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首页 2009年12月大学英语四级

2009年12月大学英语四级.doc

2009年12月大学英语四级

鍑九娃娃
2019-06-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2009年12月大学英语四级doc》,可适用于综合领域

年月大学英语四级考试试题PartⅠWriting(minutes)注意:此部分试题在答题卡上。Directions:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteashortessayonthetopicofCreatingaGreenCampusYoushouldwriteatleastwordsfollowingtheoutlinegivenbelow:建设绿色校园很重要绿色校园不仅指绿色的环境……为了建设绿色校园,我们应该……CreatingaGreenCampusPartⅡReadingComprehension(SkimmingandScanning)(minutes)Directions:Inthispart,youwillhaveminutestogooverthepassagequicklyandanswerthequestionsonAnswerSheetForquestions,choosethebestanswerfromthefourchoicesmarkedA),B),C)andD)Forquestion,completethesentenceswiththeinformationgiveninthepassageCollegestakinganotherlookatvalueofmeritbasedaidGoodgradesandhightestsscoresstillmatteralottomanycollegesastheyawardfinancialaidButwithlowincomestudentsprojectedtomakeupaneverlargershareofthecollegeboundpopulationincomingyears,someschoolsarereexaminingwhetherthataid,typicallyknownas“meritaid”,isthemosteffectiveuseofpreciousinstitutionaldollarsGeorgeWashingtonUniversityinWashington,DC,forexample,saidlastweekthatitwouldcutthevalueofitsaveragemeritscholarshipsbyaboutonethirdandreducethenumberofrecipients(接受者),pouringthesavings,about$million,intoneedbasedaidAlleghenyCollegeinMeadville,Pa,madeasimilardecisionthreeyearsagoNow,HamiltonCollegeinClinton,NY,saysitwillphaseoutmeritscholarshipsaltogetherNocurrentmeritaidrecipientswilllosetheirscholarships,butneedbasedaidalonewillbeawardedbeginningwithstudentsenteringinfallNotallcollegesoffermeritaidgenerally,themoreselectiveaschool,thelesslikelyitistodosoHarvardandPrinceton,forexample,offergenerousneedbasedpackages,butmanyfamilieswhodon’tmeetneedeligibility(资格)havebeenwillingtopaywhatevertheymustforabignameschoolForsmallregionalcollegesthatstrugglejusttofillseats,meritaidcanbeanimportantrevenuebuilderbecausemanyrecipientsstillpayenoughtuitiondollarsoverandabovethescholarshipamounttokeeptheinstitutionrunningButforrankingsconsciousschoolsinbetween,meritaidhasservedprimarilyasatooltorecruittopstudentsandtoimprovetheiracademicprofits“They’retryingtobuystudents,”saysSkidmoreCollegeeconomistSandyBaumStudiesshowmeritaidalsotendstobenefitdisproportionatelystudentswhocouldaffordtoenrollwithoutit“Aswelooktothefuture,weseeamorepressingneedtoinvestinneedbasedaid,”saysMonicaInzer,deanofadmissionandfinancialaidatHamilton,whichhasofferedmeritscholarshipsforyearsDuringthattime,itroseinUSNewsWorldReport’srankingofthebestliberalartscolleges,fromtoMeritaid,whichbenefitedaboutstudentsayear,oraboutofitsstudentbody,atacostofabout$millionayear,“serveduswell,”Inzersays,but“tobediscountingthepriceforfamiliesthatdon’tneedfinancialaiddoesn’tfeelrightanymore”Needbasedaidremainsbyfarthelargestshareofallstudentaid,whichincludesstate,federalandinstitutionalgrantsButmeritaid,offeredprimarilybyschoolsandstates,isgrowingfaster,bothoverallandattheinstitutionallevelBetweenand,institutionalmeritaidaloneincreased,comparedwithforneedbasedgrantsAtleaststatesalsooffermeritaid,typicallyinabidtoenrolltopstudentsinthestate’spublicinstitutionsButinrecentyears,agrowingchorus(异口同声)ofcriticshasbegunpressuringschoolstodropthepracticeRecentdecisionsbyHamiltonandothersmaybe“asignthatpeoplearestartingtorealizethatthere’sthisdestructivecompetitiongoingon,”saysBaum,coauthorofarecentCollegeReportthatraisesconcernsabouttheroleofinstitutionalaidnotbasedonneedDavidLaird,presidentoftheMinnesotaPrivateCollegeCouncil,saysmanyofhisschoolswouldliketoreducetheirmeritaidbutfearthatindoingso,theywouldlosetopstudentstotheircompetitors“Noonecantakeonesidedaction,”saysLaird,whoisexploringwhethertoseekanexemption(豁免)fromfederalantitrustlawssomembercollegescandiscusshowtheycouldjointlyreducemeritaid,“Thisisamerrygoroundthat’sgoingveryfast,andnoneoftheinstitutionsbelievetheycansustaintherisksoftryingtobreakawaybythemselves”Acomplicatingfactoristhatmeritaidhasbecomesopopularwithmiddleincomefamilies,whodon’tqualifyforneedbasedaid,thatmanyhavecometodependonitAnd,astuitionscontinuetoincrease,thelinebetweenmeritandneedblursThat’sonereasonAlleghenyCollegedoesn’tplantodropmeritaidentirely“Westillbelieveinrewardingsuperiorachievementsandknowthatthesetopstudentstrulyvaluethescholarship,”saysScottFriedhoff,Allegheny’svicepresidentforenrollmentEmoryUniversityinAtlanta,whichboastsa$billionendowment(捐赠),meanwhile,istakinganotherapproachThisyear,itannounceditwouldeliminateloansforneedystudentsandcapthemformiddleincomefamiliesAtthesametime,itwouldexpanditsyearoldmeritprogram“Yeah,we’replayingthemeritgame,”acknowledgesTomLancaster,associatedeanforundergraduateeducationButithasitsstrongpoint,too,hesays“Thefactofthematteris,it’snotjustaboutthelowestincomepeopleIt’stheaverageAmericanmiddleclassfamilywho’sbeingpricedoutofthemarket”*Afewwordsaboutmeritbasedaid:Meritbasedaidisaidofferedtostudentswhoachieveexcellenceinagivenarea,andisgenerallyknownasacademic,athleticandartisticmeritscholarshipsAcademicmeritscholarshipsarebasedonstudents’grades,GPAandoverallacademicperformanceduringhighschoolTheyaretypicallymeantforstudentsgoingstraighttocollegerightafterhighschoolHowever,therearescholarshipsforcurrentcollegestudentswithexceptionalgradesaswellThesemeritscholarshipsusuallyhelpstudentspaytuitionbills,andtheycanberenewedeachyearaslongastherecipientscontinuetoqualifyInsomecases,studentsmayneedtoberecommendedbytheirschoolorateacheraspartofthequalificationprocess来源:恒星英语学习网Athleticmeritscholarshipsaremeantforstudentsthatexcel(突出)insportsofanykind,fromfootballtotrackandfieldeventsRecommendationforthesescholarshipsisrequired,sinceexceptionalathleticperformancehastoberecognizedbyacoachorareferee(裁判)ApplicantsneedtosendinatapecontainingtheirbestperformanceArtisticmeritscholarshipsrequirethatapplicantsexcelinagivenartisticareaThisgenerallyincludesanycreativefieldsuchasart,design,fashion,music,danceorwritingApplyingforartisticmeritscholarshipsusuallyrequiresthatstudentssubmitaportfolio(选辑)ofsomesort,whetherthatincludesacollectionofartwork,arecordingofamusicalperformanceoravideoofthemdancingWithmoreandmorelowincomestudentspursuinghighereducation,anumberofcollegesareA)offeringstudentsmoremeritbasedaidB)revisingtheirfinancialaidpoliciesC)increasingtheamountoffinancialaidD)changingtheiradmissionprocessesWhatdidAlleghenyCollegeinMeadvilledothreeyearsagoA)IttriedtoimplementanovelfinancialaidprogramB)Itadded$milliontoitsneedbasedaidprogramC)ItphasedoutitsmeritbasedscholarshipsaltogetherD)ItcutsitsmeritbasedaidtohelptheneedystudentsThechiefpurposeofrankingsconsciouscollegesinofferingmeritaidistoA)improveteachingqualityB)boosttheirenrollmentsC)attractgoodstudentsD)increasetheirrevenuesMonicaInzer,deanofadmissionandfinancialaidatHamilton,believesA)itdoesn’tpaytospend$millionayeartoraiseitsrankingB)itgivesstudentsmotivationtoawardacademicachievementsC)it’sillogicaltousesomuchmoneyononlyofitsstudentsD)it’snotrighttogiveaidtothosewhocanaffordthetuitionInrecentyears,meritbasedaidhasincreasedmuchfasterthanneedbasedaidduetoA)moregovernmentfundingtocollegesB)fiercecompetitionamonginstitutionsC)theincreasingnumberoftopstudentsD)schools’improvedfinancialsituationsWhatistheattitudeofmanyprivatecollegestowardmeritaid,accordingtoDavidLairdA)TheywouldliketoseeitreducedB)TheyregarditasanecessaryevilC)TheythinkitdoesmoreharmthangoodD)TheyconsideritunfairtomiddleclassfamiliesWhydoesn’tAlleghenyCollegeplantodropmeritaidentirelyA)RaisingtuitionshavemadecollegeunaffordableformiddleclassfamiliesB)Withrisingincomes,fewerstudentsareapplyingforneedbasedaidC)ManystudentsfrommiddleincomefamilieshavecometorelyonitD)RisingincomeshavedisqualifiedmanystudentsforneedbasedaidAnnualrenewalofacademicmeritscholarshipsdependsonwhethertherecipientsremainApplicantsforathleticmeritscholarshipsneedarecommendationfromacoachorarefereewhotheirexceptionalathleticperformanceApplicantsforartisticmeritscholarshipsmustproduceevidencetoshowtheirinaparticularartisticfieldPartⅣReadingComprehension(ReadinginDepth)(minutes)SectionADirections:Inthissection,thereisapassagewithtenblanksYouarerequiredtoselectonewordforeachblankfromalistofchoicesgiveninawordbankfollowingthepassageReadthepassagethroughcarefullybeforemakingyourchoicesEachchoiceinthebankisidentifiedbyaletterPleasemarkthecorrespondingletterforeachitemonAnswerSheetwithasinglelinethroughthecentreYoumaynotuseanyofthewordsinthebankmorethanonceQuestionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassageInfamilieswithtwoworkingparents,fathersmayhavemoreimpactonachild’slanguagedevelopmentthanmothers,anewstudysuggestsResearchersfamiliesformchildcarecentersbeforetheirchildrenwereayearold,interviewingeachtoestablishincome,levelofeducationandchildcarearrangementsOverall,itwasagroupofwellclassfamilies,withmarriedparentsbothlivinginthehomeWhenthechildrenwere,researchersvideotapedthemathomeinfreeplaysessionswithbothparents,alloftheirspeechThestudywillappearintheNovemberissueofTheJournalofAppliedDevelopmentalPsychologyThescientistsmeasuredthenumberofutterance(话语)oftheparents,thenumberofdifferentwordstheyused,thecomplexityoftheirsentencesandotheroftheirspeechOnaverage,fathersspokelessthanmothersdid,buttheydidnotdifferinthelengthofutterancesorproportionofquestionsaskedFinally,theresearchersthechildren’sspeechatage,usingastandardizedlanguagetestTheonlypredictorsofhighscoresonthetestwerethemother’slevelofeducation,theofchildcareandthenumberofdifferentwordsthefatherusedTheresearchersarewhythefather’sspeech,andnotthemother’s,hadaneffect“It’swellthatthemother’slanguagedoeshaveanimpact,”saidNadyaPancsofar,theleadauthorofthestudyItcouldbethatthehighfunctioningmothersinthestudyhadhadastronginfluenceontheirchildren’sspeechdevelopment,MsPancsofarsaid,“oritmaybethatmothersareinawaywedidn’tmeasureinthestudy”注意:此部分试题在答题卡上。A)alreadyB)analyzedC)aspectsD)charactersE)contributingF)describingG)establishedH)qualityI)quotedJ)recordingK)recruitedL)totalM)unconsciousN)unsureO)yetSectionBDirections:TherearepassagesinthissectionEachpassageisfollowedbysomequestionsorunfinishedstatementsForeachofthemtherearefourchoicesmarkedA),B),C)andD)YoushoulddecideonthebestchoiceandmarkthecorrespondingletteronAnswerSheetwithasinglelinethroughthecentrePassageOneQuestionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassageThroughoutthislong,tenseelection,everyonehasfocusedonthepresidentialcandidatesandhowthey’llchangeAmericaRightlyso,butselfishly,I’mmorefascinatedbyMichelleObamaandwhatshemightbeabletodo,notjustforthiscountry,butformeasanAfricanAmericanwomanAsthepotentialFirstLady,shewouldhavetheworld’sattentionAndthatmeansthatforthefirsttimepeoplewillhaveachancetogetupcloseandpersonalwiththetypeofAfricanAmericanwomantheysorarelyseeUsually,thelivesofblackwomengolargelyunexaminedTheprevailingtheoryseemstobethatwe’reallhottemperedsinglemotherswhocan’tkeepamanEvenintheworldofmakebelieve,blackwomenstillcan’tescapethestereotypeofbeingeyerolling,oversexedfemalesraisedbyournevermarried,alcoholic(酗酒的)mothersTheseimageshavehelpeddefinethewayallwomenareviewed,includingMichelleObamaBeforesheevergetsthechancetocommittoacause,charityorfoundationasFirstLady,hermosturgentandperhapsmostcomplicateddutymaybesimpletobeherselfItwon’tbeeasyBecausefewmainstreampublicationshavedoneindepthfeaturesonregularAfricanAmericanwomen,littleisknownaboutwhoweare,whatwethinkandwhatwefaceonaregularbasisForbetterorworse,MichellewillrepresentusallJustasshewillhavehercritics,shewillalsohavemillionsoffanswhousuallyhavelittleinterestintheFirstLadyManyAfricanAmericanblogshavewrittenaboutwhatthey’dliketoseeMichellebringtotheWhiteHousemainlyshowingtheworldthatablackwomancansupporthermanandraiseastrongblackfamilyMichellewillhavetoworktopleaseeveryoneanimpossibletaskButformanyAfricanAmericanwomenlikeme,justalittleofherpoise(沉着),confidenceandintelligencewillgoalongwayinchanginganimagethat’sbeenaroundforfartoolongWhydoesMichelleObamaholdastrongfascinationfortheauthorA)SheservesasarolemodelforAfricanwomenB)ShepossessesmanyadmirablequalitiesbecomingaFirstLadyC)ShewillpresenttotheworldanewimageofAfricanAmericanwomenD)ShewillpaycloserattentiontotheinterestsofAfricanAmericanwomenWhatisthecommonstereotypeofAfricanAmericanwomenaccordingtotheauthorA)TheyarevictimsofviolenceB)TheyareofaninferiorviolenceC)TheyusequitealotofbodylanguageD)TheyliveoncharityandsocialwelfareWhatdomanyAfricanAmericanswriteaboutintheirblogsA)WhetherMichellecanliveuptothehighexpectationsofherfansB)HowMichelleshouldbehaveasapublicfigureC)HowproudtheyaretohaveablackwomanintheWhiteHouseD)WhatMichelleshoulddoaswifeandmotherintheWhiteHouseWhatdoestheauthorsayaboutMichelleObamaasaFirstLadyA)Howevermanyfansshehas,sheshouldremainmodest,B)Sheshouldn’tdisappointtheAfricanAmericancommunityC)Howeverhardshetries,shecan’texpecttopleaseeverybodyD)ShewillgiveprioritytoAfricanAmericanwomen’sconcernsWhatdomanyAfricanAmericanwomenhopeMichelleObamawilldoA)HelpchangetheprevailingviewaboutblackwomenB)HelpherhusbandinthetaskofchangingAmericaC)OutshinepreviousFirstLadyD)FullydisplayherfinequalitiesPassageTwoQuestionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassageWhennextyear’scropofhighschoolgraduatesarriveatOxfordUniversityinthefallof,they’llbejoinedbyanewfaceAndrewHamilton,theyearoldprovost(教务长)ofYale,who’llbecomeOxford’svicechancellorapositionequivalenttouniversitypresidentinAmericaHamiltonisn’ttheonlyeducatorcrossingtheAtlanticSchoolsinFrance,Egypt,Singapore,etc,havealsorecentlymadetoplevelhiresfromabroadHighereducationhasbecomeabigandcompetitivebusinessnowadays,andlikesomanybusinesses,it’sgoneglobalYetthetalentflowisn’tuniversalHighlevelpersonneltendtoheadinonlyonedirection:outwardfromAmericaThechiefreasonisthatAmericanschoolsdon’ttendtoseriouslyconsiderlookingabroadForexample,whentheboardoftheUniversityofColoradosearchedforanewpresident,itwantedaleaderfamiliarwiththestategovernment,amajorsourceoftheuniversity’sbudget“Wedidn’tdoanyglobalconsideration,”saysPatriciaHayes,theboard’schairTheboardultimatelypickedBruceBenson,ayearoldColoradobusinessmanandpoliticalactivist(活动家)whoislikelytodowellinthemaintaskofmodernuniversitypresidents:fundraisingFundraisingisadistinctivelyAmericanthing,sinceUSschoolsrelyheavilyondonationsThefundraisingabilityislargelyaproductofexperienceandnecessityManyEuropeanuniversities,meanwhile,arestillmostlydependentongovernmentfundingButgovernmentsupporthasfailedtokeeppacewithrisingstudentnumberThedeclineingovernmentsupporthasmadefundingraisinganincreasingnecessaryabilityamongadministratorsandhashiringcommitteeshungryforAmericansInthepastfewyears,prominentschoolsaroundtheworldhavejoinedthetrendIn,whenCambridgeUniversityappointedAlisonRichard,anotherformerYaleprovost,asitsvicechancellor,theuniversitypubliclystressedthatinherpreviousjobshehadoverseen“amajorstrengtheningofYale’sfinancialposition”Ofcourse,fundraisingisn’ttheonlyskilloutsidersofferTheglobalizationofeducationmeansmoreuniversitieswillbeseekingheadswithinternationalexperienceofsomekindofpromoteinternationalprogramsandattractaglobalstudentbodyForeignerscanofferafreshperspectiveonestablishedpracticesWhatisthecurrenttrendinhighereducationdiscussedinthepassageA)InstitutionsworldwidearehiringadministratorsfromtheUSB)AlotofpoliticalactivistsarebeingrecruitedasadministratorsC)AmericanuniversitiesareenrollingmoreinternationalstudentsD)UniversitypresidentsarepayingmoreattentiontofundingraisingWhatisthechiefconsiderationofAmericanuniversitieswhenhiringtopleveladministratorsA)ThepoliticalcorrectnessB)TheirabilitytoraisefundsC)TheirfameinacademiccirclesD)TheiradministrativeexperienceWhatdowelearnaboutEuropeanuniversitiesfromthepassageA)ThetuitionstheychargehavebeenrisingconsiderablyB)TheiroperationisunderstrictgovernmentsupervisionC)TheyarestrengtheningtheirpositionbyglobalizationD)MostoftheirrevenuescomefromthegovernmentCambridgeUniversityappointedAlisonRichardasitsvicechancellorchieflybecauseA)shewasknowntobegoodatraisingmoneyB)shecouldhelpstrengthenitstieswithYaleC)sheknewhowtoattractstudentsoverseasD)shehadboostedYale’sacademicstatusInwhatwaydotopleveladministratorsfromabroadcontributetouniversitydevelopmentA)Theycanenhancetheuniversity’simageB)TheywillbringwiththemmoreinternationalfacultyC)TheywillviewalotofthingsfromanewperspectiveD)Theycansetupnewacademicdisciplines

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