudySixwordsoneforeachyearofherlifethatspeaktomeofharmony,courage,undemandingloveAgiftfromachildwithseablueeyesandhairthecolorsandwhotaughtmethegiftoflove我把这张宝贵的画裱了框挂在我的书房里。六个字每一个字代表她生命里的一年。这六个字对我诉说着和谐、勇气、无私的爱。这个礼物来自一个眼睛碧蓝似海、发色如沙的小女孩是她教给了我爱的意义。AnIntroductiontoDistillation蒸馏概述PetroleumrefiningistheseparationofpetroleumintofractionsandthesubsequenttreatingofthesefractionstomakethemintopetroleumproductsMostpetroleumproducts,includingkerosenes,fueloils,lubricatingoils,andwaxes,arefractionsofpetroleumthathavebeentreatedtoremoveundesirablecomponentsOtherproducts,forexample,gasolines,aromaticsolvents,andevensomeasphalts,aretotallyorpartlysyntheticinthattheyhavecompositionsthatareimpossibletoachievebydirectseparationofthesematerialsfromcrudepetroleumTheyresultfromchemicalprocessesthatchangethemolecularnatureofselectedportionsofcrudepetroleuminotherwords,theyaretheproductsofrefiningortheyarerefinedproducts、石油炼制即将石油分离成各种馏分然后将这些馏分经过处理制成各种石油产品。大部分石油产品包括煤油、燃料油、润滑油和石蜡都是原油经过处理去掉不需要的成分而得到的石油馏分。其他石油产品如汽油、芳烃溶剂、甚至包括有些沥青则是通过完全或者部分合成而制造的。因为组成这些产品的物质成分无法通过直接分离原油获得而是通过化学反应过程从原油中选定某些成分并改变其分子属性而获得的。换言之它们是通过炼制得到的或称为炼制产品。Refiningpetroleumisacomplexseriesofstepsbywhichtheoriginalcrudematerialiseventuallyconvertedintosalableproductswiththedesiredqualitiesand,perhapsmoreimportant,intheamountsdictatedbythemarket、石油炼制包含一系列复杂的过程。通过这些过程石油原料最终转化成为可销售的产品。这些产品在质量上符合人类需要而更重要的是它们在数量上符合市场要求。Infact,arefineryisessentiallyagroupofmanufacturingplantsthatvaryinnumberwiththevarietyofproductsproducedrefineryprocessesmustbeselectedandproductsmanufacturedtogiveabalancedoperation:thatis,crudeoilmustbeconvertedintoproductsaccordingtotherateofsaleofeachForexample,themanufactureofproductsfromthelowerboilingportionofpetroleumautomaticallyproducesacertainamountofhigherboilingcomponentsIfthelattercannotbesoldas,say,heavyfueloil,theyaccumulateuntilrefinerystoragefacilitiesarefullTopreventtheoccurrenceofsuchasituation,therefinerymustbeflexibleandabletochangeoperationsasneededThisusuallymeansmoreprocessesacrackingprocesstochangeanexcessofheavyfueloilintomoregasolinewithcokeastheresidualproductoravacuumdistillationprocesstoseparatetheheavyoilintolubricatingoilstocksandasphalttoaccommodatetheeverchangingdemandsofthemarket、实际上炼油厂从根本上说是一组生产装置其数量根据生产产品的不同而不同。炼油工艺须经选择产品生产应该平衡:即从原油生产产品必须依据每一产品的销售速度而进行。比如从沸点较低的组分生产石油产品就会自动产生一定数量的高沸点产品。如果高沸点产品如重燃料油无法销售这些产品就会积压直到装满炼厂的储存设施。要避免这种情况出现炼厂应采取灵活措施并能够根据需要改变操作。一般而言这意味着需要更多的工艺以适应不断变化的市场需求:运用裂化工艺将过剩重燃料油转化成汽油而焦碳成为残余品或者运用真空蒸馏工艺将重油分解成润滑油和沥青。Inaddition,acompleterefininginstallationmustincludethefollowing:allnecessarynonprocessingfacilitiesadequatetankageforstoringcrudeoil,intermediate,andfinishedproductsadependablesourceofelectricalpower,materialhandlingequipmentworkshopsandsuppliesformaintainingacontinuoushday,dayweekoperationwastedisposalandwatertreatingequipmentandproductblendingfacilities、此外一套完整的炼油装置须包括以下设备:所有必须的非工艺设施:足够的储罐容量用以储存原油、中间产品和成品可靠的电力和物质处理设备来源用于维持一天小时一周七天连续运转所需的车间和物资:废料和污水处理设备以及产品调合设施。Intheearlystagesofrefinerydevelopment,whenilluminatingandlubricatingoilswerethemainproducts,distillationwasthemajorandoftenonlyrefineryprocessAtthattime,gasolinewasaminor,butmoreoftenunwanted,productAsthedemandforgasolineincreased,conversionprocessesweredevelopedbecausedistillationcouldnolongersupplythenecessaryquantities、在早期炼油工业发展过程中照明用油和润滑油是主要的产品蒸馏则成了主要的甚至经常是唯一的炼油工艺。当时汽油本身尽管不是重要产品但也常讨人嫌。随着市场对汽油需求的增加产品转化工艺随之发展因为蒸馏已不能满足对汽油的数量需求。Nevertheless,distillationhasremainedamajorrefineryprocessandaprocesstowhichjustabouteverycrudethatenterstherefineryissubjectedAmultitudeofseparationsareaccomplishedbydistillation,butitsmostimportantandprimaryfunctionintherefineryisitsusefortheseparationofcrudeoilintocomponentfractions、但是蒸馏仍然是重要的炼油工艺而且所有原油进入炼厂都必须经过蒸馏。许多分离过程是通过蒸馏进行的但蒸馏在炼油厂中的最重要和主要的功能则是它在将原油分离成不同馏分过程中的作用。Thusitispossibletoobtainproductsrangingfromgaseousmaterialstakenoffthetopofthedistillationcolumntoaheavyresidueor“bottom”,whichisusuallynonvolatile,withcorrespondinglylightermaterialstakenoffatintermediatepointsHowever,themajorityofcrudeoils,andthisappliestotheheavier,moreviscouspetroleums,whichareprocessedbydistillation,areusuallyseparatedintothelighterfractions(gas,gasoline,naphtha,kerosene,andgasoil)andthebottomor,asitismoregenerallycalled,thereducedcrude、由此我们有可能获得石油产品这些产品包括从蒸馏塔顶部得到的气态物质包括比重较大的渣油或称“残渣”(一般而言挥发性较差)以及从蒸馏塔中部得到的比重较小的其他相应物质。但是经过蒸馏处理的大多数原油包括比重较大、粘度更大的原油一般都分离为较轻组分(气、汽油、粗汽油、煤油和粗柴油)和残渣或者更多称作常压重油。Thereducedcrudemaythenbeprocessedbyvacuumorsteamdistillationtoseparatethehighboilinglubricatingoilfractionswithoutthedangerofdecomposition,whichoccursathigh(>℃,℉)temperaturesIndeed,atmosphericdistillationmaybeterminatedwithalowerboilingfraction(“cut”)ifitisthoughtthatvacuumorsteamdistillationwillyieldabetterqualityproductoriftheprocessappearstobeeconomicallymorefavorable、然后通过真空蒸馏或蒸汽蒸馏常压重油可以分离成高沸点润滑油组分而没有分解的危险。这种分离在高温状态下进行(>℃℉)。如果认为真空蒸馏或蒸汽蒸馏生产的产品质量更好或者从经济角度看更为有利则低沸点组分分离出来后常压蒸馏即可结束。HintstoImproveSpokenEnglish提高英语口语须知SpeakingEnglishfluentlyandaccuratelyisagoalofmanypeoplestudyingEnglishinChinaFluencycanbesimplydefinedas"beingabletocommunicateideaswithouthavingtostopandthinktoomuchaboutwhatoneissaying"speakingaccuratelymeans"speakingwithouterrorsofgrammarandvocabulary"、流利并准确地说英语是中国许多英语学习者的一个目标。流利可简单也定义为“具有交流各种思想的能力无须停下来对话题进行过多思考”。说舌准确的意思是“说话不犯语法错误和词汇错误”。Theproblemisthatmanystudentsfindthatiftheytrytospeakfast,theymakemoremistakesAnd,iftheyslowdown,theremaybefewererrorsbutitcansoundunnaturalSo,howdobalanceaccuracyandfluencyinspokenEnglish、问题在于:许多学生发现如果他们试图讲得快所犯错误就更多。如果他们讲话速度放慢错误可能会减少可是听上去就不自然。所以英语口语的准确与流利如何才能平衡起来呢ItcandependonthemannerinwhichonehasstudiedEnglishinthepastPeoplewhotendtofocusonaccuracymayfindthattheyworrytoomuchaboutmakingmistakesThiscanmakethemnervousorembarrassedaboutspeakingEnglishinpublicAsaresult,theirspokenEnglishmightnotimproveThismeansthat,althoughtheyknowEnglishgrammarandvocabularywell,theymightnotbeabletoholdagoodconversation、这可能取决于一个人过去学习英语的态度。那些往往注重于说话准确的人们可能会发现他们对犯错误操心过多。这可能导致他们在公众场合说英语感到紧张或尴尬。所以他们的英语口语可能得不到提高。这就意味着尽管他们掌握了英语语法也熟悉英语词汇他们可能不能成功地开展对话。Ontheotherhand,therearethosewhoreallyliketotalkandarewillingtotrytheirlanguageouteveniftheymakemistakesThiswillingnesstotakeriskshelpsthemspeakmorefluidlyBut,iftheymakealotofmistakes,theymayfinditdifficulttogettheirideasacross、另一方面有一些人真的很喜欢说话而且就算讲错他们都愿意试着说。这种敢于冒险的意愿帮助他们说得更流利。但是如果他们讲话错误百出就会觉得很难表达自己的思想。ThedebateaboutwhichismoreimportantfluencyoraccuracyintheEnglishlanguagehaslastedforalongtimeStill,onethingisclear:speakingalanguagewellneedsbothfluencyandaccuracyHowcanwebesurethatwecandevelopbothThefollowingtipscouldhelp、讲英语流利重要还是准确重要关于这个问题的辩论持续了很长时间。然而有一点是明确的即说好一门语言既要流利又要准确。如何才能做到讲话既流利又准确呢下面的建议也许会有所帮助。FindtheproblemWhatkindofpersonareyouonewhofocusesonaccuracyoronewhofocusesonfrequencyThefirststepistorecognizeyourproblemandgotoworkonitThinkaboutsituationswhereyou'veusedEnglishandhowyoufeltaboutmakingmistakesDoyoualwaystrysomenewlanguageeventhoughitmightnotbecorrectOrdoyoufeelembarrassedbymistakes、发现问题。你属于怎样的一类人你注重说话准确还是注重说话流利第一步是认识到你的问题然后着手解决问题。回想一下你使用过英语的若干情景你对说错有何感受即使你不一定说得对你经常试着讲某种新学的语言吗你是否因犯错误而感到困窘呢FocusononeproblematatimeWhenyouspeakEnglish,findthemistakesyoumakemostoftenOnemistakeChineseoftenmakeisomittingthe"s"fromthethirdpersonsingularverbOryoumayspeaktooslowlyasifyouweresearchingfortherightwordandcorrectgrammarThenexttimeyouuseEnglish,trytoworkonthoseproblemsyouhaveidentifiedIfit'sfluency,trytofocusonitIfyouhaveaproblemwiththethirdpersonsingular,trytoconcentrateonwhenyoumakesucherrorsDon'tspendtimethinkingaboutothermistakesBychoosinganareatoworkon,youcanisolateproblemsandhelpyourselfovercomethem、一次关注一个问题。当你说英语时找到你最常犯的错误。中国人常犯的一个错误是第三人称单数动词漏掉“s”。或者你可能说得太慢好像你在寻找合适的单词和正确的语法似的。你下一次使用英语时力求改正那些你已经认识到的问题。如果是流利的问题那就力求讲快些。如果你的问题是在第三人称单数那就尽力专注于你犯此类错误的时候。不要费时思考其他错误。选定解决问题的范畴你就能使问题孤立起来各个击破这样有助于自己克服问题。VaryyourpracticeIfyougotoanEnglishcomeroranEnglishclub,trytochangethetypesofactivitiesyoutakepartinsothatyoupracticebothfluencyandaccuracyPublicspeakingallowsyoutoslowdownandbesureyouhavetimetoconcentrateonthelanguageMeanwhile,discussionsaregoodpracticeforfluency,especiallyifyoudon'tstopeachtimeamistakeismade,、参加各种实践活动。如果你去参加英语角或英语俱乐部设法改变你参加的活动类型以便训练英语的流利性和准确性。公共演讲会使你放慢速度并保证你有时间关注语言。同时讨论是很好的训练流利的实践活动如果你不是一出错就停更是如此。LearnthedifferencebetweenfluencyandspeedSomeChinesethinkthatspeakingfastisthesameasspeakingfluentlyInfact,speakingfluentlyinvolvesnotonlyspeedItalsoinvolvesstress,pronunciationandintonationIfyoumakeamistakeinthese,speakingfastwillonlymakeitworseDon'tsacrificeunderstandingforspeed、弄懂流利与速度的差异。有些中国人认为。说话迅速就是说话流利。事实上说话流利不仅需要说话速度它同时还涉及重音、语音和语调。如果你在这些方面犯有错误那么说得快只会使你错得更厉害。不要为了速度而牺牲理解。TryrecordingyourselfTakeataperecorderandrecordaconversationwithafriendoraspeechormonologueasyoudoitnaturally!AtwoorthreeminuterecordingisenoughWhenyou'vefinished,listentoyourselfCanyouidentifyandcorrectanyerrorsMakeitaregularpracticeThemoreyourecordyourself,themoreconfidentandnaturalsoundingyouwillbecome、自己尝试录音。用录音机录下你与朋友的对话或录下你自己的落落大方的演讲或独白。录音两三分钟就足够了。录音完毕专心倾听你自己的录音。你能辨认并矫正错误吗把这种录音当做常规练习。你自己录音越多你就越有自信你的英语听上去会更自然。TheMoonRiddlefromthePast月球来自远古之谜SpacecraftfromtheUnitedStatesandfromRussiahavebeentothemoon,andmenhavewalkeduponitssurfaceRockandsoilsamplesandinformationofmanyotherkindshavebecomeavailableinrecentyearsYetwithallweknowaboutthemoon,thereisevenmorethatwedon'tknow、美国和俄国的宇宙飞船都已经到达过月球而且人类也在它的表面上行走过。月球上的岩石和土壤的样本以及许多其它类型的信息近些年来已经为人们所知所用了。然而除了我们所知道的关于月球的那些外还有更多是我们不知道的。FollowingtheendoftheApollospaceprogram,theNationalGeographicSocietypublishedanexcellentsetofarticlesaboutthemoonHere,inshorterform,aresomequestionsandanswersfromoneofthesearticlesForthefullstory,seetheSeptember,,issueofNationalGeographic、在阿波罗太空计划结束后国家地理协会出版了一组有关月球的极好文章。这里以简短的形式截取了其中一篇文章重的部分问答。完整的内容请见年九月发行的《国家地理》。Werescientistsrightaboutwhatthemoonwouldbelike科学家关于“月球外貌”的描述是正确的吗?Manywere,ofcourse,butmanyweremistakenOnesaidtherewasnolavaonthemoonAnothersaidthatthemoonmaterialwouldexplodeassoonasanastronaut'sboottoucheditOnesaidtherewouldcertainlybewateronthemoonManyfelttherewasachancethattheastronautscouldbringbacktoearthsomestrangeinfectionTheseideasarenowknowntobeincorrect,andnodoubtwearestillwrongaboutmanyotherthings,also、大多数是正确的当然也有相当部分是错误的。一个说法是月球上没有熔岩。另外一个说法是宇航员的靴子一旦碰上月球物质就会爆炸。有人说月球确实存在水。许多人还认为宇航员有可能把某些奇怪的传染病菌带回地球。这些说法现在被证明都是不正确的无疑我们关于月球的许多其它的看法是错误的。Isthemoonliketheearth月球像地球吗?YesandnoItismorelikeitthanmanyscientiststhoughtbeforeApolloLiketheearth,themoonisinlayers,withacrustontheoutsideandadeepmantlebelowItmayalsohaveacore,astheearthdoesHowever,thecrustisalmostfourtimesthickerthantheearth'scrustWedonotknowmuchyetaboutthemoon'smantle,thatsectionofsuperheatedrockwhichgoesdownhundredsofmilesbelowthecrustWethinkbutwearenotsurethatthemoonhasacentercorewhichincludesmoltenrock,astheearthdoes、答案是像也不像。月球比科学家在阿波罗计划之前想象的还要像地球。如同地球一样月球上有地层表面是一层地壳其下是很深的地幔。月球也可能如同地球一样有一个地核。然而月球地壳几乎是地球地壳厚度的四倍。我们对月球地幔所知不多那些过热的岩石在外壳几百英里以下。我们预料但是我们不能确定月球有一个由熔岩构成的地核如同地球。Inotherways,ofcourse,themoonisverydifferentThereisnolife,andthereisnowaterThemakeupofitsatmosphereisverydifferenttheearthcreaturescannotbreatheinit、在其它的方面当然月球非常不同。它没有生命没有水。它的大气的构成也非常不同地球生物在那里不能呼吸。Ofwhatisthemoonmade月球是由什么构成的?DefinitelynotgreencheeseIthasthesamechemicalelementsashavetheearthandtherestofthesolarsystembutinverydifferentamountsmoreofsome,lessofothersCarbon,whichisaveryimportantpartoflivingthingsontheearth,israreonthemoon、很明显不是绿色奶酪。月球有如同地球和其余太阳系行星一样的化学元素但是其比率非常不同某些多一点其它少一些。碳是地球上生物的一个非常重要组成部分在月球上非常稀少。Isthemoonhotorcold月球是酷热的还是寒冷的?MostscientistsagreethatsomeofthemoonwashotforatleastatimeRocksfromthemoonshowthattheywereoncemeltedRightnowthereseemstobeheatsomeplaceinsidethemoon,possiblyagreatdealofitOnthesurface,however,thereisnosignofheatnovolcano,forexampleThesurfaceitselfrangesfromheatof℉tocoldofminus℉,dependinguponwherethesuni
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