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首页 呼出气体酒精含量检测仪的设计-翻译

呼出气体酒精含量检测仪的设计-翻译.doc

呼出气体酒精含量检测仪的设计-翻译

Wanda莹
2018-01-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《呼出气体酒精含量检测仪的设计-翻译doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

呼出气体酒精含量检测仪的设计翻译苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿外文文献资料收集:苏州大学应用技术学院电子信息科学与技术班(学号)李永好BreathalcoholanalysisincorporatingstandardizationtowatervapourisaspreciseasbloodalcoholanalysisIntroductionTheanalysisofalcoholinbloodandbreatharetwodifferentquantitativemethodstodetermineanindividualsdegreeofIntoxicationBloodalcoholanalysishastraditionallybeenregardedasthe„„goldstandardmethod,butitisinvasive,expensiveandimpracticalcomparedwithbreathalcoholanalysisTherefore,ontheassumptionthatthereliabilityofbreathanalysisissimilartothatofbloodanalysis,breathanalysiswouldbethepreferredmethodtouseIndeed,manyjurisdictionsnowusebreathanalysisasastandalonetestfordrunkdrivingprosecutionHowever,studiesvalidatingtheprecisionofbreathalcoholanalysisagainstbloodalcoholanalysisarescarce,asarestudiesutilizingarterialbloodsamplesforcomparisonsofbloodandbreathalcoholconcentrations–Sinceitisthealcoholcontentinarterial,asopposedtovenous,bloodthatreachesthebrainandaffectsthepersonsperformanceandbehave,thearterialbloodalcoholconcentration(ABAC)representsthetoxicologicalmostrelevantquantitativemeasureofdrunkennessForbloodandbreathanalysistobeinterchangeablewitheachotherthereneedstobeastablerelationbetweenbloodalcoholconcentrations(BAC)andBrastallsamplingtimesafterdrinkingalcoholHowever,theratioofBACvaluestocoexistingBravaluesisconsideredtobemorevariableduringabsorptionofalcoholfromthegutcomparedtothepostabsorptivestate–minpostdosing–OneconsequenceofthisisthatifasubjectistestedduringabsorptionofalcoholthereisariskofunequalpunishmentsdependingonwhichanalyticmethodthatwasemployedSubjectsTwelvehealthyindividuals,sevenmalesandfivefemales,wereenrolledas第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿paidvolunteersAgesrangedfromtoyearsandbodyweightsfromtokgAllsubjectsweremoderateconsumersofalcoholicbeveragesAllsubjectsweremoderateconsumersofalcoholicbeveragesThestudywasapprovedbytheEthicsCommitteeofLuUniversity,SwedenAllsubjectsgavetheirinformedconsentExperimentalprocedureTheexperimentsstartedeitheratamorpmafteraminimumofhourfastingafteralightmealThecatheterwasconnectedtoabagofissalinecontainingEheparinThesalinebagwasexternallypresstoapproximatelymmHginordertocontinuouslyflushthearterialcatheterviaapressuretransducerTwothreewaystopcocksinserieswerefittedbetweenthehosefromthesalinebagandthecatheterAthintubewasthenswallowedandputinthestomachofeachsubjectOurstudyprovidedduplicatearterialbloodsamplesandduplicatebreathsamplesthatwereobtainedexactlysimultaneouslyThesampleswithineachpairofbloodandbreathsampleswereseparatedby(meanSD)sOneduplicatebreathsamplewasdiscardedbecausethesubjectregurgitatedattheendofthealcoholinjectionandmouthalcoholcouldnotbeexcludedbythecomputersoftwareThesamples(twobloodandtwobreath)wereobtainedattimedintervalsof,,,,,,,,,,,andminaftertheendofthealcoholadministrationEachsubjectwasthenaskedtoconsumemlofundilutedgin((vv))asquicklyaspossiblewithoutrinsingthealcoholinthemouthbeforeswallowingOnelastduplicatebreathandbloodsamplewasobtainedminafterthealcoholingestionbymouthtoensureabsenceofmouthalcohol,correspondingtominafterthealcoholinjectionviathetubewascompletedDuringthe–min–intervalthesubjectsmadesomeexhalationsfromdifferentdistancesandagainstdifferentpressures(datanotshown)TheBraweredeterminedwithaprototypeanalyzer(ServoAB,Sweden),constructedtoallowcontactfree(nomouthpiece)exhalationsTheknownalveolarwaterpourconcentrationatC(mgL)isusedbytheanalyzertocompensateforthedilutionofthebreathsamplebyambientairTheinstrumentutilizesinfraredspecbythreedifferentwavelengthsforalcoholdiscriminationandquantificationThreeadditionalwavelengthsareusedtodeterminetheCOandwaterpourconcentrationsandserveasareferenceThealtogethersixbandfiltersaremounted第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿onadisc,rotatingatrateofHzThealcohol,COandwaterpourconcentrationsarethusdeterminedtimesperAriseintheCOconcentrationtoapresetlevelidentifiesadeliveredbreathsampleandtriggersthestartofameasurementAdecreaseintheCOconcentrationtoapresetleveldenotestheendofthesampleAlldatapointsobtainedfromsbeforethetimeofthetriggeruntilsaftertheendwillbeincludedintheactualbreathsamplebythecomputersoftwareThealcoholconcentrationsfromthebreathsamplearesubsequentlyplottedasafunctionofthesimultaneouslydeterminedwaterconcentrationsThesoftwarethenfitsa„„beststraightlineinthescatterplotofalcoholandwaterconcentrationsbytheleastsquaremethodThestraightline,whichstartsatthepositionoftheambientwaterconcentrationandambientalcoholconcentration(zero),isextendedtotheknownalveolarwaterconcentrationatC(mgL)ThealcoholconcentrationthatcorrespondstothiswaterconcentrationisreportedastheactualBraofthebreathsampleResultsTheprecisionofbreathalcoholanalysiswasasgoodastheprecisionofbloodalcoholanalysis(CVvsp=)(Table)AconfidenceintervalforthedifferencebetweentheCVvalueswastoTherewasonlyasmallvariationbetweenthefirstandthesecondoftheduplicatedeterminationsasindicatedbytheminimalmeandifferencebetweenthebloodalcoholdeterminations(mggCItomgg)andthebreathalcoholdeterminations(mgLCItomgL)(Table)AlltheindividualABACBraratio–timeprofilesshowedthesametendency,namelyagradualdecreasefromminpostdosinguntilastabilizationoccurred,aroundminpostdosing,afterwhichtheratiowasstable(Fig)ThevariationoftheABACBraratiosbetweensubjectsalsoconsistentlydecreasedbetweenandminpostdosingasindicatedbydecreasingCVvaluesforeachtimepoint(,,,andat,,,andminpostdosing,respectively)FromtominpostdosingthevariationoftheABACBraratiosbetweensubjectsseemedtobestable(Fig)withameanCVofTheABAC–timeprofilesshowedgreatdifferencesbetweenindividualsubjectsAtthe第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿timetheABACBraratioswerestabilized(min)halfofthesubjectswerestillintheabsorptivestate(Fig)TheABACBraratiosimmediatelypriortothealcoholingestionofmlgin(min)werenotstatisticallydifferentfromtheratiosatmin(vsp=)DiscussionThemainfindingofthisstudyisthatbreathalcoholanalysisbasedonstandardizationofbreathalcoholtowaterhasequallygoodprecisionasthedeterminationofblood–alcoholatanaccreditedforensiclaboratoryThiscontraststopreviousstudiesshowingbetterprecisionofbloodthanbreathalcoholanalysis,TheprecisionofduplicateBradeterminationsinthosestudiesweresomewhatworse(–)comparedtothepresentstudy()Althoughitisdifficulttocomparetheresultsofdifferentstudiessincetheprotocolsofthestudiesmaydiffersignificantly,itispossiblethatthebetterprecisioninthisstudyinpartmaybeexplainedbythemethodologyutilizedbytheanalyzerBystandardizingthealcoholconcentrationtofullysaturatedwaterconcentrationatC(mgL),theinfluencefromvariationsinbreathtemperatureandexhaledvolumeisreduced–Theprecisionoftheanalyzerusedherewassomewhatbetter()inapreviousstudyThisispossiblyexplainedbydifferencesinthedesignofthestudyprotocolsTheprotocolinthepresentstudyprescribedarelativeabundanceofmeasurementsintheearlyabsorptionphase,inwhichthevariabilitycouldbeassumedtobeparticularlyhighInfact,limitingthecalculationoftheprecisionofduplicatebreathmeasurementsmadebetweenandminpostdosingwouldyieldaCVofinthisstudyTheagreementbetweenthefirstandseconddeterminationofduplicatebloodandbreathsampleswereverygoodshowingameandifferenceofonlymggandmgL,respectively(Table)TheCIofthemeandifferencesincludedzeroforbothbloodandbreathanalyses,suggestingnosignificantsystematicerrorbetweenthefirstandseconddetermination(Table)BloodandbreathasdifferentspecimensforalcoholanalyseswerecomparedbyBland–Altmanplots(Fig)ThesedisplayedasimilarmeandifferenceandLOAforduplicatebloodandbreathdeterminations,indicatinga第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿similarprecisionofbothmethodsforalcoholquantificationInaddition,thestudyshowsthatfromminandonwardsaftertheintakeofanalcoholbolusastableABACBraratioispresent,enablingareliablepredictionoftheABACfromaBraDuringthefirstminpostdosingtheBratendedtounderestimatethecoexistingABACwithahighlyvariableABACBraratioThisisinkeepingwiththeresultsfrompreviousstudiesusingarterialbloodsamples,butinstarkcontrasttostudiessamplingvenousbloodwheretheratiorisescontinuouslypostalcoholdosingandastablerelationbetweenbloodandbreathneverisestablished,,,Althoughitmaybearguedthatarterialbloodsamplingisnotasreadilyavailableasvenoussampling,itisscientificallymorerelevanttoevaluatebreathsamplesagainstarterialbloodsincetheABACisthecauseofthetoxiceffectsofalcoholThelargevariationofearlyABACBraratiosbetweenthesubjectsislikelyexplainedbythefactthateventinyabsolutechangestoasmalldenominator,inthiscasetheBra,causelargechangestoacalculatedratio,TherewasacleartendencyfortheBravaluesbetweenandminpostdosingtounderestimatethecoexistingABACcomparedtotheBravaluesbetweenandminThiscanbeexplainedbyanexchangebetweenbreathalcoholandtheairwayduringexhalation,Assumingthattheairwayintheearlyabsorptionphaseisrelativelydevoidofalcohol,completionofalcoholbetweeninhaledairandbloodwilltakeplaceintheSubsequently,thealveolarairwilldepositsomeoftherelativebreathalcoholsurplustotheairwayduringexhalationHowever,asthealcoholconcentrationwillriseduetothedistributionofalcoholfromthebronchialarterialblood,lessalcoholinbreathairwillbedepositedtotheairwayduringexhalationandtheBrawillincreaseinrelationtothecoexistingABACItneedstobestressedthatanongoingabsorptionofalcoholfromthegutdoesnotexcludethepresenceofastableABACBraratioAtthetimeofstabilizationoftheABACBraratio(min)halfoftheABAC–timeprofileswerestillrisingThus,astablerelationshipbetweenABACandBradoesnotseemtobedependentonthatapostabsorptivestatehasbeenreached,whichhasbeenproposedasanecessaryprerequisiteforasafeuseofbreathtestingThisisfurthersupportedbythefactthatanadditionalintakeofmlgin(galcohol)in第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿alreadyintoxicatedsubjectsdidnotsignificantlyaltertheABACBraratiominlaterThekineticconditionofastableABACBraratiomaynotberelatedprimarilytotheattainmentofastatebutinsteadtotheofasignificantconcentrationgradientofalcoholbetweenarterialbloodandairwayItisacknowledgedthatthestudyingoftheABACBraratioduringthefirstminafteralcoholintakemostlyisoftheoreticalinterestBecauseoftherequestforawaitingperiodtoruleoutmouthalcoholandotherpracticalreasons,anevidentbreathtestisunlikelytobeundertakenbeforeastablerelationbetweenBraandABACisestablishedShoulditoccurthough,itwouldworkinoftheallegedoffenderWhilethishypotheticallycouldfreetheguilty,moreimportantlyitcreatesasafeguardagainstwrongfulconvictionMaterialsandmethodsDuringathreemonthperiod(stSeptember–thNovember)positiveroadsidebreathalcoholtestsweremadeinmotoristsfromwhomasampleofvenousbloodwasalsotakenandanalyzedbygasBeforeanalyzingthedata,caseswithbothBACandBrabelowtheanalyticcutoffofgkg(N=)wereexcludedThesecasesoftenrepresenteddriverswhowereimpairedbydrugsotherthanalcoholandnotcaseswherethepolicesuspecteddrivingundertheinfluenceofalcoholThemean(median)andlongesttimebetweentheroadsidebreathalcoholtestandthesamplingofvenousbloodwash(h)andh,respectivelyBecauseoftheunavoidabletimedelaybetweenmakingtheroadsidebreathalcoholtestandsamplingblood,theresultswereadjustedfortheamountofalcohollostthroughmetabolismThisadjustmentassumesallsuspectsareinthepostabsorptivephaseoftheBACcurve,althoughweareawarethatthismightnotbethecaseInthecalculationsbothlowandhighratesofalcoholeliminationfrombloodofgkghandgkgh,respectivelywereusedThisrangeofeliminationratesshouldapplytothevastmajorityofpeopleprovidedtheyhaveenteredthedecliningphaseofthebloodalcoholcurvewhentestedThepoliceuseroadsidebreathalcoholtestsinconnectionwithroutinecontrolofdriversobriety,afteramovingtrafficofforwhenaroadtrafficcrashisinvestigatedThevarioustypesofhandheldinstrumentscurrentlyusedbytheFinnishpoliceincorporatechemical(fuelcell)oxidationtodeterminetheconcentrationofethanolinbreathandareprovidedbyseveral第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿manufacturersAlcolmeterSDandLionAlcolmeter(LionLaboratories,UK),Alcotest(Drager,Germany)andAlcoSensor(IntoximetersInc,USA)Mostoftheinstruments(ofthetests)wereAlcolmeterSDandtheseareprecalibrated(BBR:)togiveanestimateofthepersonsBACThenewerinstrumentsreportresultsasBra(mgL),whichwasconvertedintoBACusingthesameBBRof:Venousbloodsamplesfromapprehendeddriverswerecollectedbyaphysicianorphlebotomistinevacuatedplastictubes(ml)thatcontainedamixtureofsodiumfluorideandpotassiumoxalateaspreservativeandanticoagulantVenousBACwasdeterminedinduplicatebyheadspacegaschromatographyandflameionizationdetectorForthepresentstudy,themeanBACwasreportedwithoutmakinganydeductionforanalyticuncertaintyDuringthisstudy,anopportunityarosetoestimatetherateofalcoholeliminationfrombloodbasedontwoconsecutivebloodsamplestaken–hapartThechangeinBACovertimeintervalbetweensamplingwasusedtoestimatetheeliminationrateofalcoholfrombloodThesecondsamplewastakenbecausesomesuspectsclaimed–ortherewasreasontobelievetheywouldclaim–consumptionofalcoholafterdriving,socalleddrinkingaftertheoffenceBecauseBACisgenerallyconsideredthegoldstandardandreferencemethodinconnectionwithforensicalcoholtesting,thiswasusedastheindependent(xvariable)inalinearregressionanalysisThebreathalcoholscreeningtestsresultswereplottedasthedependentyvariableTheleastsquaresregressionwasdoneontheresultsbeforeandaftermakingacorrectionforeliminationofalcoholfrombloodbetweenthetimesofsamplingbloodandbreathThiscalculationwasdoneusingaslow(gkgh)andrapid(gkgh)rateofethanoleliminationandnecessarilythisassumesthatallsuspectswereinthepostabsorptivephaseofthealcoholcurvewhenbreathtestedRoadsidebreathalcoholtestsareusuallydonewiththedriversittingbehindthewheelofthevehicleandonlyasingleanalysisisthenormNoneofthehandheldbreathanalyzersarefittedwithtechnologytodetectmouthalcohol,suchasbymeansofaslopedetectorThelargenumberofdifferentbreathinstrumentsinuseanduncertaintyaboutcalibrationproceduresandalsothefactbreathsamplingwasdonemanually,probablyexplainsthelargeresidualSDofgkg,whichisanindicationofrandomvariationForcomparison,theresidualSDwasgkgwhenan第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿evidentialbreathanalyser(IntoxilyzerS)wasusedtotestdrunkendriversandwhenthecalibrationwascontrolledwitheverysubjecttest第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿中文翻译稿翻译:苏州大学应用技术学院电子信息科学与技术班(学号)李永好介绍血液和呼吸的酒精测试是两个不同的定量的方法来确定一个人的中毒程度。血液酒精测试历来是视为“金标准”的方法但它与呼气酒精测试相比是有侵入性的昂贵的和不切实际的。因此假设呼吸测试的可靠性与血液测试是相似的呼吸测试将是优选的使用方法。事实上许多司法管辖区现在使用呼吸测试作为一个独立的测试醉驾起诉。然而研究证实精密的呼气酒精测试相对于血液酒精测试是比较稀少的,因为是利用动脉血样品研究比较血液和呼气酒精浓度。因为它是在动脉中的酒精含量如反对静脉血液到达脑部并影响人的性能和行为动脉血酒精浓度(ABAC)代表毒理学最相关的定量醉酒测量。对于血液和呼吸测量是可以相互转换的但需要饮用酒精后在血液酒精浓度(BAC)和布拉奇失速采样时间之间有一个稳定的关系。然而BAC值和BRAC值的比值在吸收酒精的过程中被认为是更有价值的相比于药后肠道吸收后状态分钟。这样做的一个后果是受试者在测试酒精的吸收的过程中存在一个不平等处罚的风险取决于采用哪个测量方法。测试人员名健康人男女被纳入支付志愿者。年龄从到岁体重从到公斤不等。所有受试者适度的饮用酒精饮料。这项研究由瑞典隆德大学的伦理委员会批准。所有受试者会给他们知情同意书。实验开始是在上午九时或下午时,餐后至少禁食小时。将导管连接到一个袋含有ë肝素毫升等渗盐水。盐水袋外部加压到约mmHg以便通过压力换能器以连续地冲洗动脉导管。两个三通旋塞串联拟合从盐水袋软管和动脉导管之间。一根细管然后咽下去摆在每个主题的胃。我们的研究提供了重复动脉的血液样本和重复被同时精确地获得呼气样本。内的样本每对血液和呼气样本都是由分开,(意思,SD)秒。一重复呼吸样品被丢弃因为受试者在反刍的端醇注射口醇不能排除由计算机软件。样品(血液和两个呼吸)分别以一定的时间间隔得到的醇结束后和分钟管理。每个受试者又问消耗毫升稀释杜松子酒(,(VV))尽可能快地未经漂洗醇在口腔中之前吞咽。得到最后一个重复的呼吸和血液试样分钟后的酒精摄入口以确保没有嘴的酒第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿精相当于酒精注射液通过胃管后分钟完成。在分钟区间的主题作了不同距离的一些呼气和针对不同的压力(数据未示出)。该Bra确定与原型分析仪(AB瑞典)构造允许自由接触(无口片)呼气。已知的肺泡水蒸汽浓度在(mgL)的所使用的分析仪补偿所述呼吸试样的稀释由环境空气中。该仪器由三个不同的波长为酒精判别利用红外光谱和定量。三个附加的波长来确定的二氧化碳和水蒸汽的浓度并作为一个参考。在总共过滤器被安装在盘上旋转以Hz的频率。在酒精CO和水蒸气浓度从而确定每个第次。上升在theCO集中到预设级别标识递送呼吸样品并触发一个测量开始。一减少在CO浓度为预设电平表示样品的末端。所有结束后从秒获得的数据点触发的时间点前秒会被包括在计算机软件的实际呼吸试样中。酒精从呼气样品浓度随后绘制成的一个功能同时测定水蒸汽的浓度。然后该软件适合一个“在酒精和水蒸汽浓度的散点图”最佳直线''最少。的直线其开始于在环境中的位置水蒸气浓度和环境酒精浓度(零)延伸到已知的肺泡水蒸汽浓度在(mgL)。酒精对应于这种水蒸汽浓度的浓度被报告为呼气样本的实际BRAC。结果呼吸酒精含量分析的精度是不如精密的血液酒精含量分析(CV,和,P=)(表)。对于之间的差别A,置信区间CV值是,,至,。有在第一和之间只有小的变化重复测定的第二如由表示血液中的酒精测定之间的最小平均差(,毫克克,CI为至毫克克)并在呼气酒精测定(毫克升,CI什么,毫克升)所有的个体ABAC布拉奇比时间曲线显示相同的趋势从分钟后给药即逐渐减少直到一个稳定的发生约分钟后加药后该比率是稳定的。在ABACBRAC的变化学科之间的比率也持续之间下降通过为每个减小CV值所指示的分钟给药后时间点(,,,,和,和分钟给药后分别)。从到分钟后加药的ABAC的变化主体之间BRAC比率似乎稳定(图)为,平均CV。在ABAC时间曲线之间表现出很大的差异个别科目。当时的ABACBRAC率分别为受试者的稳定(分钟)的一半人还在吸收状态。在ABAC布拉奇比紧接酒精的毫升杜松子酒(分钟)摄入均无统计学差异从分。这项研究的主要发现是呼吸酒精含量分析基于呼气酒精标准化水蒸气具有同样出色的精度为血液酒精以确定认可的法医实验室。与此相反以先前的研究显示出较好的血液精度比呼吸酒精含量分析,。重复BRAC测定的那些精度第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿研究是稍差(,)相比于本研究(,)。虽然很难比较由于研究的协议不同的研究结果可能显著不同它有可能在该较好的精度研究中的部分可以通过由所利用的方法进行说明分析仪。通过标准化的酒精浓度充分饱和水蒸汽浓度在(毫克升)在从变化呼吸的温度和呼出的影响体积减小。该分析仪这里使用的精度是有所好转(,)在先前的研究中。这可能是由解释差异的研究方案的设计。在该协议本研究中规定的测量相对丰富初期吸收阶段其中所述可变性可能是假定为特别高。实际上限制的计算重复呼吸测量之间所做的精度和分钟给药后会产生,简历这项研究。在第一和第二测定之间的协议重复的血液和呼吸样品很好呈现出分别指的仅,毫克克和毫克升差(表)。的平均差异的,CI包括零为血液和呼吸分析提示找不到显著在第一和第二判定之间的系统误差(表)。血液和呼吸不同的标本进行酒精分析由布兰德Altman图(图)进行了比较。这些显示了类似的平均差和,LOA重复的血液和呼吸测定说明两者的相似精度方法酒精定量分析。此外研究表明从分钟并起酒精的摄入量后弹丸稳定ABAC布拉奇比目前从BRAC使ABAC的可靠预测。在第一个分钟后加药布拉奇往往低估共存的ABAC有高度可变ABACBRAC比例。这是符合从先前的研究结果采用动脉血液样本,但形成鲜明对比的研究采样静脉血其中的比例持续上升后酒精的剂量和血液和呼吸之间的关系稳定从来没有成立,,,。虽然它可能会争辩说动脉血采样并不如容易作为静脉采样这在科学上是更相关的评估呼吸对自ABAC动脉血液样本是的原因醇的毒性作用。之间的早期ABAC布拉奇比率大的变化主题很可能是由事实解释说即使是微小的绝对变为一个小分母在这种情况下BRAC造成大改变为计算出的比率,。有之间的BRAC值明显的趋势分钟后加药低估并存ABAC相比于和分钟之间的BRAC值。这可以经呼气酒精和之间的交换来解释呼气,在气道黏膜。假设气道粘膜在早期阶段的吸收是比较缺乏酒精吸入的空气之间的平衡酒精完成和血液将在肺泡。随后肺泡空气中会存放一些相对呼气酒精过剩的呼气时气道黏膜。然而随着粘膜酒精浓度将上升由于醇的分布从支气管动脉在呼吸空气少饮酒会呼气和布拉奇在沉积到气道粘膜将相对于共存ABAC增加。它需要强调的是醇的持续吸收从肠道不排除一个稳定ABACBRAC的存在比。在ABACBRAC比稳定的时间(分钟)一半的ABAC时间曲线仍在上升。因此具有稳定的ABAC和布拉奇之间的关系似乎并没有被依赖于一个吸收后状态已经达到已经提第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿出的作为必要先决条件用于法医学安全使用的证据呼气测试。这是进一步由以下事实支持的毫升杜松子酒额外摄取量(克酒精)中已经陶醉科目没有显著改变在ABACBRAC比分钟后。药代动力学条件一个稳定的ABACBRAC比率可能不主要与实现一个吸收后的状态而是要废除醇之间的显著浓度梯度的动脉血气道黏膜。这是公认的ABACBRAC比的研究在第一个分钟后酒精摄入大多是理论兴趣。因为对于一个等待期以排除请求口腔酒精等实际原因是证据的气息测试是不可能之间的稳定关系之前要进行布拉奇和ABAC成立。它应该出现的是它会赞成指控的罪犯的工作。虽然这种假设可以释放犯更重要的是创造一种保障对错误定罪。材料和方法在三个月期间(月日二一一年十一月三十日)阳性路边呼气酒精测试于年取得驾驶者从他们的样本静脉血还采取并用气相色谱分析。前分析数据例两者的BAC和BRAC低于分析截止的克公斤(N=)被排除在外。这些案件往往代表司机谁是通过药物比酒精而不是情况下警方怀疑其他受损驾驶酒精的影响下。的平均值(中值)和时间最长路边呼气酒精测试和静脉血采样之间是分别小时(h)和小时。由于制作路边之间不可避免的时间延迟测试和取样血液结果被用于醇的量调节通过新陈代谢丢失。这种调整假设所有嫌疑人都在吸收后相BAC曲线虽然我们都知道这可能不是案例。在计算两个醇消除的低和高价格从血克公斤小时和克公斤小时分别用。这个范围消除利率应该适用于绝大多数人提供他们已经进入了测试时下降的血液酒精曲线的相位。民警在例行控制连接使用路边呼气酒精测试驾驶员清醒移动交通违法或者经过道路交通事故是调查。目前所使用的各种类型的手持式仪器芬兰警察纳入电化学(燃料电池)氧化以确定由多家厂商提供的呼吸和乙醇浓度AlcolmeterSD和狮子Alcolmeter(狮子实验室UK)酒精测试仪(德尔格德国)和AlcoSensor(Intoximeters公司美国)。大多数仪器(测试的,)为Alcolmeter的SD和这些是预先校准(BBR:)给予人的BAC的估计。较新的仪器报告结果BRAC(毫克升)将其使用的相同BBR转换成BAC:血液中酒精含量分析从被捕司机静脉血样本由医生收集或抽血中含有的混合物抽空塑料管(mL)中氟化钠和草酸钾作为防腐剂和抗凝血剂。静脉BAC是一式两份顶空气相色谱法和火焰确定离子化检测器。对于本研究中平均的BAC报而不使得扣除任何分析的不确定性。在这项研究中有机会出现来估计醇的速率从血消除基于两个连续的血样取小时第页苏州大学本科生毕业设计(论文)附件:外文文献资料与中文翻译稿分开。过采样之间的时间间隔中的BAC的变化被用来估计从血液中酒精含量的淘汰率。第二样品被采取因为一些嫌疑人声称或有理由相信他们会声称消费酒精的驾驶后所谓的饮用水后进攻。由于BAC被普遍认为是黄金标准参考方法法医酒精测试连接这被用作独立的在一个线性回归分析。呼气酒精筛查试验结果被绘制为从属的y变量。最小二乘回归进行上之前使校正对于消除酒精引起的后的结果取样血液和呼吸的时间之间的血液。这种计算做使用慢速(克千克小时)和快速(克千克小时)速率乙醇消除和这必然假定所有嫌疑人的后吸收阶段当呼吸测试酒精曲线。路边呼气酒精测试通常与驾驶员进行坐在该车辆的车轮和仅一个单一的分析后面是规范。无手持式呼吸分析仪都配有技术来检测嘴醇例如通过斜率的装置检测器。在大量不同的呼吸仪器使用和不确定性校准程序也是事实呼吸抽样手工完成或许可以解释大的克千克这是随机变化的指示残留的SD。为了比较残留SD为克千克时的证据呼吸分析仪被用来测试醉酒司机当校准被控制每科目考试。第页

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