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首页 高考英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练[二]

高考英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练[二].doc

高考英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练[二]

叶万顷
2019-06-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《高考英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练[二]doc》,可适用于综合领域

高中英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练重难点讲解:Bothofmyparentsinsistedacomputerforme,butIdon’tthinkitisnecessaryAtobuy                         BbuyingConbuying                    Dinbuying陷阱:容易误选B误认为insist后不能接不定式但可以接动名词。分析:答案应选C。其实动词insist后既不能接不定式也不能接动名词因为insist通常用作不及物动词若语义上需接宾语要借助介词on或upon即用于insistonupon(doing)sth但它有时的确也可用作及物动词不过其宾语通常只能是that从句而不能是普通的名词、代词或动名词。如:Heinsistedonseeingherhome他坚持送她回家。Iinsistedthathe(should)stay我坚持要他留下。“Doyouhaveanythingmore,sir”“NoYoucanhavearestordosomethingelse”Atyping                         BtobetypedCtyped                          Dtotype陷阱:容易误选D根据havesthtodo这一常用结构推出。分析:最佳答案是B。确实在“have宾语不定式”结构中用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表示被动含义如Ihavesomeclothestowash等即尽管其中的someclothes与其后的不定式towash具有被动关系但却习惯上用主动式表示被动意义。但值得指出的是这类句型的主语与其后的不定式具有主动关系如Ihavesomeclothestowash中的towash就是由该句主语I来完成的。而上面一题的情形有所不同即其中的totype这一动作不是由句子主语you来完成的而是由说话者“我”来完成的。比较:AreyougoingtoShanghaiDoyouhaveanythingtotaketoyourson你要去上海吗?你有什么东西要带给你儿子吗?I’mgoingtoShanghainextweekIhavealotofthingstotakewithme下个星期我要去上海我随身要带很多东西去。Shetookherson,ranoutofthehouse,himinthecaranddrovequicklytothenearestdoctor’sofficeAput                             BtoputCputting                        Dhavingput陷阱:容易误选B或C误认为这考查非谓语动词的用法。分析:正确答案选A。句中的took,ran,put,drove为四并列的谓语动词其时态应一致。类似地如(答案选A):Igotoutofthetaxi,thefareanddashedintothestationApaid                            BpayingCtopay                         Dhavingpaid但是下面一题稍有不同:Hearingthenews,herushedout,thebookonthetableanddisappearedintothedistanceAleftlainopen               BleavinglyingopenCleavinglieopened        Dleftlayopened此题答案选Bleaving在此表结果lyingopen与其前的动词leave有关leave后接现在分词作宾语补足语表示使某人或某物处于做某事的状态中。ThebossinsistedthateveryminutemadefulluseoftheworkwellAbe,todo                     Bwas,doingCbe,doing                     Dwas,todo陷阱:容易误选B。分析:其实正确答案是A。分析如下:()第一空填be是因为insisted后接that从句从句谓语要用“should动词原形”这样的虚拟语气其中的should也可省略。()第二空要填todo是因为此句谓语为被动语态假若将此句转换成主动语态则是…shouldmakefulluseofeveryminutetodotheworkwell,句中涉及makeuseof…todosth(利用……做某事)这一结构。另外还有makethemostof(尽量利用)makethebestof(尽量利用)等短语也可能用于此类试题。请看以下类似例子:()TheoldprofessortolduseverypartofthematerialsshouldbemadeuseofthepowerstationAtobuild                       BbuildingCbuild                           Dbuilt此题答案选A不是B。为便于理解可先考虑以下结构:…makeuseofeverypartofthematerialstobuildthepowerstation由此可见makeuseof的宾语是everypartofthematerials其后的不定式tobuildthepowerstation为目的状语。()DoesthewayyouthoughtofthewatercleanmakeanysenseAmaking                        BtomakeChowtomake               Dhavingmade此题答案选B不是A。句子主语是thewayyouthoughtof是修饰主语的定语从句不定式tomakethewaterclean也是修饰主语的定语也就是说句子主语带有两个定语修饰语。ThemanagersdiscussedtheplanthattheywouldliketoseethenextyearAcarriedout                   BcarryingoutCcarryout                     Dtocarryout陷阱:几个干扰项均有可能误选。分析:答案选A。此句结构较复杂现分析如下:()thattheywouldliketoseethenextyear是修饰名词theplan的定语从句。()由于theplan与空格处的carryout有被动关系故填过去分词carriedout。请做以下类似试题:()Whodoyouthinkyou’dlikewithyou,aboyoragirlAtohavego                   BtohavetogoCtohavegone                Dhavingtogo在确定答案之前我们先来看看下面这个句子:IthinkI’dliketohaveaboygowithme句中的go要用原形这是因为其前有表示使役的动词have。在此句中假若对名词aboy提问便可得出:Whodoyouthinkyou’dliketohavegowithyou对照上面一题答案很显然是A。()WhodidthebosshiscarthisTimeAmakewash                  BmaketowashCmakewashing              Dmakingtowash在做此题之前也请先看看下面这个句子:ThebossmadeJackwashhiscarthisTime假若对句中的名词Jack提问便可得出:WhodidthebossmakewashhiscarthisTime由此可知上面题答案为A。()YoucanneverimaginewhatgreatdifficultyIhadyourhouseallbymyselfAfound                          BfindingCtofind                         Dforfinding此题答案选B。考查的基本结构是havegreatdifficulty(in)doingsth。Howhappyweare!TheholidaywehavebeenlookingforwardatlastAtohascome                 BtohavecomeCtohavingcome            Dhascome陷阱:几个干扰项均有可能误选。分析:其实正确答案是A。大家知道短语lookforwardto意为“盼望”其中的to是介词而不是不定式符号所以后接动词要用动名词许多同学据此便选择了C。但问题是句中介词to的宾语不是havecome而是theholiday。正解的句子分析是:theholiday为句子主语wehavebeenlookingforwardto是修饰主语的定语从句(介词to的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词that被省略)hascome是句子谓语。请做以下类似试题:()ThemanyoureferredtojustnowAcomes                         BcomeCcoming                       Dcame答案选D句子主语为themanyoureferredto为修饰theman的定语从句空白处填came为句子谓语。()ThetheoryhestickstotobeofnouseinourstudiesAproves                        BproveCproving                       Dbeproved答案选Ahesticksto是修饰主语thetheory的定语从句句子的基本结构为Thetheoryprovestobeofnouseinourstudies()TheworkhedevotedhisTimetoworthpraisingAwas                            BbeCbeing                          Dbeen答案选AhedevotedhisTimeto是修饰主语thework的定语从句。句子的基本结构为Theworkwasworthpraising()IthinkthisistheveryworkthatwemustfinishherAtohelp                        BhelpChelping                        Dhelped答案是A。句中空格处填的动词help并不是finish的宾语正确的句子分析是:thatImustfinish是修饰名词theverywork的定语从句finish的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词that其后的不定式tohelpher是目的状语。()Whichdoyouenjoyyourweekend,swimmingorfishingAspending                     BbeingspentCspend                          Dtospend答案选D。enjoy的宾语是句首的疑问词which不是其后的动词spending。此题中的tospend…用作目的状语。()WhattheboyenjoystohavearoomofhisownAbeing                          BtobeCis                                Dare答案选C而不选A。whattheboyenjoys是主语从句空格处填的is为谓语动词。()NothingthathesuggestedtobeofanyuseAprove     Bproved      Cproving      Dtoprove答案选B而不选C。句子主语是nothingthathesuggested是修饰主语的定语从句suggested的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词that而不是其后的动词句子谓语是proved。全句意为“他建议的情况没有一条是有用的。” ()TheoldhousewepaidavisitatthetopofthehillAstanding                      BtostandCtostanding                  Dtostands答案选D。wepaidavisitto是修饰theoldhouse的定语从句句中的stands为主句谓语。()ThelifeheisnowusedquitedifferentfromoursAis                                BtobeCtobeing                       Dtois答案选D。句中heisnowusedto是修饰thelife的定语从句to后的动词is是句子的谓语句意为“他现在习惯的这种生活与我们的生活很不相同”。()TheworkhepaidspecialattentiontonothingAcame                          BtocomeCtocoming                    Dtocame答案选D。句中的hepaidspecialattentionto是修饰thework的定语从句to后的动词came是句子的谓语句意为“他特别关注的那项工作泡汤了”。()TheresultwhathesaidwouldleadhisregretinthefutureAis                                BtobeCtobeing                       Dtowas答案选D。句中whathesaidwouldleadto是修饰theresult的定语从句to后的动词was是句子的谓语句意为“他所说的话将导致的结果是他今后的后悔”。theroadroundtotherightandyou’llfindhishouseAFollow                        BFollowingCTofollow                    DFollowed陷阱:容易误选B或C误认为这是非谓语动词作状语。分析:正确答案选A。根据句中的连词and可推知它是一个并列句。假若将此题改为下面这样则答案为B:theroadroundtotheright,you’llfindhishouseAFollow                        BFollowingCTofollow                    DFollowed但是若改成下面一题这样则答案为C(不定式短语表目的):theroadroundtotheright,theblindmanaskedaboytoguidehimAFollow                        BFollowingCTofollow                    DFollowed请做以下试题答案均选A都是因为句中的并列连词and(填空句为祈使句):()tothetopofthehill,andyoucanseethewholeofthetownAGet                             BTogetCGetting                        DHavinggot()themilkandsetagoodexampletotheotherchildrenADrink                          BTodrinkCDrinking                      DHavingdrinking()me,andthentrytocopywhatIdoAWatch                         BWatchingCTowatch                    DHavewatching()throughthisbookandtellmewhatyouthinkofitALook                           BLookingCTolook                       DHavinglooked()itwithmeandI’llseewhatIcandoALeave                          BLeavingCIfyouleave                 DWhenleft有时不用连词连接句子而用破折号情况也是一样(答案均选A)。如:()downtheradiothebaby’sasleepinthenextroomATurn                           BTurningCtoturn                        DTohaveturned()someofthisjuiceperhapsyouwilllikeitATry                             BTryingCTotry                         DTohavetried以下各题也应选A是因为句中的从属连词when,before,until等(填空句为祈使句):()himenoughTimetogethomebeforeyoutelephoneAGive                           BTogiveCGiving                         DGiven()leftwhenyougettotheendofthestreetAKeep                           BKeepingCTokeep                      DKept()yourhandoveryourmouthwhenyoucoughAPut                             BPuttingCToput                        DTobeputting()untilthelightshaveturnedtogreenAWait                           BTowaitCWaiting                       DHavingwaited()thepiecesofclothwithaloosestitchbeforefinallysewingthemtogetherAJoin                            BTojoinCJoining                        DJoined以下各题也应选A因为填空句为祈使句:()Idon’twanttolistenalongstoryjustmetheresultAtell                              BtellingCtotell                          Dtobetelling()Whystandtherewatchingandhelpus!Acome                          BcomingCtocome                      Dtobecoming()Don’twasteyourmoneyonsillythingsitAsave                            BtosaveCsaving                         Dhavingsaved()Firstthericebywashingit,thenitinboilingwaterAprepare,cook              Bpreparing,cookingCpreparing,cook            Dprepare,cooking()Totesteggs,theminabowlofwater:iftheyfloatthey’rebad,iftheysinkthey’regoodAput                             BputtingCtoput                          Dtobeputting但是请注意类似下面这样的题目情形有所不同所填部分为目的状语(用不定式即答案选B):()Frenchwell,shewenttoFrancetolivewithhiscousinsAStudy                          BTostudyCStudying                     DHavingstudied()lateinthemorning,MrSmithturnedoffthealarmASleep                          BTosleepCSleeping                      DHavingslept()thefliesout,wehadtoshutallthedoorsandwindowsAKeep                           BTokeepCKeeping                       DHavingkept()theirservice,theworkersofthehotelareactiveinlearningEnglishAImproving                   BToimproveCImprove                      DHavingimproved【典型例题】Heisamanoffewwords,andseldomspeaksuntiltoAspoken                        BspeakingCspeak                          DbespokenWhenIhandedthereporttoJohn,hesaidthatGeorgewasthepersonAtosend                        BforsendingitCtosenditto                 DforsendingittoonTime,thismedicinewillbequiteeffective ATaking                        BBeingtakenCTaken                         DHavingtakenThefilmstarwalkedtohiscar,acrowdofjournalistsAfollowedby                 BfollowingbyCtofollow                     DtobefollowedbyAfterdescribingtheplannedimprovements,shewentonhowmuchtheywouldcostAtoexplain                    BexplainingCtobeexplaining            DhavingexplainedPleaseexcusemeyourletterbymistakeAtoopen                       BtohaveopenedCforopening                  DinopeningPleaseremembertheplantswhileI’mawayAwatering                      BtobewateringCtowater                      DbeingwateringCertainlyIpostedyourletterIrememberitAposting                        BtopostCtobeposting                DhavepostedStopmetohurryupIcanonlygosofastAtotell                          BtellingCtohavetold                 DhavingtoldRememberoffthelightwhentobedAturning,going              Btoturn,togoCturning,togo               Dtoturn,goingTime,he’llmakeafirstclasstennisplayerAHavinggiven                BTogiveCGiving                         DGivenin,HarvardisoneofthemostfamousuniversitiesintheUnitedStatesABeingfounded              BItwasfoundedCFounded                      DFoundingTheladysaidshewouldbuyagiftforherdaughterwiththeAdollarsremained      BdollarstoremainCremaineddollars      DremainingdollarsThepictureonthewallispaintedbymynephewAhavinghung                 BhangingChangs                          DbeinghungWithalotofdifficultproblems,thenewlyelectedpresidentishavingahardTimeAsettled                         BsettingCtosettle                       DbeingsettledHavingatripabroadiscertainlygoodfortheoldcouple,butitremainswhethertheywillenjoyitAtosee                          BtobeseenCseeing                         DseenTonywasveryunhappyfortothepartyAhavingnotbeeninvited Bnothavinginvited Chavingnotinvited         Dnothavingbeeninvited“GoodmorningCanIhelpyou”“I’dliketohavethispackage”Abeweighed                  BtobeweighedCtoweigh                      DweighedWhathavewesaidhersohappyAmakes                         BtomakeCmade                          DhasmadeWhatworriedthechildmostwastovisithismotherinthehospitalAhisnotallowing            BhisnotbeingallowedChisbeingnotallowed     Dhavingnotbeingallowed“Whichsweaterisyours”“TheoneNo”Athatmarked                 BwasmarkedwithCwhichmarked              DmarkedwithIfthecarwon’tstart,itAtrypush                      BtrypushingCtotrypushing              DtotrytopushTheystayedupuntilmidnighttheoldyearoutandthenewyearinAandsaw                      BtoseeCseeing                         Dforseeing答案与解析:选A。untilspokento可视为untilheisspokento之略。选C不定式短语tosenditto用作状语修饰其前的名词theperson。注意句尾的介词to不能省略因为被修饰的名词theperson为介词to的逻辑宾语。选C。thismedicine与动词take为被动关系故用过去分词。选A。从句意上看人群跟在明星后面反过来明星便是被人群跟着。选A。goondoingsth=继续做同一事情goontodosth=做完某事后续继做某事。选C。excusesbfordoingsth意为“原谅某人做了某事”。选C。rememberdoingsth=记住曾经做过的事remembertodosth=记住要做的事。选A。rememberdoingsth=记住曾经做过的事remembertodosth=记住要做的事。选B。根据下文的Icanonlygosofast知前文应是叫对方不要老催自己快走。比较:stopdoingsth=停止做某事stoptodosth=停下正在做的事去干另一事。选D。一是分清以下两个结构:remembertodosth=记住做某事rememberdoingsth=记住曾做过某事二是注意whengoingtobed相当于whenyougotobed。选D。由于动词give与其逻辑主语he是动宾关系故用过去分词即选D。其中GivenTime可视为IfheisgivenTime之略。C。由于Harvard(哈佛大学)与found(建立)是被动关系且因句中有in故选C。注意不能选B否则前后两句之间缺少必要的连词。选D由于remain为不及物动词所以包含过去分词remained的A和C不宜选(因为两者均含有被动意味)选项B也不宜选不定式toremain用作修饰dollars的后置定语由于彼此之间有逻辑上的动宾关系故不妥(因为remain不及物)。现在分词remaining的意思是“剩下的“。选B。动词hang表示“悬挂”时可用作及物或不及物动词此处填hanging或hung均可但不能填beinghung因为它表示动作正在进行而此处表示的是一种悬挂的状态。选C。“with名词不定式”的意思是“有……要……”。又如:Ican’tgooutwithalltheseclothestowash 要洗这些衣服我无法出去了。WithsuchgoodcardrestocarryouttheParty’spolicywefeelsafe有这样的好干部执行党的政策我们感到放心。选B。remain作“尚需”解是连系动词其后要接不定式作表语。由于see与it(形式主语指whethertheywillenjoyit)是动宾关系因此用不定式的被动式。选D。否定词not应放在动名词之前故排除A、C又因为Tony与invite是被动关系故选D。选D。“have名词或代词过去分词”结构在此表示“请某人做某事”。选B。tomakehersohappy是结果状语。注意词序Whathavewe…不是Whatwehave…。比较下面一题(答案选D):WhatwehavesaidhersohappyAmakes                         BtomakeCmade                          Dhasmade选B。否定词not应放在ing形式之前逻辑主语his之后由此可排除C和D又因为thechild与allow是被动关系故选B。选D。markedwith可视为whichismarkedwithNo之略。选B。注意句首为if引导的条件状语从句填空句为祈使句故第一个动词应是try不应是totry另外trydoingsth的意思是“做某事试试看有何效果”。选B。不定式表目的。【参考资料】非谓语动词(二)动词ing形式(二)ing形式:动词的ing形式也是一种非谓语动词。ing形式仍保留有动词的特征可以带有其所需要的宾语或状语而构成ing短语。ing的形式:ing有一般式和完成式。及物动词的ing还有主动语态和被动语态而不及物动词的ing则没有被动语态。现在以及物动词make和不及物动词go为例将其ing各种形式列表如下:动词语态形式及物动词make不及物动词go主动语态被动语态主动语态一般式makingbeingmadegoing完成式havingmadehavingbeenmadehavinggone    ing形式的基本用法。()作主语:Seeingisbelieving百闻不如一见。Talkingiseasierthandoing–ing作主语时如果其结构较长可用it作形式主语而将作主语的ing后置。如:Itisn’tmuchgoodwritingtothemagainIt’snousewaitinghere()作表语:HerjobiswashingandcookingMyhobbyiscollectingstamps()作宾语:①作及物动词的宾语。Shelikesdrawingverymuch②作某些短语动词的宾语。MaryisthinkingofgoingbacktoNewYork③do限定词(my,some,any,the等)ing表示“做…事”之意如:WeoftendoourcleaningonSaturdayafternoonWillyoudoanyshoppingonSaturdaythisafternoon④作介词的宾语:Hersisterisgoodatlearningphysics⑤作形容词worth,busy等的宾语:Thisbookiswellworthreading–ing作宾语带有宾语补足语时要用it作为形式宾语而将作宾语的ing后置如:WefounditnogoodtalkinglikethatDoyouthinkitnecessarytryingagain()作定语:ThesleepingchildisonlyfiveyearsoldDoyouknowthemanstandingatthegate注:ing形式作定语用时如果ing只是一个单词就位于其修饰的名词之前如果是ing短语就位于其修饰的名词之后ing作定语时被ing所修饰的名词就是该ing的逻辑主语。另外ing作定语用时其动作和句子谓语动词所表示的动作是同时进行的如果不是同时进行的就不能用ing作定语要使用定语从句如:ThegirlwhowrotealetterthereyesterdaycanspeakEnglishverywell()作宾语补足语:Wecanseesteamrisingfromthewetclothes注:当ing在复合宾语中作宾语补足语用时句中宾语就是这个ing的逻辑主语可以带有这种复合宾语的动词有see,watch,hear,observe,feel,find,have,keep等。()作状语:①时间状语:SeeingTom,Icouldn’thelpthinkingofhisbrother分词在句中作时间状语时其前一般可加when或while如:Whencrossingstreet,youmustbecareful②原因状语:Beingill,hedidn’tgotoschoolyesterday③方式或伴随状语:MarystoodattheschoolgatewaitingforBetty主动语态ing完成式的基本用法。主动语态ing完成式所表示的动作发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之前一般在句中作时间或原因状语用。句中的主语是它的逻辑主语并且是它所表示的动作的执行者如:Havingansweredtheletter,shewentontoreadanEnglishnovel被动语态ing一般式的基本用法。被动语态ing一般式所表示的动作是一个正在进行中的被动动作而且这个被动动作也是和句中谓语所表示的动作同时发生的。它一般在句中作定语或状语用。如:Thetruckbeingrepairedthereisours被动语态ing完成式的基本用法。被动语态ing完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前在句中一般作状语用。如:Havingbeenshownthelab,weweretakentoseethelibrarying形式的复合结构。在ing前加物主代词或名词所有格即构成ing的复合结构。其中的物主代词或名词所有格为ing的逻辑主语。这种结构在句中可作主语、宾语或表语如:Yoursmokinganddrinkingtoomuchwilldoharmtoyourhealth但在口语中这种结构如作宾语用其中的物主代词常用人称代词的宾格名词的所有格常用名词的普通格代替如:SheinsistedonPeter’s(orPeter)goingtherefirsting形式与动词不定式在句中作主语、表语、宾语时的区别。一般说来表示一个比较抽象或泛指的动作时多用ing形式。表示一个具体某一次的动作时多用动词不定式如:OurjobismakingsteelShelikesplayingthepiano,butshedoesn’twanttoplayittodaying形式与动词不定式在句中作定语的区别。ing形式作定语用时其动作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动词同时发生而动词不定式作定语时其动作一般发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之后。如:ThegirlwritingalettertherecanspeakEnglishverywellIhavethreeletterstowriteing形式与动词不定式在作宾语补足语时的区别。()不定式作宾补时其动作一般发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后如:Ihavetoldthemtocomeagaintomorrow()在see,watch,hear,feel等之后如果用ing形式作宾补表示其动作正在进行中而用不带to的不定式作宾补时不定式所表示的动作是一个动作的过程如:Ihearhersingingintheroom我听见她正在屋里唱歌。Ihearhersingintheroom我听见她在屋里唱过歌。ing形式与动词不定式在句中作状语的区别。ing形式在句作状语表示时间、原因、方式或伴随情况而动词不定式一般式在句中作状语时一般是作目的或结果状语如:Notreceivinghisletter,IwrotetohimagainIlookedintothewindowtoseewhatwasgoingoninside(三)过去分词:过去分词的基本用法:过去分词只有一种形式也没有主动语态它所表示的动作是一个被动的或是已完成的动作。过去分词在句中也可用作定语、表语、宾语或状语等成分。过去分词在句中作某种成分时其逻辑主语一般为该分词所表示的动作的承受者如:()作定语:过去分词作定语时如果这个分词是一个单词就位于其修饰的名词之前如果是分词短语就位于其修饰的名词之后。被过去分词所修饰的名词就是该分词的逻辑主语如:Thestolencarwasfoundbythepolicelastweek()作表语:过去分词作表语时表示其逻辑主语所处的状态其逻辑主语就是句中的主语如:Theglassisbroken这个玻璃杯是破的。注:过去分词作表语时和动词的被动语态结构相似但两者表达的意义不同如:Theglasswasbrokenbymylittlebrother这个玻璃杯是被我小弟弟打破的。作表语用的过去分词在许多词典中已列为形容词如:crowded,devoted,discouraged,done,dressed,drunk,experienced,frightened,gone,hurt,interested,killed,known,learned,lost,pleased,satisfied,shut,surprised,tired,undressed,worried,astonished,broken,completed,covered等。

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