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首页 考研语法10天速成电子教材

考研语法10天速成电子教材.doc

考研语法10天速成电子教材

这片天灰的像哭过_
2019-06-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《考研语法10天速成电子教材doc》,可适用于综合领域

学智库(wwwxzcoocn)友情提供定语从句(上)一、定语从句的概念什么是定语从句例:Arichpersonisnottheonewhohasthemost,butistheonewhoneedstheleast用来修饰前面的名词或者代词的具有完整的主谓结构的句子就叫着定语从句。有两个必备的基本元素。一个是先行词一个是关系词。名词或代词做先行词。例:Helaughsbestwholaughslast短语做先行词。Manyoflife’sproblemswhichweresolvedbyaskingfamilymembers,friendsorcolleaguesarebeyondthecapabilityoftheextendedfamilytoresolve用句子做先行词。TheGreeksassumedthatthestructureoflanguagehadsomeconnectionwiththeprocessofthought,whichtookrootinEuropelongbeforepeoplerealizedhowdiverselanguagescouldbeIamastudentwhichyouallknow当先行词与关系词被割裂时是如何表现的。如:Today,stepladderscarrylabelsseveralincheslongthatwarn,amongotherthings,thatyoumightsurprise!falloff找先行词的方法。反证法。把它带进去。哪一个是通顺的,哪一个就是先行词。翻译定语从句。结合先行词的结构特点和位置特征在关系词之前寻找与定语从句的意思的有逻辑关系相符合的词。定语从句(下)二、定语从句里面的关系代词的用法。常用的关系代词:which,that,who,whom。Whom现在用的很少。前面有介词只能用which,不能用that。关系代词在考试中的特殊情况。What:)它是子母同体。相当于一个关系代词以及一个先行词。What前面不应该在出现先行词。如果前面已经偶一个关系词,就不能用what来引导。例如:Youcanhaveeverythingwhatyoulikewhat=allthat,所以这儿不能用whatAllisacontinuoussupplyingofthebasicnecessitiesoflifeAwhatistheneedBthethingsneedCforourneedsDthatisneed)what单独使用,后面不加名词。例如:Sheisnotwhatsheusedtobe)what后面加名词例如:WhatmoneyIhavehasbeengiventoyou年考题:heknowsaboutitisoutofdateandinaccurateAWhatlittleBSomuchCHowmuchDSolittle学智库aslike作为when引导定语从句。即可引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。引导限制性定语从句一般式固定用法。如as…as,such…asas引导非限制性定语从句例如:Iwasaboywhichyouknowwhich可以用as替换。Asissooftenpointedoutknowledgeisatwoedgeweaponwhichcanbeusedequallyforgoodorevilas引导限制性定语从句考试中往往考固定搭配。例如:Suchastudentasworkshardwerebesuretosucceedthan作为关系代词可以引导定语从句Morefamiliesconsistofoneparenthouseholdsortwoworkingparentsconsequently,childrenarelikelytohavelesssupervisionathomewascommoninthetraditionalfamilystructureAthanBthatCwhichDas特点:)than作为关系代词引导词在从句中一般必须做主语或者作宾语。)than前面的主句必须要有比较级)比较级所修饰的名词就是than指代的对象三、关系副词When引导的定语从句。)先行词必须是表示时间的名词。Orsothethinkinghasgonesincetheearlys,whenjuriesbeganholdingmorecompaniesliablefortheircustomers’misfortunes)如何区分when引导的定语从句和状语从句。用句子表示状语就是状语从句。例如:WhenIgotoschool,Iwillworkhard从两方面区分:When引导的定语从句前一定有表示时间的名词When引导的状语语从句前没有有表示时间的名词。从翻译的角度看如果是引导的定语从句可以不翻译。如果是状语从句就必须翻译成当……时候。When=onwhichWherewhere=inwhichwhere引导的从句先行词必须是表示地点的名词。例如:IwasborninBeijingwheretheOlympicgameswillbeheld先行词表示地点,不一定用where来引导。例如:IhaveneverbeentoBeijing,butit’stheplaceAwhereI’dliketovisitBinwhichI’dliketovisitCImostwanttovisitDtharIwanttovisititmost名词从句讲五个问题:一、名词从句的本质。概念:就是把一个完整的句子当一个名词来使用。那么从句就具备了名词所具备的所有性质。主语、宾语、表语、同位语。引导名词从句常用的连词。有三类:)that)whether,if)when,where,how等连接副词或what,who,whose等连接代词。That引导的名词性从句不能做任何句子成分。what一定在从句中充当主语或者宾语。Which和whose后面必须接名词。例如:ConcernswereraisedwitnessmightbeencouragedtoexaggeratetheirstoriesincourttoensureguiltyverdictsAwhatBwhenCwhichDthat)多重的名词从句现象。例如:IrealizedthatwhatIsaidwasnotexactlywhatmeanttosay考题:ProfLee’sbookwillshowyoucanbeusedinothercontextsAthatyouhaveobservedBthathowyouhaveobservedChowthatyouhaveobservedDhowwhatyouhaveobserved二、名词从句中的主语从句主语从句有如下几种表示方式:用which,that放在句首引导主语从句。例如:Thattheseasarebeingoverfishedhasbeenknownforyears用itisvedthat…例如:Itisbelievedthatyouaregoodboy用whether引导主语从句。例如:Whethertheeyesarethewindowsofthesoulisdebatable三、宾语从句需要掌握的几点:及物动词后面的宾语从句。年例句:Doyourememberallthoseyearswhenscientistsarguedthatsmokingwouldkillus四、表语从句就是一句话做另一个句子的表语。就是把从句放在系动词的后面。年例句:AreportconsistentlybroughtbackbyvisitstotheUSishowfriendly,cautiousandhopefulmostAmericansweretothem五、同位语从句就是用来补充说明同位语的名词成分的句子。结构是:名词that从句。同位语从句与宾语从句和定语从句的区别:引导宾语从句和定语从句的的that,which可以省略,而引导同位语从句的that不能省略。定语从句中的that必须在从句中扮演主语或者宾语。同位语从句的that不扮演任何成分。例如:Thereisapopularsayingthatfamilyinstabilitycausessocialinstabilitythat不做句子成分。状语从句(上)第三讲状语从句(上)一、状语从句的本质。就是用一个句子来作另外一个句子的状语。状语从句的分类:时间状语、地点状语、原因状语、结果状语、目的状语、条件状语、让步状语、比较状语、方式状语。年例句Strangely,somepeoplefindthattheycansmellonetypeofflowerbutnotanother,othersaresensitivetothesmellsofbothflowersAwhenBsinceCforDwhereas难点:When常考的句型:Hardly…whenwhenitcomesthatwhenitcomesto年例句:tospeakwhentheaudienceinterruptedhimAHardlyhadhebegunBNosoonerhardlyhadhebegunCNotuntilhebeginDScarcelyhadhebegin年例句:Doingyourhomeworkisasurewaytoimproveyourtestscores,andthisisespeciallytrueitcomestoclassroomtestsAbeforeBasCsinceDwhen地点状语从句Where引导地点状语一般总是放在主句的后面。例如:Adrivershouldslowerdownwherethereareschools原因状语从句Since从……起因为……比较特殊的连词:inthat因为的意思。例句:ThegirlislikehermotherinthatshealsohasverydelicatefeelingNowthat…因为giventhat…目的状语从句lest…唯恐,害怕forfear当心,害怕引导的是虚拟语气。谓语是should动词原形。should常省略。结果状语从句有两种引导法so…thatsothatsuch…thatsuchthat年例句:ConversationbecomesweakerinasocietythatspendssomuchtimelisteningandbeingtalkedtoithasallbutlostthewillandtheskilltospeakforitselfAasBwhichCthatDwhat把so…thatsothatsuch…thatsuchthat中的so或such放在句首形成倒装句。例如:Sofastdoeslighttravelthatitisdifficultforustoimagineit’sspeedtotheextent(that)表示结果tosomeextent表示在……之内。在某种程度上条件状语从句用unlessif引导难点:onlyififonlyonlyif是“只有”的意思ifonly是“只要”意思。年例句:HecancontinuetosupporthimselfandhisfamilyheproducesasurplusAonlyifBmuchasClongbeforeDeversince要记住:supposing(that)…provided(that)…onconditionthat…例如:HewillsurelyfinishedjobontimehehaslefttodoitinhisownwayAinthatBincaseCasfarasDsolongas状语从句(下)让步状语从句althoughthoughevenifeventhough年例句:itseconomycontinuestorecover,theUSisincreasinglybecominganationofparttimersandtemporaryworkersAEventhoughBNowthatCIfonlyDProvidedthat年例句:Alltheseconditionstendtoincreasetheprobabilityofachildcommittingacriminalact,adirectcausalrelationshiphasnotyetbeenestablishedAprovidedBsinceCalthoughDsupposing表示让步转折的介词:inspiteofdespite例如:whatheachievedinmedicineheremainedmodestADespiteBAlthoughCIfDWhereasHoweverneverthelessnonetheless年例句:Thisview,isgenerallythoughttobewrongAhoweverBmeanwhileCthereforeDmoreoverWhile当……时候然而,但是重点:与as有关的让步状语从句由as引导的倒装句adj,adv,分词,名词,短语as主语谓语。例如:Childasheis,hecanrememberalotofthingsas或soadjas主谓结构例如:AsmuchasJohnhatestodoit,hemuststayathomeandstudytonight比较状语从句重点讲倍数为题倍数比较级AisthreetimesbiggerthanB倍数as…as结构。AisthreetimesasbigasB倍数名词结构AisThreetimesthesizeofBNomorethan特点:Nomorethan=notanymorethan从功能上看往往表示两个事物之间的类比关系。从意义上看是和……一样。Notsomuchas结构上有两种NotAsomuchasBnotsomuchasB与其说A,不如说B。例如:Itwasn’tsomuchthatIdislikedherthatIjustwasn’tinterestedinthewholebusinessAratherBsoCthanDas并列句一、并列句并列句的结构要从后面往前找。例如:IlikeapplesfromJapanandbananasand可以连接两个并列的词语、短语、句子成分、从句以及句子。有and就肯定有并列。有并列就一定要弄清楚并列的成分。and有并列。但并列在考研中有几十种情况。要根据每一种不同的并列进行不同的处理。有and的并列就要从and的后面往前找,而不是从前面往后找。二、定语后置Sheisabeautifulgirl一个形容词定语就相当于一个of引导的名词作后置定语。上句可写成Sheisagirlofbeauty插入语插入语能够从句子中拿出来而不影响整个句子主谓结构的部分就是插入语。插入语与同谓语的区别:插入语往往是插在主谓之间。例如:Iamanuglyman可换成Iamamanwhoisugly还可换成I,whoisaman,amugly从命题角度来看插入语的两个逗号就相当于两个括号。表示对插入语前面的解释和说明。从长难句的处理角度来看。插入语扮演的角色就是可以作为整体提出来放到一边最后处理,就是直接把插入语翻译后放在括号里。分词现象主要有四种考法。(略)插入语语法应用上考研中不一定专门考语法。主要是应用语法知识进行阅读、完型、写作等等。关键就是运用语法处理长难句。例如:She,whoishermother’sdaughter,isagirlofbeautywhichisenviedbylilywhoisofuglinesswhichweallknow剥洋葱似的分析句子的方法和步骤:以句号为单元判断这个句子中有几个洋葱。)看句号句子中有没有and和or。还要看它们连接的是不是句子。如果是词和短语那么and前后就不是独立的洋葱。只有当两个句子并列的时候才是连个洋葱。例如:Ilikeapplesandbananas其中的applesandbananas是宾语并列。再如:IamandJimis这时就是两个洋葱。)看句号里有没有but有but也不一定就是两个洋葱。例如:ButIamaboy)看句号里有没有特殊的标点符号。冒号“:”从命题的角度看如果问题出在冒号的前面,答案一般出现在冒号的后面。如果问题出在冒号的后面,答案大多数情况下出现在冒号的前面。从长难句解读角度看冒号前后是独立的。破折号“”考研英语中破折号“”等于冒号“:”功能是一样的。分号“”分号前后独立各自成为一个洋葱。对每一个洋葱分别剥皮。每一个洋葱的第一层皮就是这个句子的核心内容。此后从第二层开始,每一层皮就表示一个语法现象。把每一层皮分别翻译成中文。在剥皮处设问。用设问的方式把每一层皮连接在一起。这就是化整为零,再从零到整。语法应用下综合运用以前所奖的语法知识。继续讲解利用剥洋葱的方法在考研的长难句中的应用。年真题第一篇文章。PassageITheAmericaneconomicsystemisorganizedaroundabasicallyprivateenterprise,marketorientedeconomyinwhichconsumerslargelydeterminewhatshallbeproducedbyspendingtheirmoneyinthemarketplaceforthosegoodsandservicesthattheywantmostPrivatebusinessmen,strivingtomakeprofits,producethesegoodsandservicesincompetitionwithotherbusinessmenandtheprofitmotive,operatingundercompetitivepressures,largelydetermineshowthesegoodsandservicesareproducedThus,intheAmericaneoonomicsystemitisthedemandofindividualconsumers,coupledwiththedesireofbusinessmentomaximizeprofitsandthedesireofindividualstomaximizetheirincomes,thattogetherdeterminewhatshallbeproducedandhowresourcesareusedtoproduceitAnimportantfactorinamarketorientedeconomyisthemechanismbywhichconsumerdemandscanbeexpressedandrespondedtobyproducersIntheAmericaneconomy,thismechanismisprovidedbyapricesystem,aprocessinwhichpricesriseandfallinresponsetorelativedemandsofconsumersandsuppliesofferedbysellerproducersIftheproductisinshortsupplyrelativetothedemand,thepricewillbebidupandsomeconsumerswillbeeliminatedfromthemarketIf,ontheotherhand,producingmoreofacommodityresultsinreducingitscost,thiswilltendtoincreasethesupplyofferedbysellerproducers,whichinturnwilllowerthepriceandpermitmoreconsumerstobuytheproductThus,priceistheregulatingmechanismintheAmericaneconomicsystemTheimportantfactorinaprivateenterpriseeconomyisthatindividualsareallowedtoownproductiveresources(privateprogeny),andtheyarepermittedtohirelabor,gaincontrolovernaturalresources,andproducegoodsandservicesforsaleataprofitIntheAmericaneconomy,theconceptofprivatepropertyembracesnotonlytheownershipofproductiveresourcesbutalsocertainrights,includingtherighttodeterminethepriceofaproductortomakeafreecontractwithanotherprivateindividualInLine,Para,"thedesireofindividualstomaximizetheirincomes"meansAAmericansareneversatisfiedwiththeirincomesBAmericanstendtoovenTatetheirincomesCAmericanswanttohavetheirincomesincreasedDAmericanswanttoincreasethepurchasingpoweroftheirincomesThefirsttwontencesinthesecondparagraphtellusthatAproducerscansatisfytheconsumersbymechanizedproductionBconsumerscanexpresstheirdemandsthroughproducersCproducersdecidethepricesofproductsDsupplyanddemandregulatepricesAccordingtothepassage,aprivateenterpriseeconomyischaracterizedbyAprivatepropertyandrightsconcernedBmanpowerandnaturalresourcescontrolCownershipofproductiveresourcesDfreecontractsandpricesThepassageismainlyaboutAhowAmericangoodsareproducedBhowAmericanconsumersbuytheirgoodsChowAmericaneconomicsystemworksDhowAmericanbusinessmenmaketheirprofits

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