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首页 高考英语非谓语动词考点例析

高考英语非谓语动词考点例析.doc

高考英语非谓语动词考点例析

fang丽红
2019-04-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《高考英语非谓语动词考点例析doc》,可适用于高中教育领域

高考英语非谓语动词考点例析(上)非谓语动词包括动词不定式(infinitive)、动名词(gerund)和分词(participle)三种形式,由于它们在句中不能单独作谓语而得名。本文将结合近年高考题,分上、下两期对非谓语动词主要考点作一简单回顾。一、非谓语动词作主语和宾语【真题回放】)–Theyarequiet,aren’ttheyYesTheyareaccustomedatmeals(江苏卷)AtotalkBtonottalkCtotalkingDtonottalking)Davidthreatenedhisneighbortothepoliceifthedamageswerenotpaid(上海卷)AtobereportedBreportingCtoreportDhavingreported【要点点津】能够作主语和宾语的非谓语动词是不定式和动名词。其中,不定式常表示具体的、某一次动作,而动名词多表示经常性、习惯性动作。有时为了保持句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,常用it作形式主语或宾语。如:Isn’tittimeyougotdowntomarkingthepapers(重庆卷)Infactitisahardjobforthepolicetokeeporderinanimportantfootballmatch(上海卷)考例答案为D。beaccustomedto意思是“习惯于”,其中to是介词,后接动名词作宾语。依据语境,他们习惯于吃饭时不说话,故选D。考例答案为C。threaten后要接不定式作宾语threatentodosth威胁说要做某事。二、非谓语动词作表语【真题回放】)Ladiesandgentlemen,pleaseremainuntiltheplanehascometoacompletestop(四川卷)AseatedBseatingCtoseatDseat)Distinguishedguestsandfriends,welcometoourschooltheceremonyofthethAnniversarythismorningareouralumni(校友)fromhomeandabroad(江苏卷)AAttendBToattendCAttendingDHavingattended【要点点津】不定式、动名词和分词可跟在系动词后面,在句中作表语。如:Thepurposeofnewtechnologiesistomakelifeeasier,nottomakeitmoredifficultMyfavoritepastimehasalwaysbeencontributingtosomeEnglishnewspapersWewerealltiredoutwhenwefinallyclimbedontothetopofthehillWeneverthoughtclimbingwassotiring考例答案为A。seat为及物动词,意思是“使就座”,常用于被动语态,或用其过去分词形式表示被动。该句中,过去分词seated用作表语,与谓语动词remain构成系表结构,表示主语的状态。考例答案为C。该句使用了倒装结构,动名词短语作表语前置了。正常语序是:Ouralumni(校友)fromhomeandabroadareattendingtheceremonyofthethAnniversarythismorning。三、非谓语动词作宾补【真题回放】)TolearnEnglishwell,weshouldfindopportunitiestohearEnglishasmuchaswecan(江苏卷)AspeakBspeakingCspokenDtospeak)Theyusecomputerstokeepthetrafficsmoothly(全国卷II)AbeingrunBrunCtorunDrunning【要点点津】能够在句中用作宾语补足语的非谓语动词有不定式、现在分词和过去分词。如:Thedoctorwarnedhimtimeandtimeagainnottosmoke,buthesmokedallthesameHelenhadtoshouttomakeherselfheardabovethesoundofthemusic(NMETIII)Don’tleavethewaterrunningwhileyoubrushyourteeth(天津卷)在被动语态中,作宾语补足语的非谓语动词就成了主语补足语。如:ThepoorslavesweremadetoworkformorethanhoursadayAcookwillbeimmediatelyfiredifheisfoundsmokinginthekitchen(NMET)Sheheadedforthehospitalinsuchahurrythatthedoorwasleftunlocked考例答案为C。spoken是过去分词作宾语,宾语English和宾补动作speak之间为被动关系。考例答案为D。runningsmoothly是现在分词短语作宾补keepsbdoingsth让某人一直做某事。四、非谓语动词作定语【真题回放】)Theplaynextmonthaimsmainlytoreflectthelocalculture(安徽卷)AproducedBbeingproducedCtobeproducedDhavingbeenproduced)Forbreakfastheonlydrinksjuicefromfreshfruitonhisownfarm(北京卷)AgrownBbeinggrownCtobegrownDtogrow【要点点津】不定式、动名词和分词都可以作定语。如:Therearefivepairstochoosefrom,butI’matalosswhichtobuy(上海卷)ThereadingroomofourschoollibraryislargeenoughtoholdpeoplePeterreceivedaletterjustnowsayinghisgrandmawouldcometoseehimsoon(四川卷)Therepairscostalot,butit’smoneywellspent(湖北卷)Thecomputercenter,(whichwas)openedlastyear,isverypopularamongthestudents考例答案为C。tobeproducednextmonth是不定式短语作定语,修饰theplay,表示将来的动作。考例答案为A。grownonhisownfarm是过去分词短语作定语,修饰fruit,表示被动和完成。五、非谓语动词作状语【真题回放】)nottomisstheflightat:,themanagersetoutfortheairportinahurry(福建卷)ARemindingBRemindedCToremindDHavingreminded)Asmallplanecrashedintoahillsidefivemileseastofthecity,allfourpeopleonboard(上海卷)AkilledBkillingCkillsDtokill【要点点津】能作状语的非谓语动词有不定式、现在分词和过去分词。如:Mum,whydoyoualwaysmakemeeataneggeverydayTogetenoughproteinandnutritionasyouaregrowingup(上海卷)Dressedinawhiteuniform,helooksmorelikeacookthanadoctor(湖南卷)Wheneverhewasaskedwhyhewaslateforclass,hewouldanswercarelessly,alwayssayingthesamething(江苏卷)考例答案为B。Remindednottomiss…是过去分词短语作原因状语,相当于原因状语从句Asthemanagerhadbeenremindednottomiss…,分词动作remind与逻辑主语themanager之间为被动关系。考例答案为B。killingallfourpeopleonboard是现在分词短语作状语,表示结果,分词动作kill与逻辑主语asmallplane之间为主动关系。【学以致用】)Don’tsittherenothingComeandhelpmewiththistable(湖北卷)AdoBtodoCdoingDanddoing)Tomsoundsverymuchinthejob,butI’mnotsurewhetherhecanmanageit(安徽卷)AinterestedBinterestingCinterestinglyDinterestedly)DidyouenjoyyourselfatthepartyYesI’veneverbeentoonebefore(四川卷)AamoreexcitedBthemostexcitedCamoreexcitingDthemostexciting)IsmellsomethinginthekitchenCanIcallyoubackinaminute(宁夏卷)AburningBburntCbeingburntDtobeburnt)byagreaterdemandforvegetables,farmershavebuiltmoregreenhouses(浙江卷)ADrivenBBeingdrivenCTodriveDHavingdriven)HeisastudentatOxfordUniversity,foradegreeincomputerscience(北京卷)AstudiedBstudyingCtohavestudiedDtobestudying)IlikegettingupveryearlyinsummerThemorningairissogood(NMET)AtobebreathedBtobreatheCbreathingDbeingbreathed)Ifthere’s高考英语非谓语动词考点例析(上)非谓语动词包括动词不定式(infinitive)、动名词(gerund)和分词(participle)三种形式,由于它们在句中不能单独作谓语而得名。本文将结合近年高考题,分上、下两期对非谓语动词主要考点作一简单回顾。一、非谓语动词作主语和宾语【真题回放】)–Theyarequiet,aren’ttheyYesTheyareaccustomedatmeals(江苏卷)AtotalkBtonottalkCtotalkingDtonottalking)Davidthreatenedhisneighbortothepoliceifthedamageswerenotpaid(上海卷)AtobereportedBreportingCtoreportDhavingreported【要点点津】能够作主语和宾语的非谓语动词是不定式和动名词。其中,不定式常表示具体的、某一次动作,而动名词多表示经常性、习惯性动作。有时为了保持句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,常用it作形式主语或宾语。如:Isn’tittimeyougotdowntomarkingthepapers(重庆卷)Infactitisahardjobforthepolicetokeeporderinanimportantfootballmatch(上海卷)考例答案为D。beaccustomedto意思是“习惯于”,其中to是介词,后接动名词作宾语。依据语境,他们习惯于吃饭时不说话,故选D。考例答案为C。threaten后要接不定式作宾语threatentodosth威胁说要做某事。二、非谓语动词作表语【真题回放】)Ladiesandgentlemen,pleaseremainuntiltheplanehascometoacompletestop(四川卷)AseatedBseatingCtoseatDseat)Distinguishedguestsandfriends,welcometoourschooltheceremonyofthethAnniversarythismorningareouralumni(校友)fromhomeandabroad(江苏卷)AAttendBToattendCAttendingDHavingattended【要点点津】不定式、动名词和分词可跟在系动词后面,在句中作表语。如:Thepurposeofnewtechnologiesistomakelifeeasier,nottomakeitmoredifficultMyfavoritepastimehasalwaysbeencontributingtosomeEnglishnewspapersWewerealltiredoutwhenwefinallyclimbedontothetopofthehillWeneverthoughtclimbingwassotiring考例答案为A。seat为及物动词,意思是“使就座”,常用于被动语态,或用其过去分词形式表示被动。该句中,过去分词seated用作表语,与谓语动词remain构成系表结构,表示主语的状态。考例答案为C。该句使用了倒装结构,动名词短语作表语前置了。正常语序是:Ouralumni(校友)fromhomeandabroadareattendingtheceremonyofthethAnniversarythismorning。三、非谓语动词作宾补【真题回放】)TolearnEnglishwell,weshouldfindopportunitiestohearEnglishasmuchaswecan(江苏卷)AspeakBspeakingCspokenDtospeak)Theyusecomputerstokeepthetrafficsmoothly(全国卷II)AbeingrunBrunCtorunDrunning【要点点津】能够在句中用作宾语补足语的非谓语动词有不定式、现在分词和过去分词。如:Thedoctorwarnedhimtimeandtimeagainnottosmoke,buthesmokedallthesameHelenhadtoshouttomakeherselfheardabovethesoundofthemusic(NMETIII)Don’tleavethewaterrunningwhileyoubrushyourteeth(天津卷)在被动语态中,作宾语补足语的非谓语动词就成了主语补足语。如:ThepoorslavesweremadetoworkformorethanhoursadayAcookwillbeimmediatelyfiredifheisfoundsmokinginthekitchen(NMET)Sheheadedforthehospitalinsuchahurrythatthedoorwasleftunlocked考例答案为C。spoken是过去分词作宾语,宾语English和宾补动作speak之间为被动关系。考例答案为D。runningsmoothly是现在分词短语作宾补keepsbdoingsth让某人一直做某事。四、非谓语动词作定语【真题回放】)Theplaynextmonthaimsmainlytoreflectthelocalculture(安徽卷)AproducedBbeingproducedCtobeproducedDhavingbeenproduced)Forbreakfastheonlydrinksjuicefromfreshfruitonhisownfarm(北京卷)AgrownBbeinggrownCtobegrownDtogrow【要点点津】不定式、动名词和分词都可以作定语。如:Therearefivepairstochoosefrom,butI’matalosswhichtobuy(上海卷)ThereadingroomofourschoollibraryislargeenoughtoholdpeoplePeterreceivedaletterjustnowsayinghisgrandmawouldcometoseehimsoon(四川卷)Therepairscostalot,butit’smoneywellspent(湖北卷)Thecomputercenter,(whichwas)openedlastyear,isverypopularamongthestudents考例答案为C。tobeproducednextmonth是不定式短语作定语,修饰theplay,表示将来的动作。考例答案为A。grownonhisownfarm是过去分词短语作定语,修饰fruit,表示被动和完成。五、非谓语动词作状语【真题回放】)nottomisstheflightat:,themanagersetoutfortheairportinahurry(福建卷)ARemindingBRemindedCToremindDHavingreminded)Asmallplanecrashedintoahillsidefivemileseastofthecity,allfourpeopleonboard(上海卷)AkilledBkillingCkillsDtokill【要点点津】能作状语的非谓语动词有不定式、现在分词和过去分词。如:Mum,whydoyoualwaysmakemeeataneggeverydayTogetenoughproteinandnutritionasyouaregrowingup(上海卷)Dressedinawhiteuniform,helooksmorelikeacookthanadoctor(湖南卷)Wheneverhewasaskedwhyhewaslateforclass,hewouldanswercarelessly,alwayssayingthesamething(江苏卷)考例答案为B。Remindednottomiss…是过去分词短语作原因状语,相当于原因状语从句Asthemanagerhadbeenremindednottomiss…,分词动作remind与逻辑主语themanager之间为被动关系。考例答案为B。killingallfourpeopleonboard是现在分词短语作状语,表示结果,分词动作kill与逻辑主语asmallplane之间为主动关系。【学以致用】)Don’tsittherenothingComeandhelpmewiththistable(湖北卷)AdoBtodoCdoingDanddoing)Tomsoundsverymuchinthejob,butI’mnotsurewhetherhecanmanageit(安徽卷)AinterestedBinterestingCinterestinglyDinterestedly)DidyouenjoyyourselfatthepartyYesI’veneverbeentoonebefore(四川卷)AamoreexcitedBthemostexcitedCamoreexcitingDthemostexciting)IsmellsomethinginthekitchenCanIcallyoubackinaminute(宁夏卷)AburningBburntCbeingburntDtobeburnt)byagreaterdemandforvegetables,farmershavebuiltmoregreenhouses(浙江卷)ADrivenBBeingdrivenCTodriveDHavingdriven)HeisastudentatOxfordUniversity,foradegreeincomputerscience(北京卷)AstudiedBstudyingCtohavestudiedDtobestudying)IlikegettingupveryearlyinsummerThemorningairissogood(NMET)AtobebreathedBtobreatheCbreathingDbeingbreathed)Ifthere’salotofwork,Iamhappytojustkeeponuntilitisfinished(上海卷)AtodoBtobedoingCdoneDdoing)Wefinishedtheruninlessthanhalfthetime(江西卷)AallowingBtoallowCallowedDallows)ItisoneofthefunniestthingsontheInternetsofarthisyear(浙江卷)AfindingBbeingfoundCtofindDfoundKey:CACAABBACDalotofwork,Iamhappytojustkeeponuntilitisfinished(上海卷)AtodoBtobedoingCdoneDdoing)Wefinishedtheruninlessthanhalfthetime(江西卷)AallowingBtoallowCallowedDallows)ItisoneofthefunniestthingsontheInternetsofarthisyear(浙江卷)AfindingBbeingfoundCtofindDfoundKey:CACAABBACD高考英语非谓语动词考点例析(下)六、非谓语动词的时态【真题回放】)manytimes,hefinallyunderstoodit(四川卷)AToldBTellingCHavingtoldDHavingbeentold)inthequeenforhalfanhour,theoldmansuddenlyrealizedbehadleftthechequeinthecar(福建卷)AWaitingBTowaitCHavingwaitedDTohavewaited【要点点津】不定式、动名词和现在分词可用于不同时态。不定式进行式表示该动作与谓语动作同时发生不定式、现在分词和动名词的完成时态表示该动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前如果强调非谓语动词动作一直持续,不定式、动名词和现在分词用完成进行时。如:JackpretendedtobereadingwhentheteachercameintotheclassroomAftertheparty,heapologizedtoherforhavingbeensorudeTheprofessorissaidtohavebeenteachingintheuniversitysince考例答案为D。tell与主语之间是被动和完成的关系,所以用havingbeendone来表示被动和完成。考例答案为C。由于分词动作wait发生在谓语动词动作realize之前,所以用现在分词短语完成时作状语,表示时间。七、非谓语动词的语态【真题回放】)WeareinvitedtoapartyinourclubnextFriday(山东卷)AtobeheldBheldCbeingheldDholding)IstillremembertotheFamenTempleandwhatIsawthere(陕西卷)AtotakeBtobetakenCtakingDbeingtaken【要点点津】不定式、动名词和现在分词都有自己的被动语态。当不定式、动名词或现在分词的动作与其逻辑主语之间构成被动关系时,要用被动式。如:ThebookissaidtohavebeentranslatedintoseveralforeignlanguagesDoyoustillrememberbeingtakentoShanghaiattheageoffive考例答案为A。由nextmonth可知时间是在将来,party是被举行,故用不定式被动式作定语,表示一个被动和将来的动作。考例答案为D。rememberdoingsth记得做过某事了remembertodosth记得该做某事。该句中,根据后文的saw可知此处非谓语动词动作已经完成,且与逻辑主语是被动关系,用动名词的被动式作remember的宾语。八、非谓语动词的复合结构【真题回放】)Itisdifficulttoimaginehisthedecisionwithoutanyconsideration(陕西卷)AacceptBacceptingCtoacceptDaccepted)Nowadayspeoplesometimesseparatetheirwastetomakeiteasierforit(湖南卷)AreusingBreusedCreusesDtobereused【要点点津】不定式的前面可以加上forsb或ofsb来充当逻辑主语,构成不定式的复合结构动名词的前面可以加上名词或代词来充当逻辑主语,构成动名词的复合结构。如:ItisusuallyabittoodifficultforaforeignertolearnChineseWeallthinkitcruelofthemtoeatrarewildanimalsIcanhardlyimaginePetersailingacrosstheAtlanticOceaninfivedays考例答案为B。imagine后接动名词作宾语。该句中,动名词短语acceptingthedecision前面加上了代词his来充当逻辑主语,构成了动名词的复合结构,在句中充当imagine的宾语。考例答案为D。该句中,第一个it是形式宾语,真正宾语是后面的不定式复合结构forittobereused由于不定式动作use和其逻辑主语waste之间为被动关系,所以用被动式。九、非谓语动词与独立主格结构【真题回放】)Thecountryhasalreadysentupthreeunmannedspacecraft,themostrecentattheendoflastMarch(山东卷)AhasbeenlaunchedBhavingbeenlaunchedCbeinglaunchedDtobelaunched)Thechildrenwenthomefromthegrammarschool,theirlessonsfortheday(重庆卷)AfinishingBfinishedChadfinishedDwerefinished【要点点津】非谓语动词前可以加上名词或代词作它的逻辑主语,构成独立主格结构。独立主格在句子中作状语,主要用于书面语中。如:Isendyoudollarstoday,theresttofollowinayear(湖南卷)Allthedifficultproblemssettled,hedecidedtotakeamonth’sleaveTheboyleadingtheway,wehadnotroublefindingthestrangecave考例答案为B。themostrecent与后面的分词短语一起构成独立主格结构,在句中作状语。由于飞船与发射之间为被动关系,又因为发射动作已经完成,所以用现在分词完成时态的被动式。考例答案为B。theirlessonsfinishedfortheday是独立主格结构,在句中作状语。这里用过去分词finished表示被动和完成。十、非谓语动词的其它重要用法【真题回放】)Everyeveningafterdinner,ifnotfromwork,Iwillspendsometimewalkingmydog(湖南卷)AbeingtiredBtiringCtiredDtobetired)–What’sthematterwithDellaWell,herparentswouldn’tallowhertogototheparty,butshestill(江苏卷)AhopestoBhopessoChopesnotDhopesfor)Hetolduswhetherapicnicwasstillunderdiscussion(四川卷)AtohaveBhavingChaveDhad【要点点津】考例答案为C。当状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致时,从句常被省略成“连词分词”形式。该句中,ifnottiredfromwork=ifIamnottiredfromwork。考例答案为A。为避免重复,不定式常承前省略相同的部分,而只保留不定式符号to。该题中,shestillhopesto是shestillhopestogototheparty的省略形式。考例答案为A。不定式有时可以与what,which,who,how,when,where,whether等疑问词连用,构成不定式短语,在句中作宾语、主语、表语等。该句中,whethertohaveapicnic正是“疑问词不定式”结构,在宾语从句中作主语。【学以致用】Atthebeginningofclass,thenoiseofdeskscouldbeheardoutsidetheclassroom(全国卷II)AopenedandclosedBtobeopenedandclosedCbeingopenedandclosedDtoopenandcloseWhenaskedwhyhewentthere,hesaidhewassentthereforaspaceflight(江西卷)AtrainingBbeingtrainedCtohavetrainedDtobetrainedTheflowershisfriendgavehimwilldieunlesseveryday(四川卷)AwateredBwateringCwaterDtowaterIhearthey’vepromotedTom,buthedidn’tmentionwhenwetalkedonthephone(江西卷)AtopromoteBhavingbeenpromotedChavingpromotedDtobepromotedThemessageisveryimportant,soitissupposedassoonaspossible(陕西卷)AtobesentBtosendCbeingsentDsendingtoreachthemonthephone,wesentanemailinstead(重庆卷)AFailBFailedCTofailDHavingfailed–WhoshouldberesponsiblefortheaccidentTheboss,nottheworkersTheyjustcarriedouttheorder(福建卷)AastoldBasaretoldCastellingDastheytoldaroundtheWaterCube,wewerethentakentoseetheBird’sNestfortheOlympicGames(陕西卷)AHavingshownBTobeshownCHavingbeenshownDToshow–MymotherispreparingmyfavoritedishesGowithmeandhaveataste,okayAndI’llbegladtomeetyourparents(陕西卷)AIthinksoBI’dlovetoCI’msureDIhopesoTheplaynextmonthaimsmainlytoreflectthelocalculture(安徽卷)AproducedBbeingproducedCtobeproducedDhavingbeenproducedKey:CDABADACBC

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