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首页 脉搏心率测试仪测试与制作报告

脉搏心率测试仪测试与制作报告.doc

脉搏心率测试仪测试与制作报告

cutepig7
2017-12-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《脉搏心率测试仪测试与制作报告doc》,可适用于综合领域

脉搏心率测试仪测试与制作报告成绩五邑大学电子系统课程设计题目:脉搏心率测试仪测试与制作院系信息工程学院专业电子信息工程学号学生姓名指导教师陈鹏讲师报告日期年月coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchannelsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,there脉搏心率测试仪测试与制作引言脉搏波所呈现出来的形态、强度、速率和节律等方面的综合信息能反映出人体心血管系统中许多生理疾病的血流特征。本系统是采用STCC单片机为核心而制作的一种实用型脉搏测量仪。采用红外发射管和接收管对人体的脉搏心率进行数据采集得到的信号滤波放大整形后送入STCC单片机进行采集和处理。单片机将采集到的脉搏心率在液晶LCD上实时显示出来。本文将首先描述本设计的整体思路然后介绍各个部分设计中的细节最后列出完善的计算和处理方式与结果。设计解析与设计方案介绍平均心率值是指一分钟内心脏实际跳动的次数本心率测量仪是测试平均心率值测量方法主要有两种:一种是心电测量即根据心电图上相邻二次波形之间的间隔时间来计算心率值另一种是脉搏测量。通常心脏的跳动与脉搏的跳动是同步的,因此只需测出脉搏跳动次数就可以知道心率值测量脉搏是通过记录处理脉搏传感器发出的指脉电信号来实现的。本方案选择的比较简单直接的脉搏测量方式。目前脉搏波检测系统有以下几种检测方法:光电容积脉搏波法、液体耦合腔脉搏传感器、压阻式脉搏传感器以及应变式脉搏传感器。近年来,光电检测技术这主要是由于光能避开强烈的电磁干扰,具有很在临床医学应用中发展很快,高的绝缘性,且可非侵入地检测病人各种症状信息。本系统设计了指套式的透射型光电传感器,实现了光电隔离,减少了对后级模拟电路的干扰。采用指套式的透射型光电传感器模块对人体实行心率数据采集采集所得信号通过放大电路模块实行电信号放大然后信号通过滤波电路模块进行滤波(特别滤除Hz市电干扰)再通过整形稳压电路进行整形后得到幅值在~v的正弦信号再最后将信号通过斯密特比较器NE形成矩形波并送入单片机控制显示电路模块实现平均心率结果显示。其具体总体结构框架如图:thereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtr图脉搏测量仪系统框图波形处理模块信号提取模块电压跟随传感器滤波两级放大波形整形接收显示模块单片机时间与心率显示图脉搏信号提取及处理电路结构图脉搏信号提取部分光敏二极管的特性是将光信号强弱变化转换为电流变化通过电路转换再转变成变化的电压信号。此次设计采用的是BPW型红外接收二极管和IR型红外发射二极管二极管工作波长都是nm。在指夹中红外接收二极管和红外发射二极管相对摆放以获得最佳的指向特性。红外发射二极管中的电流越大发射角度越小产生的发射强度就越大。当红外发射二极管发射的红外光直接照射到红外接收二极管上时ICB的反相输入端电位大于同相输入端电位Vi为“O”。当手指处于测量位置时会出现二种情况:一是无脉期。虽然手指遮挡了红外发射二极管发射的红外光但是由于红外接收二极管中存在暗电流仍有lμA的暗电流会造成Vi电位略低于V。二是有脉期。当有跳动的脉搏时血脉使手指透光性变差红外接收二极管中的暗电流减小Vi电位上升。由此看来所谓脉搏信号的拾取实际上是通过红外接收二极管在有脉和无脉时暗电流的微弱变化最终输出mv左右电压信号。二极管夹指方式如图所示。ailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,theremainreneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresenttransitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGlsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthev因此在接收电路中应采用电流电压转换电路将变化的电流信号转换为电压信号。转换电路如图所示。图指甲式脉搏传感器图红外传感连接电路脉搏信号处理部分LM运放用于电压跟随器如图所示其主要作用有:()增大输入阻抗。电压跟随器具有输入阻抗高输出阻抗低的特点这也使得传感器部分输入的微弱电压信号得以有效输入为下面的滤波放大提供保障()起到做缓冲级隔离电路干扰作用。电压跟随器作缓冲级能有效防止后级对于前级的干扰从而隔离了后级的可能存在的干扰。因为脉搏信号本身稳定性很差极易受到外界或是来自电路本身的干扰电压跟随器的存在能有效避免来自电路的干扰LM运放用于二阶低通滤波放大电路如图所示。通带电压增益为:RA,,upRthereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtr总增益为:AupA,u,(ff)jQ(ff)HH截止频率为:f,,Hz,HzH,,RC由滤波电路可知滤波部分为二阶低通滤波电路由所求截止频率可知该部分电路在输入信号频率为HZ及以下时信号正常放大Au倍后输出在输入信号频率大于HZ时信号将快速衰减最终无法导通。因而滤波部分电路最多能检测脉搏信号近次每分钟使得使用者有较大的测量空间且能有效地拦截市电的HZ干扰信号。图电压跟随器电路图二阶低通滤波电路LM运放、用于同相放大电路如图所示NE芯片用于电压比较和信号波形整形如图所示。信号提取模块电路总的原理图见附录图一。放大倍数为:RkA,,,uRkailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,theremainreneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresenttransitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGlsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthev双同相放大器的放大倍数为:*=电路总的放大倍数为:*=因而在输入信号低至mV时放大后输出波形峰峰值近mV*=mVV。而NE整形芯片在V电源供应下其比较阀值为向上Vcc向下Vcc所以输入信号完全符合整形要求且其输出高电平为V左右完全能被STCC采集识别。因而总体设计符合要求图同相比例放大电路图NE整形电路(单片机显示控制部分此次设计中的控制显示部分主要由STCC单片机和LCD液晶显示器共同构成。()STCC单片机介绍STCC是一种低功耗、高性能CMOS位微控制器具有K在系统可编程Flash存储器。在单芯片上拥有灵巧的位CPU和在系统可编程Flash使得STCC为众多嵌入式控制应用系统提供高灵活、有效的解决方案。具有以下标准功能:k字节Flash字节RAM位IO口线看门狗定时thereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtr器内置KBEEPROMMAX复位电路三个位定时器计数器一个向量级中断结构全双工串行口。单片机运作的基本电路需复位电路和振荡电路(所用晶振为MHz)。()LCD液晶模块介绍LCD液晶为V电压驱动带背光可显示两行每行个字符不能显示汉字内置含个字符ASCII字符集字库。将的位数据口与单片机的P口相连接。当RW脚(第脚)为低电平时为写操作状态这里可以一直让其为低电平。而当RS(第脚)为低电平时为写指令当RS(第脚)为高电平时为写数据。的程序是根据PDF资料的写操作时序图进行编写的通过对写入指令和写入数据来进行显示。引脚所接的可变电阻是作为的背光调节。其液晶显示电路的具体电路如图所示。图LCD显示控制电路单片机软件设计部分该脉搏测量仪的单片机程序主要是LCD液晶的操作和显示程序采用C语言进行编程。主要用到的单片机定时器。当矩形波信号由P口输入时由单片机记录每一个低电平并通过定时显示程序输出显示。除此外需要借助定时器进行计时这里以秒为周期计算接受整形后波形的低电平个数即得出我们需要脉搏数。ailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,theremainreneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresenttransitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGlsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthev以下便是ATCC单片机信号采集和LCD显示控制的具体程序:*头文件部分*头文件maiboh#ifndefMAIBOH#defineMAIBOH#include<regh>#defineucharunsignedchar#defineuintunsignedintsbitkey=P^sbitkey=P^sbitLCDRS=P^sbitLCDRW=P^sbitLCDEN=P^sbitmaibo=P^#defineLCDdataP#endif*主程序部分*主程序maiboc#include<maiboh>#include<intrinsh>ucharcodedis={"WelcomeTo!!!"}ucharcodedis={"PulseCounter"}ucharcodedis={"StartTesting"}ucharcodedis={"()Yes()No"}ucharcodedis={"TestResults:"}ucharcodedis={"PleaseWait!!"}uchartestres={""}inttestdatauinttimer延时函数voiddelay(floatxms){uchariwhile(xms)thereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtr{for(i=i<i){nop()nop()nop()nop()}}}忙检测函数bitLCDbusy(){bitresultLCDRS=LCDRW=LCDEN=nop()nop()result=(bit)(LCDdatax)LCDEN=returnresult}写指令函数voidLCDwcmd(ucharcmd){while(LCDbusy())LCDRS=LCDRW=LCDEN=nop()nop()LCDdata=cmdnop()nop()LCDEN=nop()nop()LCDEN=delay()}ailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,theremainreneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresenttransitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGlsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthev写数据函数voidLCDwdat(uchardat){while(LCDbusy())LCDRS=LCDRW=LCDEN=nop()nop()LCDdata=datnop()nop()LCDEN=nop()nop()LCDEN=}液晶初始化函数voidLCDinit(){LCDwcmd(x)*显示*点阵位数据LCDwcmd(xc)显示开关光标LCDwcmd(x)移动光标LCDwcmd(x)清除LCD的显示内容}液晶行定位函数voidLCDpos(uintrow,uintcol){ucharpospos=x|(uchar)(x*(row)(col))LCDwcmd(pos)}数组显示函数voidLCDdis(uchardis){uchari,arrafor(i=i<i=){arra=disiif(arra=='')字符串结尾标志{thereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtrbreak}else{LCDwdat(arra)}}}人机界面初始化voiddisinit(){maibo=EA=单片机开中断设置TMOD=XTH=()TL=()ET=TR=PT=定时器设置*IT=EX=PX=外部中断设置*LCDinit()timer=testdata=LCDpos(,)LCDdis(dis)delay()LCDwcmd(x)LCDpos(,)LCDdis(dis)}voiddisdata(){testres=''(uint)(timer)testres=''(uint)(timer)testres=''(uint)(testdata)testres=''(uint)((testdata))testres=''(uint)(testdata)LCDpos(,)LCDdis(testres)}ailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,theremainreneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresenttransitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGlsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevuintkeycoding(){uintcodcod=if(key==){delay()while(~key)cod=}if(key==){delay()while(~key)cod=}returncod}voidmain()主函数{uintcounter=disinit()while(){if(keycoding()==){LCDwcmd(x)LCDpos(,)LCDdis(dis)LCDpos(,)LCDdis(dis)timer=testdata=TR=while(){if(keycoding()==){LCDwcmd(x)LCDpos(,)LCDdis(dis)disdata()breakthereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtr}if(keycoding()==){LCDwcmd(x)LCDpos(,)LCDdis(dis)break}}}if(TF==){TF=counter=if(counter==){counter=timer=disdata()}if(timer==){EX=TR=LCDwcmd(x)LCDpos(,)LCDdis(dis)disdata()delay()}}if(maibo==){delay()while(~maibo)if(TR==){TR=}testdata=}}}ailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,theremainreneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresenttransitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGlsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthev实践过程中问题及处理方案()信号采集电路部分红外对的灵敏性不够。解决方法:直接使用信号发生器来模拟红外对管生成mV输入电压。()信号放大电路部分实际放大增益与理论计算值有较大的差别。解决方法:通过更换电阻改变增益系数以达到最佳输出电压增益以及波形输出。()控制显示电路部分这一部分主要出现在软件编程中外部中断与定时器中断同时应用时发现单片机出现工作异常最终通过采集低电平个数的方式省掉外部中断的使用。()调试过程中示波器不能正确显示方波。解决方法:将单片机部分与整形放大部分电路板共地端并调整示波器的耦合方式为直流。个人心得总结此脉搏技术其中关键技术是单片机编程与传感器输出的信号波形采集。本文中设计的系统整体结构简单控制显示部分由STCC芯片实现脉搏信号采集与处理脉搏计数、显示等功能因此体积小功耗低系统稳定性高放大部分采用基础同相放大电路效率高计算方便滤波部分采用二阶同相低通滤波有效地屏蔽了市电干扰且通过电阻电容值的选择获取较大的测量空间。通过本次课程设计使得之前模电学习的运算放大器部分理解的更加深刻以及对于该部分的理论计算更加熟练同时在动手做多块电路板的实践下使得自身对altiumdesignerPCB制作软件的使用更加熟练。thereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtr参考文献廖惜春主编模拟电子技术基础华中科技大学出版社徐秀平主编数字电路与逻辑设计廖惜春主编高频电子线路(第版)刘焕成工程背景下的单片机原理及系统设计周静《基于单片机设计的脉搏测量仪》毕业设计论文刘云丽,徐可欣,王玉祥,蒋诚志微功耗光电式脉搏测量仪中国科学院上海冶金研究所,材料物理与化学(专业)博士论文ailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,theremainreneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresenttransitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGlsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthev附录图一:信号提取及处理模块电路总原理图thereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtr附录图二:控制显示模块总的原理图:ailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,theremainreneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrafficinYibincity,trafficatthepresenttransitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGlsconnectingbushoursbetweenanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:houraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtraveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthev附录图三:信号提取及处理模块电路PCB附录图四:控制显示模块电路PCBthereinYibincity,trafficatthepresentmainrailway,highway,waterwayandairfourmodesofpassengerandfreighttransport,afficchapter,Yibincity,trafficsituationandGeneralcitytrafficstatus,externaltransportpassengerandcargotrnanytwogroupsofcoreareasIntensive:transitsharerateofaround,bussharingrateofpercentrdlsconnectingbushoursbetweehouraccesstotheairport,minreachedthecity'smaintraffichub,externalhighwayforhalfanhourwiththemainchanneaveltimebetweenanytwopointswithinthevariousgroupswithintheareauptohalfanhour,coefficientnotgreaterthanHighefficiency:controlhourtr

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