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首页 英语定语从句

英语定语从句.doc

英语定语从句

像个瞎子yi般
2018-08-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语定语从句doc》,可适用于领域

英语定语从句定语从句,一~作者:叶文斌典型例题Womendrinkmorethantwocupsofcoffeeadayhaveagreaterchanceofhavingheartdiseasethanthosedon’t(北京)Awho不填B不填whoCwhowhoD不填表不填解析:考查关系代词who引导的定语从句。这两个定语从句的先行词都是指人在第一个定语从句中引导词作主语可以用who或that在第二个定语从句中引导词作主语同时先行词又是those引导词应该用who所以选C项。Wesawseveralnativesadvancingtowardsourparty,andoneofthemcameuptous,wegavesomebellsandglasses(湖南)AtowhichBtowhomCwithwhomDwithwhich解析:考查“介词whom”引导的定语从句。根据前面的oneofthem可以知道先行词是人可以排除A和D项。表示“给某人某物”用词组“givesthtosb”引导词中应该用to所以选B项。We’rejusttryingtoteachapointbothsideswillsitdowntogetherandtalk(山东)AwhereBthatCwhenDwhich解析:考查关系副词where引导的定语从句。定语从句的先行词是表示地点的名词point用where强调一个特定的地点相当于atthepoint在从句中作状语所以选A项。语法讲解定语从句也称为形容词性从句,由关系代词或关系副词引导,从句中的关系词除了具有引导作用外,还指代前面的先行词,并且在从句中担当一定的成分。根据关系词的性质,可以分为由关系代词、关系副词、准关系代词、复合关系代词引导的定语从句。(由关系代词that,which,who,whom引导的定语从句)关系代词可以在定语从句中作主语从句类型关系代词指代对象典型例句限制性定who指人Thisistheboywho(that)washereyesterday语从句这就是昨天在这儿的男孩儿。which指物Takethebookswhich(that)arelyingonthetable把桌子上的那些书拿去吧。that指人指物Themanthat(who)isplayingthepianoisamusicteacher弹钢琴的男子是一位音乐老师。(指人)Didyouseetheletterthat(which)cametoday你看到今天送来的信了吗,(指物)非限制性who指人Mywife,whohasbeenabroadrecently,hopestosee定语从句you我的妻子希望见你一面她刚从海外归来。which指物MoreandmorepeoplearebeginningtolearnEnglish,whichisbecomingverypopularinChina越来越多的人开始学习英语而且英语在中国正受到人们的青睐。注意:关系代词在定语从句中做主语时从句谓语动词的人称和数要与先行词保持一致。例如:Themandressedinblackisthedoctorwhohasoperatedontheseriouslywoundedman穿着黑衣服的那个人就是给那位严重受伤的病人做过手术的医生。)关系代词可以在定语从句中作宾语从句类型关系代词指代对象典型例句限制性定whom指人Thedoctorwhom(whothat)youarelookingfor语从句isintheroom你要找的那个医生在房间里。which指物Thekitewhich(that)JackmadeisverybeautifulJack做的风筝很好看。that指人指物Theytalkedofpersonsthat(whomwho)theyrememberedintheschool他们谈起了所记起的学校里的人。(指人)Wasthebookthat(which)youwerereadinganovel你正在阅读的书是本小说吗,(指物)非限制性whom指人Doyouknowthewomaninred,whomwemetat定语从句theschoolgate你认识我们在学校门口遇到的那个穿红衣服的妇女吗,which指物Themeeting,whichwasheldinthepark,wasattendedbyfivehundredpeople那个会有人参加是在公园里面举行的。注意:a)在非正式文体的限制性定语从句中用作宾语的关系代词whom,who,that和which通常可以省略。例如:Thatistheman(whowhomthat)ImetinLondonlastyear他就是我去年在伦敦碰见的人。b)关系代词作前置介词的短语时只能用whom指人which指物但是当介词后置时就没有这种限制。例如:ThepersontowhomIcomplainedisthemanager我向他投诉的那个人是经理。Thehotelwhichthatwestayedatwasrathercomfortable我们住的那家旅馆相当舒服。(由关系副词when,where,why引导的定语从句从句类型关系副词指代对象典型例句限制性定when介词先行词Thisisthehourwhenthestreetsarefulloftraffic这语从句非个时间里街上交通很拥挤。限制性定where介词先行词Wewillstartatthepointwhereweleftoffyesterday语从句我们将从昨天停下的地方开始。whyfor先行词ThatisthereasonwhyIleftearly这就是我早退的原因。注意:在表示时间、地点和原因的限制性及非限制性定语从句当中关系副词when,where和why可以用来代替“介词关系代词”在从句中只能作状语。常见考点(定语从句中只用that作为关系词引导的情况:a)当先行词被一个最高级形容词修饰时必须用that。例如:ThatisoneofthemostexcitingfootballgamesthatIhaveeverwatched那是我所看过的最激动人心的一场足球比赛。b)当先行词被序数词修饰时必须用that。例如:TheninthplanethatlandedattheairportwasfromtheUSA第九架降落在该机场的飞机来自美国。c)当先行词被限定词(the)very,(the)last,(the)only,thesame,one,single,no,(a)little,(a)few,many,much,none,some,any,every,all等修饰时必须用that。例如:ThisistheverypenthatMarkTwainusedwhenhewaswritingthenovel这正是马克吐温写那部小说时用过的笔。d)当先行词为不定代词all,anything,everything,nothing,something等时必须用that。例如:Allthatisneedednowisacontinuoussupplyofthenecessitiesoflife现在所需要的是持续地供应生活必需品。e)当先行词是指人、指物的两个并列名词时必须用that。例如:Youcanseeahorsemanandhishorsethatarecrossingtheflyoverduringtheparade游行期间你可以看见骑手和马穿国天桥。f)当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时必须用thatthat可以指人、指物但是往往被省略。例如:Themodernairplaneisnotthemachinethatitwaswhenfirstinvented现代的飞机不是刚发明时的那种飞机了。g)当定语从句为therebe结构时在从句中做主语的关系代词只能是thatthat往往被省略。例如:Thenumberofmistakethatthereareinthishomeworkissimplysurprising这份家庭作业中的错误简直多得惊人。h)当先行词是who或what而且后面跟定语从句时只能用that。例如:Whothatworksagreatdealwithaplanedoesnotknowabouttheengineer常和飞机打交道的人中谁不了解那个工程师,(定语从句中只用which作为关系词引导的情况:a)当先行词为that时只能用which指物。例如:Iusethewordnotinthepresentsense,butinthatwhichwasheldinthenineteenthcentury我用这个词不是它当今的意思而是取其世纪的意思。b)在非限制性定语从句中只能用which指物。例如:Theseappletrees,whichIplantedthreeyearsago,havenotyetborneanyfruit这些苹果树是我三年前栽下的尚未结果实。c)当与介词一起作为关系代词引导从句时只能用which指物。例如:Theytriedtothinkofamethodbywhichtheycouldsolvetheproblem他们要尽力想出一个能够解决问题的办法。(定语从句中只用who作为关系词引导的情况:a)当先行词是everyone,everybody,someone,somebody,anyone,anybody时关系代词要用who或whom。例如:Isthereanyonewhocananswerthisquestion有谁能回答这个问题吗,b)当先行词是those或all时关系代词必须用who。例如:Thosewhowanttogoonthetripshouldputontheirnamesonthelist想去旅游的人应该在名单上写上自己的名字。TomisshiningexampletoallwhowanttobeasuccessfulTom对所有想成功的人来说是一个光辉的形象c)当先行词特指意义较强时关系代词通常用who。例如:Themanwhowaskilledinthecaraccidentyesterdaywashisbrother昨天在车祸中死去的那个人是他的兄弟。d)当指人的先行词被其它成分隔开时关系代词通常用who。例如:ThereisonestudentintheschoolwhoIcansee在这个学校里我只见到了一个学生。实战演练(改正下列句子中的错误()Therearemanyorganizationswhichsolepurposeistohelpmentallyretardedchildren()TheperiodduringwhenpeoplelearnedtosmeltironiscalledtheIronAge()Nobodybelievedhisreasonforbeinglatewhyhiscarbrokedownontheway()Theytriedtothinkoutaplanthattheycouldcompletetheirtaskaheadoftime()Asweknowit,thetelephonewastheinventionofAlexanderGrahamBell()ManyofourWelshpeoplearegoingtosettleinNorthCarolina,whichlandischeap()Therearenotmanypeopleinthiscitywhichownthehousestheylivein()ThereasonwhyIwanttotakethislessonisthattheprofessorissupposedtobeveryeloquent()Thegoalwithwhichhehadfoughtallhislifenolongerseemedimportanttohim()ThedayisboundtocomethatallthepeopleintheworldshallliveinpeaceKeys:whichwhosewhenwhichwhythatthatbywhich去掉itwhichwherewhichwhothatbecausewithforthatwhen(从下列各项中选出最适合题意的选项()isourbeliefthatimprovementsinhealthcarewillleadtoastronger,moreprosperouseconomy(浙江)AAsBThatCThisDIt()Nobodybelievedhisreasonforbeingabsentformtheclasshehadtomeethisuncleattheairport(重庆)AwhyBthatCwhereDbecause()DoyouhaveanythingtosayforyourselvesYesthere'sonepointwemustinsiston(江西)A(whyB(whereC(howD(()Ihavemanyfriends,somearebusinessmen(全国卷)A(ofthemB(fromwhichC(whoofD(ofwhom()Iwalkedinourgarden,TomandJimweretyingabigsignontooneofthetrees(辽宁)A(whichB(whenC(whereD(that()whydoesshealwaysaskyouforhelpthereisnooneelse,isthere(北京)AwhototurntoBshecanturntoCforwhomtoturnDforhertoturn)()Hetransplantedthelittletreetothegardenitwasthebesttimeforit(上海AwhereBwhenCthatDuntil()Danbyleftwordwithmysecretaryhewouldcallagainintheafternoon(浙江)AwhoBthatCasDwhich()DidJackcomebackearlylastnightYesItwasnotyeteighto’clockhearrivedhome(福建)A(beforeB(whenC(thatD(until()Theplacethebridgeissupposedtobebuiltshouldbethecrossrivertrafficistheheaviest(江苏)AwhichwhereBatwhichwhichCatwhichwhereDwhichinwhichKeys:ABDDCBBBBC定语从句,二~作者:叶文斌典型例题TheBeatles,manyofyouareoldenoughtoremember,camefromLiverpool(天津)AwhatBthatChowDas解析:考查as引导的非限制性定语从句。本句的意思是:正如很多年龄大的人都记得的那样甲壳虫乐队来自利物浦。所以选D项。Iwasgiventhreebooksoncooking,thefirstIreallyenjoyed(浙江)AofthatBofwhichCthatDwhich解析:考查复合关系代词引导的定语从句。由于两个句子之间没有连接词因此此句为定语从句而关系代词和先行词之间是从属关系应该用“介词关系代词”所以选B项。Lookout!Don’tgettooclosetothehouseroofisunderrepair(福建)AwhoseBwhichCofwhichDwhat解析:考查whose引导的定语从句。本句的意思是:小心~不要靠近这所房子房顶正在修理。从句是修饰house的定语从句从意思上看空格处应该填表示“这所房子的”关系代词所以选A项。语法讲解(由准关系代词as,but引导的定语从句关系词从句类型特征典型例句as限制性定常见于such„as„,so„as„,Youshouldshowyourparentsthe语从句as„as„和thesame„as„的结samerespectasyoushowme构中as在定语从句中作主语、你应该像尊敬我一样尊敬你父母。宾语、表语和状语相当于whoWehadhopedtogiveyousucha或which。chanceasnobodyelseeverhad我们本来希望给你一个别人都得不到的机会。非限制性先行词通常是整个主句as用Hewaslateforschoolagain,asis定语从句来指代主句表达的全部意思。oftenthecase他昨天上学又迟到as从句的位置很灵活可以出了他总是那样。现在句首、句中或句末与主Ashasbeenannounced,wemust句之间用逗号隔开。常译成“正handinourtermpaperbeforethe如”、“象”或“这”。tenthofJunebut限制性定用but引导定语从句时和带有Therewasnotasinglepersonthere语从否定词no,not,few,hardly等的butthoughtyouareright那里没有主句连用在从句中只能作主一个人不认为你是对的。语表示肯定的意思相当于Thereisnomotherbutlovesherthatwhich„not或who„not。ownchildren没有一个母亲不爱自从句谓语动词的人称和数必须己的子女。与先行词保持一致。注意:thesame„as„和thesame„that„都可以引导的定语从句两者的区别在于:as引导的从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物“相似”指同类事物that引导的从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物“完全相同”指相同事物。例如:Thisisthesame(kindof)penasIlostyesterday这和我昨天丢失的笔一样。(类似的笔)Thisisthesamepen(theverypen)thatIlostyesterday这笔就是我昨天丢失的笔。(同一支笔)(由复合关系代词引导的定语从句复合关系代词特征典型例句介词which(指物)相当于关系副Thisistheshelterinwhichthesoldiersusedto词when,whereliveinthewar。这就是战争时期士兵们曾经住或why。过的防空洞。介词whom(指人)介词一般不包ThosearetheworkersfromwhomIhavelearnt括of。agreatdeal那些人就是我从他们身上学到很多东西的工人。名词代词of相当于关系代Allstudentshavetotakepartintheentrancewhich(指物)词whose用于examination,theimportanceofwhichisnow非限制性定语knowntoeverybody所有的学生都得参加入学从句中。考试其重要性现在已经为每个人所知道。不定代词of表示部分与整Tenforeignstudentswereadmittedtothewhom(指人)which(指体的关系用于university,threeofwhomcamefromthe物)非限制性定语UnitedStates这所大学录取了十名外国学生从句中。其中三名来自美国。注意:复合关系代词是由介词和关系代词共同构成的引导词当介词后置时指人时关系代词用whom或that或省略指物时关系代词可以用which或that或省略。例如:Thisistheplace(whichthat)welivedinforfiveyears这就是我们住了五年的地方。常见考点(that和who指人时的用法比较:相同点关系代词that和who都可Theofficialwhothatusedtodealwithyour以用于指代人。businesshasmovedtoanotherbranch过去负责处理你的事务的那个官员已经调到另外一个分支机构去了。不同点athat不可引导非限制性Ourteam,who(that)areingoodform,willdo定语从句而who可以引wellinthecomingmatches我们队队容整齐将导非限制性定语从句。会在以后的比赛中发挥出色。b指代人时that多用于DoyouknowtheoldmanthatItalkedtojust口语或非正式文体whonow你认得刚才和我谈话的那个老人吗,(口多用于正式文体。语化)(that和which指物时的用法比较:相同点关系代词that和which都Thisisthebookwhichthathasjustappeared这就是可以用于指代事物。刚刚出版的那本书。不同点athat不可引导非限制性Themeeting,which(that)washeldinthepark,was定语从句而which可以attendedbyfivehundredpeople引导非限制性定语从句。那个会有五百人参加是在公园里举行的。b在介词后面指代事物Thebicyclethebrakeofwhichwasdamagedhasnow时只能用which。beenrepaired刹车坏了的那辆自行车已被修好了。(as和which引导非限制性定语从句的比较:相同点as和which代表整个主句主从Everythinggoesquitesmoothly,aswecan句用逗号隔开。imagine正如我们想象的一切进展顺利。不同点aas在从句中作主语或宾语作AsIexpected,hedidnotbelieveme正如我预主语时其谓语动词用第三人称单料的那样他不信任我。数形式从句的位置比较灵活as表示“如同„„那样”的含义。bwhich引导的非限制性定语从TheysaidtheywerefromtheUnitedStates,句仅仅位于主句之后纯粹表示whichwasnottrue主句所述内容which表示“这、他们说自己来自美国这不是事实。那”的含义。(限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的比较:限制性a限制性定语从句与主句关系密切如果省略从Everyonelovesachildwho定语句那么主句的意思就不完整因为从句是对被修studieshard人人都喜欢学习饰的先行词起限定作用使该先行词的含义更具刻苦的孩子。whostudieshard体更明确为限制性定语从句如果去掉意思为“人人都喜欢孩b从句和主句之间没有逗号翻译时常将从句子”但是没有指明喜欢什么译在所修饰的先行词之前译成“„的„”。样的孩子所以主句的意思不完整。非限制a非限制性定语从句只是对被修饰的先行词作一Everyonelovesthechild,who性定语些附加说明如果省略主句仍然能够表达完整的studieshard人人都喜欢那个从句概念。孩子因为他学习刻苦。whostudieshard为非限制性定语b从句和主句之间用逗号分开翻译时常把主句从句去掉从句主句的意思和从句译成两句。仍然比较完整即“人人都喜欢那个孩子”。(whose的用法)whose为关系限定词在定语从句中作定语可以引导限制性定语从句或非限制性定语。从句指人时相当于ofwhom用来替代物主代词my,your,his,her等指物时相当于the名词ofwhich用来替代物主代词its。例如:TheprofessorwhosedaughterteachesyouEnglishisDrWilliams威廉姆斯医生的女儿教你们英语。ItwasameetingwhoseimportanceIdidn’trealizeatthetime这次会议的重要性我当时没有意识到。)“介词whose名词”可以引导的限制性定语从句或非限制性定语从句。例如:InMarycaughtaseriousillnessfromwhoseeffectsshestillsuffers年Mary患了到现在仍然对她有影响的重病。(限制性定语从句)Tom,onwhosebikeIwenttoschool,isafriendofmineTom是我的一个朋友是啊骑着他的车去上学的。(一些特殊情况:a修饰先行词way,direction,distance等名词可以用“介词which”、that或省略连接词来引导定语从句。例如:Thisistheway(inwhichthat省略)heworked那就是他工作的方式。Thedistance(throughwhichthat省略)lighttravelsinasecondasabout,km光每秒传播的距离大约有万公里。b在“itiswas„that”强调结构中that作主语时近似关系代词不可用which。值得注意的是当被强调的对象表示人时可以用who和that。例如:Itwasanewspaperreporterthatwhocameyesterday昨天来的是一个报社的记者。实战演练(用适当的关系词完成下列句子()Theman(今天上午打电话给我的人)ismygoodfriend()Lastyearsheboughtthiscar,(花了她一万美圆)()Ateacherisaperson(以教学为其职责的人)()Myfamily,(家人都爱早起),takeanhourexerciseeveryday()Itisnotameaningfulbook(你想象中的)()Nothing(学过的东西)isevercompletelyforgotten()Thereweremanychildren(在贡院里面玩耍)()Thereareonlythreeboysandtwocars(我看见的)()Thatplayerwonprizemoney(他过去从末想过的)()We’llputofftheraceuntilnextweek,(那时天气会好些)Keys:whothatcalledmethismorningwhichcosther,,whosedutyistoteachwhoareallearlyrisersthatyouthinkittobethathasbeenlearntthatplayedintheparkthatIcanseeofwhichhehadneverdreamedwhentheweathermaybebetter(从下列各项中选出最适合题意的选项()AwarmthoughtsuddenlycametomeImightusethepocketmoneytobuysomeflowersformymother’sbirthday(安徽)AifBwhenCthatDwhich()Theownerofthecinemaneededtomakealotofimprovementsandemploymorepeopletokeepitrunning,meantspendingtensofthousandsofpounds(江苏)AwhoBthatCasDwhich()It’sthirtyyearssincewelastmetButIstillrememberthestory,believeitornot,wegotlostonarainynight(四川)AwhichBthatCwhatDwhen()HisplanwassuchagoodoneweallagreedtoacceptitAsoBandChatDas()Ifashophaschairswomencanparktheirmen,womenwillspendmoretimeintheshop(上海)AthatBwhichCwhenDwhere()Itiswhatyoudoratherthanwhatyousaymatters(天津)AthatBwhatCwhichDthis()Jimpassedthedrivingtest,surprisedeverybodyintheoffice(浙江)AwhichBthatCthisDit()IsthatthesmalltownyouoftenrefertoRight,justtheoneyouknowIusedtoworkforyears(福建)A(thatB(whichC(whereD(what()Frank'sdreamwastohavehisownshoptoproducetheworkingsofhisownhands(湖南)AthatBinwhichCbywhichDhow()Hersisterhasbecomealawyershewantedtobe(湖北)AwhoBthatCwhatDwhichKeys:CDBBDAACB正:Thisiswhatyouwant正:Thisisthethingthatyouwant以上实例告诉我们what有时相当于“the先行词关系代词”同时这也告诉我们这样用的what前不能再有先行词和定冠词(即what不能引导定语从句)。请看下面这道题名词place后面该用什么关系词来引导定语从句:Helikeslivingalone,andsaysthathewantstogoandliveinaplacenobodyknowsAwhereBthatCwhenDwhat有的同学一看到place是表示“地点”的名词于是就毫不犹豫地选了A但是错了最佳答案应是B。表示“地点”的名词后到底是用where还是用that或which来引导定语从句原则上应注意以下两点:一是看关系词的句法功能。由于where是关系副词它在定语从句中用作状语而that和which是关系代词它们在定语从句中用作主语或宾语。所以区别是关系副词还是关系代词的关键就是看定语从句是否缺主语或宾语若缺主语或宾语则用关系代词若不缺主语或宾语则用关系副词。比较:()ThisistheroomIlivedtenyearsagoAthatBwhereCwhoDwhat()ThisistheroomIlivedintenyearsagoAthatBwhereCwhoDwhat()ThisistheroomIboughttenyearsagoAthatBwhereCwhoDwhat()ThisistheroomIvisitedtenyearsagoAthatBwhereCwhoDwhat()ThisistheroomIwasborntenyearsagoAthatBwhereCwhoDwhat第()题选B因为live是不及物动词它无需接宾语第()题选A因为虽然live不及物但livein却是及物它应有自己的宾语第()()题也应选A因为buy和visit均为及物动词它们应有自己的宾语第()应选B因为beborn无需有自己的宾语。二要看句意。一般说来句子是否缺宾语主要是看定语从句中的动词是否为及物动词或带有介词等但问题是有些动词既可用作及物动词又可用作不及物动词它是否需要带宾语则要视句意而定。比较:ThisistheschoolwhereIstudiedfiveyearsago这是我五年前读过书的学校。(句中study用作不及物动词意为“学习”或“读书”)ThisistheschoolthatIstudiedfiveyearsago这是我五年前研究过的那所学校。(句中study为及物动词意为“研究”)现在我们回到上面的试题来看一看从理论上说动词know可用作及物和不及物动词也就是说它可以带宾语也可以不带宾语。但根据本句的意思(“他喜欢一个人生活并说他要去一个没有知道的地方”)know应为及物动词因为从语意上它要带place作其宾语。

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