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首页 法律 APS 审核

法律 APS 审核.doc

法律 APS 审核

赵功立
2017-09-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《法律 APS 审核doc》,可适用于职业岗位领域

法律APS审核APS审核准备专业课大三上:商法行政诉讼法经济法(反垄断法商法专题(保险法)国际私法西方法律思想史大三下:知识产权法国际经济法法理学经济法比较合同法律师公证与仲裁证据学环境保护法法律英语行政法知识产权法:词汇:BerneConvention伯尔尼公约,Parisconvention巴黎公约,Trips(AgreementonTradeRelatedAspectsofIntellectualPropertyRights)byworldtradeorganizationCopyright:自动保护automaticprtection,艺术作品artworks,假冒行为actofpassingoff,剽窃行为actofplagiarism,改编adaptation,Patent:权利请求claims,新颖性novelty,实用性practicalapplicability,发明(productsormethod)invention,外观设计industrialdesign,实用新型utilitymodel,Trademark:商标淡化Dilution驰名商标wellknowntrademarks,商业秘密businesssecret,注册registration,续展renewal,核准注册approvalofregistration,商标争议裁定申请applicationforadjudicationonthedisputedtrademark主要概念:Intellectualproperty(IP)isatermreferringtoanumberofdistincttypesofcreationsofthemindforwhichpropertyrightsarerecognizedandthecorrespondingfieldsoflawUnderintellectualpropertylaw,ownersaregrantedcertainexclusiverightstoavarietyofintangibleassets,suchasmusical,literary,andartisticworksdiscoveriesandinventionsandwords,phrases,symbols,anddesignsCommontypesofitheirexpressionorfixationApatentisasetofexclusiverightsgrantedbyastate(nationalgovernment)toaninventorortheirassigneeforalimitedperiodoftimeinexchangeforapublicdisclosureofaninvention专利三性:novelty,inventivenessandpracticalapplicabilityNoveltymeansthat,beforethedateoffiling,noidenticalinventionorutilitymodelhasbeenpubliclydisclosedinpublicationsinthecountryorabroadorhasbeenpubliclyusedormadethepublicbyanyothermeansinthecountry,norhasanyotherpersonfiledknowntopreviouslywiththePatentOfficeanapplicationwhichdescribedtheidenticalinventionorutilitymodelandwaspublishedafterthesaiddateoffilingInventivenessmeansthat,ascomparedwiththetechnologyexistingbeforethedateoffilingtheinventionhasprominentsubstantivefeaturesandrepresentsanotableprogressandthattheutilitymodelhassubstantivefeaturesandrepresentsprogressPracticalapplicabilitymeansthattheinventionorutilitymodelcanbemadeorusedandcanproduceeffectiveresults伯尔尼公约(著作权)TheBerneConventionrequiresitssignatoriestorecognizethecopyrightofworksofauthorsfromothersignatorycountries(knownasmembersoftheBerneUnion)inthesamewayasitrecognisesthecopyrightofitsownnationalsForexample,FrenchcopyrightlawappliestoanythingpublishedorperformedinFrance,regardlessofwhereitwasoriginallycreated巴黎公约(工业产权)TheParisConventionfortheProtectionofIndustrialProperty,wasoneofthefirstintellectualpropertytreatiesAsaresultofthistreaty,intellectualproperty,includingpatents,ofanycontractingstateareaccessibletothenationalsofotherstatespartytotheConventionThe"Conventionpriorityright"(优先权),alsocalled"ParisConventionpriorityright"or"Unionpriorityright",wasalsoestablishedbythistreatyItprovidesthatanapplicantfromonecontractingStateshallbeabletouseitsfirstfilingdate(inoneofthecontractingState)astheeffectivefilingdateinanothercontractingState,providedthattheapplicantfilesanotherapplicationwithinmonths(forindustrialdesignsandtrademarks)ormonths(forpatentsandutilitymodels)fromthefirstfilingTrips协议TheAgreementonTradeRelatedAspectsofIntellectualPropertyRights(TRIPS)isaninternationalagreementadministeredbytheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)thatsetsdownminimumstandardsformanyformsofintellectualproperty(IP)regulationasappliedtonationalsofotherWTOMembers案例:驰名商标的保护GomeelectricalproductssalescompanyVSGomedepartmentstoreCrossclassprotectionofwellknowntrademarkstrips协议(最低标准)说类似商品使受损Seemore:domainname行政法主要概念:AdministrativelawisthebodyoflawthatgovernstheactivitiesofadministrativeagenciesofgovernmentGovernmentagencyactioncanincluderulemaking,adjudication,ortheenforcementofaspecificregulatoryagenda主要框架:行政法的基本原则:依法行政administrationaccordingtolaw人权humanrightsprotection信赖保护trustprotection公开公正公平Open,just,fair正当程序dueprocess行政主体行政机关其他组织公务员行政相对人privateparty行政法制监督主体行政行为抽象行政行为:行政立法及其他规范性文件具体行政行为依申请行政行为:行政许可行政给付行政裁决行政确认等依职权行政行为:行政命令行政征收行政处罚行政强制等行政行为成立(establishment)要件:行政权能存在行政权的实际运用法律效果(effect)的存在意思表示的存在行政行为合法(theforceoflaw)要件:主体合法权限合法内容合法程序合法形式合法主要词汇:righttostateone’scase陈述权righttodefendoneself申辩权rightofhearing听证权行政机关administrativeorgan(stateconcil,thegovernmentofprovince),法律、法规授权组织organizationauthorizedbylaworregulations,受委托组织organizationentrustedbyanadministrativeorgan,公务员publiccivilservant,行政法制监督主体supervisionsubjectofadministrativelaw行政行为administrativeact,抽象abstract,具体concretespecific,行政处理handling,行政裁决administrativeadjudication,行政给付benefits,行政确认confirmed,行政许可administrativelicense,行政调解mediation,行政处罚penalty,行政强制coercion,行政命令order,行政征收executivecollection,行政权executivepower,行政法主体administrativelawsubject,意思表示expressionofintention,撤销invalidate,变更modifyalter,行政诉讼法环境保护法EnvironmentalLawoperatestoregulatetheinteractionofhumanityandtherestofthebiophysicalornaturalenvironment,towardthepurposeofreducingtheimpactsofhumanactivity,bothonthenaturalenvironmentandonhumanityitselfThetopicmaybedividedintotwomajorsubjects:()pollutioncontrolandremediation,()resourceconservationandmanagement主要内容:特征:综合性comprehensive,egregulationsandmethod技术性technical,egobeynaturalrules,lotsoftechnologhstandard,monitoringsystemtowatchhowmuchchemicalthingscanbepouredintotheriver社会性social,共同性common,environmentalproblemsareglobalwesharethesameatmosphare,andrelatedlandEggreenhouseeffectinfluencesthewholeearth目的:Directgoal:Coordinatetherelationshipbetweenpeopleandtheenvironment,protectandimprovetheenvironmentUltimategoal:Protectionofhumanhealth,protectionofeconomicandsocialsustainabledevelopmentChinahasbothButJapanhasonlythefirstone体系:橄榄球Olives,civillawandcriminallawadministrativelawmultiplemeans(egeconomicalemissionstrading)基本原则:预防为主防治结合stessingpreventionwhilecombiningpreventionwithabatementp原则Polluterpaysprinciple公众参与原则publicparticipation(holdhearings,voteforthenewconstruction)基本制度:规划制度landplanning环境影响评价制度EnvironmentalImpactAssessmentSystem三同时Threesimultaneous:Duringconstruction,pollutionpreventionandcontrolmeasuresmustbedesignedwiththemainproject,constructedandputintouseatthesametimewiththemainproject许可证license排污付费polluterpays经济刺激economicstimulus环境标准environmentalstandard环境法律责任environmentallegalliability大气污染防治airpollutioncontrol:Inthepast,controltheconcentrationoftheemission,likecarbondioxideandSulfurdioxidehighchimney,butnowcontroltheamountoftheemission国际经济法WTO:TheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)isanorganizationthatintendstosuperviseandliberalizeinternationaltradeTheorganizationofficiallycommencedonJanuary,undertheMarrakechAgreement,replacingtheGeneralAgreementonTariffsandTrade(GATT),whichcommencedinTheorganizationdealswithregulationoftradebetweenparticipatingcountriesitprovidesaframeworkfornegotiatingandformalizingtradeagreements,andadisputeresolutionprocessaimedatenforcingparticipants'adherencetoWTOagreementswhicharesignedbyrepresentativesofmembergovernmentsandratifiedbytheirparliaments联合国国际货物销售合同公约TheUnitedNationsConventiononContractsfortheInternationalSaleofGoods(CISG)适用条件betweenpartieswhoseplacesofbusinessareindifferentstates,havetobecontractingstates卖方义务obligationsoftheseller:delieverthegoods,handoveranydocumentsrelatingtothemandtransferthepropertyinthegoodsHandovergoodstothefirstcarrier货物相符conformityofthegoods,权利担保rightsguarenteeIP买方义务obligationsofthebuyer:pay,receivethegoods仲裁Arbitration,aformofalternativedisputeresolution(ADR),isalegaltechniquefortheresolutionofdisputesoutsidethecourts,whereinthepartiestoadisputereferittooneormorepersons(the"arbitrators","arbiters"or"arbitraltribunal"),bywhosedecision(the"award")theyagreetobeboundItisasettlementtechniqueinwhichathirdpartyreviewsthecaseandimposesadecisionthatislegallybindingforbothsides关键词汇:贸易术语tradetermpriceterm:FOBfreeonboard:meansthatthesellerdeliverswhenthegoodspasstheship'srailatthenamedportofshipmentThebuyerhastobearallcostsandrisksoflossofordamagetothegoodsfromthatpointTheFOBtermrequiresthesellertoclearthegoodsforexportBuyerisresponsibleforallthecostsincurredafterthecargohasbeenLOADEDonboardCFRcostandfreight:SellermustpaythecostsandfreighttobringthegoodstotheportofdestinationHowever,riskistransferredtothebuyeroncethegoodshavecrossedtheship'srailMaritimetransportonlyandInsuranceforthegoodsisNOTincludedInsuranceisattheCostoftheBuyerCIFcost,insuranceandfright:ExactlythesameasCFRexceptthatthesellermustinadditionprocureandpayforinsuranceforthebuyerMaritimetransportonlyDAF–DeliveredAtFrontier:whenthegoodsaretransportedbyrailandroadThesellerpaysfortransportationtothenamedplaceofdeliveryatthefrontierThebuyerarrangesforcustomsclearanceandpaysfortransportationfromthefrontiertohisfactoryThepassingofriskoccursatthefrontier保险术语:一切险allrisks:coversawiderangeofincidentsandperils,exceptthosenotedinthepolicy平安险FPAfreefromparticularaverage水渍险WAWPAwithaverageorwithparticularaverage,战争险warrisk,支付手段:汇付remittance,remitter(importer)bank(ex)bank(im)payee(exporter)托收collection,exporter(bills)collectingbank(bills)bank(im)importerpay信用证letterofcredit:afteracontractisconcludedbetweenbuyerandseller,buyer’sbanksuppliesaletterofcredittosellersellerconsignsthegoodstoacarrierinexchangeforabilloflandingSellerusebillofladingforpaymentfrombuyer’sbankBuyer’sbankexchangesbillofladingforpaymentfromthebuyerBuyerprovidesbillofladingtocarrierandtakesdeliveryofgoods贸易组织:WTO,欧洲自由贸易联盟EFTAeuropeanfreetradeassociation,北美自由贸易区NorthAmericanFreetradearea,关贸总协定GATTgeneralagreementontariffsandtrande词汇:全部损失totalloss,部分损失partialloss,运费freight,关税customsduty,倾销duming,反倾销antidumping,贸易顺差逆差unfavorablebalanceoftrade,关税壁垒tariffbarrier,技术性贸易壁垒technicalbarrierstotrade,提单billoflading,托运单shippingorder,背书endorsed买房buyer,卖方seller,承运人carrier,收货人consignee,客户customer,海牙TheHague国际私法*Conflictoflaws(orprivateinternationallaw)isasetofproceduralruleswhichdeterminewhichlegalsystem,andthelawofwhichjurisdiction,appliestoagivendisputeTherulestypicallyapplywhenalegaldisputehasa"foreign"elementsuchasacontractagreedbypartieslocatedindifferentcountries*ThethreebranchesofconflictoflawsareJurisdiction–whethertheforumcourthasthepowertoresolvethedisputeathandChoiceoflaw–thelawwhichisbeingappliedtoresolvethedisputeForeignjudgements–theabilitytorecogniseandenforceajudgementfromanexternalforumwithinthejurisdictionoftheadjudicatingforum*词汇:动产movableproperty,不动产realestate,冲突法confictsoflaw,准据法(冲突法援引出的实体法)governinglaw实体法substantivelaw,程序法procedurallaw,援引cited,意思自治原则PrincipleofAutonomy最密切联系原则Theprincipleofclosestconnection国际条约internationaltreaties,国际惯例internationalpractice,诚实信用原则Theprincipleofgoodfaith,仲裁arbitration,国际商会InternationalChamberofCommerce公共秩序保留Reservationofpublicorder遗产继承inheritance,遗嘱will,我国《海商法》也基本上采纳了上述世界海事立法的一般做法即对于公海上船舶碰撞的法律适用在相同国籍船舶碰撞时采用共同船籍国法主义在不同国籍船舶碰撞时采用法院地法主义。国际贸易和国际司法Example,internationalcontractissignedbetweenAmericancompanyandChinesecompanyThesetwocountriesareboththemembersofCISGIftheyhavedisputes,therewillbedifferentcasesindealingitOne,iftheyhavealreadysigneddisputessettlementinthecontractTheyhavetoobeytheprovisionUsuallythecontractwillsaythedisputeissolvedundertheChineselaworthelawofastateinUSAOrsettledbyarbitration,maybethecasewillbesubimmitedtoICCIftheyhaven’tassignedthisprovision,theCISGisautomaticallyappliedIftheyhaven’tassignedone,andexcludetheapplicationoftheconvention,andoneofthepartiesbringsalawsuit,thecasewillbehearedbythecourtwhohasjurisdictionThecourtwillmakedecisionsfirstaccordingtotheconfictsoflaw,thedeterminthegoverninglaw,andobeyit经济法反不正当竞争法AntiUnfairCompetitionLaw反不正当竞争行为:假冒fake,擅自使用unauthorizeduse,虚假宣传falseadvertising,商业秘密tradesecrets,有奖销售fakesalesawards反垄断法AntitrustLawCompetitionlaw:isthebodyoflawsthatprohibitsanticompetitivebehavior(monopoly)andunfairbusinesspractices垄断monopoly:whenaspecificindividualoranenterprisehassufficientcontroloveraparticularproductorservicetodeterminesignificantlythetermsonwhichotherindividualsshallhaveaccesstoit垄断行为(一)经营者达成垄断协议monopolisticagreementsamongbusinessoperators:betweenoperatorsfixedprice,partmarketbetweenoperatorandhispartnerfixedpricetothethirdperson(二)经营者滥用市场支配地位Abuseofdominantmarketposition:sellathighprice,buyatlowprice(三)具有或者可能具有排除、限制竞争效果的经营者集中hasormayhavetoeliminateorrestrictcompetition,concentrationofundertakings:merger,equity(stock)消费者权益保护法消费者权益:人身和财产安全securityofpersonandproperty安全保障权safetyprotection,知情权righttoknow,therighttochoose,fairtrade,claim,therighttoassociation,respect产品质量法税法流转税turnovertax增值税VATvaluedaddedtax:ataxontheestimatedmarketvalueaddedtoaproductormaterialateachstageofitsmanufactureordistribution,ultimatelypassedontotheconsumer营业税businesstaxsalestax:Provisionoftaxableservices,transferringintangibleassetsorsaleofrealestate,unitsorindividuals,whichtheyobtainedataxleviedontheturnover消费税comsuptiontax,egluxuary,jewery,disposablechopsticks,所得税incometax:ataxleviedontheincomeofindividualsorbusinesses(corporationsorotherlegalentities)词汇:市场份额marketshare(),财力和技术条件Financialandtechnicalconditions,依赖程度dependance,营利性组织Forprofitorganization,消费者协会ConsumersAssociation,固定资产fixedassets,居民纳税人Residenttaxpayers法理学JurisprudenceThetheoryandphilosophyoflaw"Whatislaw",normativeor"evaluative"theoriesoflaw―Whatisthegoalorpurposeoflaw‖*NaturallawistheideathattherearerationalobjectivelimitstothepoweroflegislativerulersThefoundationsoflawareaccessiblethroughhumanreasonanditisfromtheselawsofnaturethathumancreatedlawsgainwhateverforcetheyhave*Analytic,or'clarificatory'jurisprudenceisusinganeutralpointofviewanddescriptivelanguagewhenreferringtotheaspectsoflegalsystemsThiswasaphilosophicaldevelopmentthatrejectednaturallaw'sfusingofwhatlawisandwhatitoughttobe*LegalPositivism,bycontrasttonaturallaw,holdsthatthereisnonecessaryconnectionbetweenlawandmoralityandthattheforceoflawcomesfromsomebasicsocialfactsalthoughpositivistsdifferonwhatthosefactsare*Civillaw(orcivilianlaw)isalegalsysteminspiredbyRomanlaw,theprimaryfeatureofwhichisthatlawsarewrittenintoacollection,codified,andnot(asincommonlaw)determinedbyjudges*Commonlaw,alsoknownascaselaw,islawdevelopedbyjudgesthroughdecisionsofcourtsandsimilartribunalsratherthanthroughlegislativestatutesorexecutivebranchactionA"commonlawsystem"isalegalsystemthatgivesgreatprecedentialweighttocommonlaw,ontheprinciplethatitisunfairtotreatsimilarfactsdifferentlyondifferentoccasions*Publiclawisatheoryoflawgoverningtherelationshipbetweenindividuals(citizens,companies)andthestateUnderthistheory,constitutionallaw,administrativelawandcriminallawaresubdivisionsofpubliclaw*Privatelaw(Civillaw)isthatpartofalegalsystemthatinvolvesrelationshipsbetweenindividualsThisincludesthelawofcontractsortortsandthelawofobligations*Substantivelawisthestatutoryorwrittenlawthatgovernsrightsandobligationsofthosewhoaresubjecttoit*ProcedurallawcomprisestherulesbywhichacourthearsanddetermineswhathappensincivilorcriminalproceedingsProcedurallawdealswiththemethodandmeansbywhichsubstantivelawismadeandadministered民法和物权法物权realright:theexclusiverightofdirectcontroloveraspecificresenjoyedbytheholderinaccordancewithlawTwolevels:directcontrol,useinanywaysexclusive,forbidanybodyelsetouseit,orhaverightonit,orobstructInthecivillawsystem,thereisadivisionbetweenmovableandimmovablepropertyMovablepropertyroughlycorrespondstopersonalproperty,whileimmovablepropertycorrespondstorealestateorrealproperty,andtheassociatedrightsandobligationsthereon物权的类型:所有权ownership,居住用地,,年工业用地,,年商业用地,,年综合用地,,年。用益物权usufractuaryright:Usufructisthelegalrighttouseandderiveprofitorbenefitfrompropertythatbelongstoanotherperson,aslongasthepropertyisnotdamagedEgConstructionlanduserights担保物权realrightsforsecurity:UsuallyrelatedwithdebtEgWhenthedebtorcan’tpaybackhisdebt,thepropertywhichsecurityisseton,willbesoldtoclearthedebtThecreditorhasthe抵押权mortgageoverthispropertyamortgageinitselfisnotadebt,itisthelender'ssecurityforadebt留置权Lien,egchairssellercanholdchairsuntilbuyerpays质权pledge,formovableproperty,theright’sownerhavetopossessthisproperty侵权责任形式:恢复原状recoveryRestitution,eggiveback,repair,Eliminatedangerous,Removalofobstacles损害赔偿compensationapology无因管理gestio:conductingofanotherperson'saffairswithouttheirauthorisation词汇:三段论Syllogism大前提Syllogism小前提Minorpremise结论conclusion,法律关系legalrelationship,法律事实legalfacts,产生变更消灭establish,changeorterminate,民法通则generalprinciplesofthecivillaw,民事权益civilrightsandinterests,财产关系和人身关系propertyrelationshipsandpersonalrelationships,诚实信用honestyandcredibility,民事权利能力(limitedno)thecapacityforcivilrights,建筑物区分所有权BuildingOwnership善意goodwill,公证notarization,公证文件notarized,侵权法TortisawrongthatinvolvesabreachofacivildutyowedtosomeoneelseItisdifferentiatedfromcriminalwrongdoingwhichinvolvesabreachofadutyowedtosociety,andalsodoesnotincludebreachofcontractNegligenceTorts,andIntentionalTorts词汇:理性人areasonableperson因果关系Causality刑法追诉时效limitationofprosecution,故意犯罪intentionalcrime,过失犯罪negligentcrime,犯罪主体subjectofacrime,犯罪客体objectofacrime,犯罪主观方面subjectiveelementsofacrime,犯罪的客观方面objectiveelementsofacrime,犯罪故意criminalintent,犯罪对象targetofacrime,犯罪故意criminalintentmensrea,直接故意actualintentdirectintent,间接故意indirectintent,犯罪过失criminalnegligence,疏忽大意的过失carelessnegligence,过于自信的过失negligencewithundueassumption,不能预见unforeseeableunpredictable,不能避免unavoidable,犯罪动机criminalmotive,犯罪目的criminalintentcriminalpurpose,防卫过当unjustifiableselfdefense,紧急避险actofrescuenecessity,犯罪既遂completionofacrime,犯罪未遂attemptedcrime,犯罪形态criminalpattern,犯罪预备acrimeinpreparationpreparationforacrime,犯意表示expressionforacrime,犯罪中止abandonmentdiscontinuanceofacrime,犯罪中断suspensionofacrime,行为犯behavioraloffence,危险犯potentialdamageoffence,结果犯consequentialoffence,结果加重犯aggregatedconsequentialoffence,类推legaltranzcomanalogy,定罪convictioncrimination,定罪情节circumstancesforadjudgment,定罪量刑punishmentfitsthecrime,量刑情节principleofdiscretionaryactionofsentencingprincipalofsentencing,危害行为dangerousact,因果关系causativerelation,共同犯罪complicityjointoffence,教唆犯abettor,主犯principal,从犯accessory,胁从犯accompliceunderduressunwillingfollower,帮助犯aideraccessory,累犯recidivistrepeatoffence,一般累犯commonrecidivist,法人犯罪corporatecrime,结伙犯罪gangcrime,集团犯罪organizedcrime,经济犯罪economiccrime,职务犯罪dutycrimecrimebytakingadvantageofduty,聚众犯罪assembledacrowdtocommitacrime,一罪onecrime,一罪不二罚nemobispuniturproeodemdelictonooneispunishedtwiceforthesamecrime,继续犯continuouscrime,持续犯continuouscrime,想象竟合犯imaginativejoinderofoffences,惯犯habitualoffence,结合犯combinativecrimeintegratedoffence,连续犯continuingoffence,牵连犯implicatedoffence,吸收犯Inclusiveoffenceabsorbableoffence,数罪pluralcrimes,数罪并罚joinderofpunishmentforpluralcrimes,法定最高刑maximumstatutorypenalty,法定最低刑minimumstatutorypenalty,总和刑期totaltermofsentences,并科原则doctrineofcumulationofpunishments,相加原则doctrineofaccumulation,合并原则doctrineofjoinder,累加原则cumulativeprinciple,吸收原则absorptionprinciple,限制加重原则principleoflimitativeaggravation,折衷原则doctrineofcompromise,两罚制dualdoublepunishment,单罚制singlepunishment,漏罪omittedcrime,先并后减reductionaftercombinedsentence,新罪newlycommittedcrime,先减后并combinationofsentenceafterreduction,刑罚个别化原则principleofindividualizationofpunishment,刑罚经济原则principleofeconomizationofpunishment,刑罚人道主义原则principleofhumanitarianismofpunishment,刑罚效益原则principleofutilityofpunishment,刑罚的种类classificationofcriminalpennalties,生命刑punishmentdeprivinglife,财产刑punishmentagainstproperty,权利刑punishmentofdeprivingrights,主刑principalpenalties,管制publicsurveillance,拘役penalservitude,有期徒刑fixedtermimprisonment,无期徒刑lifeimprisonment,死刑deathpenalty,死缓deathsentencewithatwoyearreprieve,附加刑accessorypenalties,剥夺政治权利deprivationofpoliticalright,没收财产forfeitureofproperty,罚金criminalfine驱逐出境renvoi,量刑sentencing,犯罪事实criminalfact,犯罪性质criminalcharacter,犯罪情节criminalcircumstancesofcrime,情节严重graveseriouscircumstances,情节特别严重circumstancesareparticularlyserious,情节恶劣circumstancesarewicked,后果特别严重withparticularlyseriousconsequence,量刑情节circumstanceforsentencing,法定情节statutorycircumstances,从轻处罚lighterpunishment,减轻处罚mitigationofpenaltybelowminimumstatutoryprescript,从重处罚heavierpunishment,加重处罚aggravationofpenaltybelowminimumstatutoryprescript,免予处罚exemptionfrompunishment,酌定情节discretionarycircumstances,自首surrenderoneselftojustice,坦白confessionofone’soffence,自动投案voluntarysurrendertojustice,立功metitoriousserviceoffset立功赎罪,假释one’sguiltbymerit,假释考验期probationperiodforparole,减刑commutationmitigationofpunishment,减刑建议书advisoryletterofcommutation,赦免legaltranzcompardon,大赦amnestygeneralpardon,特赦specialpardon,追诉时效limitationofprosecution,追诉期限deadlineofprosecution,预防犯罪preventionofcrime,缓刑probationreprieve,缓刑宣告制systemofsuspendedpronouncementofsentence,缓刑起诉制systemofsuspendedprosecution,缓刑考验期probationperiod,行刑executionexecutingpunishment,监外执行executionofsentenceoutsideprisonyetundersurveillance
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