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首页 跨文化语用失误认知图式分析

跨文化语用失误认知图式分析.doc

跨文化语用失误认知图式分析

张月帆
2017-10-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《跨文化语用失误认知图式分析doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

跨文化语用失误认知图式分析论文独创性声明本人声明所呈交的学位论文是我本人在导师指导下进行的研究工作及取得的研究成果。尽我所知除了文中特别加以标注和致谢的地方外论文中不包含其他人已经发表或撰写过的研究成果也不包含为获得江苏科技大学或其它教育机构的学位或证书而使用过的材料。与我一同工作的同志对本研究所做的任何贡献均已在论文中作了明确的说明并表示谢意。学位论文作者签名:日期:学位论文使用授权声明江苏科技大学有权保存本人所送交的学位论文的复印件和电子文稿可以将学位论文的全部或部分上网公布有权向国家有关部门或机构送交并授权其保存、上网公布本学位论文的复印件或电子文稿。本人电子文稿的内容和纸质论文的内容一致。除在保密期内的保密论文外允许论文被查阅和借阅。研究生签名:导师签名:日期:日期:ASCHEMATICSTUDYOFPRAGMATICFAILUREININTERCULTURALCOMMUNICATIONAThesisSubmittedInPartialFulfillmentofRequirementsforDegreeofMasterofArtsByXuHuangyingUndertheSupervisionofAssociateProfessorZhouShujunSchoolofForeignLanguagesJiangsuUniversityofScienceandTechnologyJune,AcknowledgementsAtthemomentmythesisisgoingtobecompleted,myheartisfullofgratitudeWritingthisthesisisreallyabigtaskformeFortunately,IhavegotalotofhelpWithouttheirsinceresupport,thecompletionofthisthesiswouldbeimpossibleFirstofall,IwouldliketoexpressmysinceregratitudetomyrespectedsupervisorprofessorZhouShujunforhisconsistentencouragement,patientinstructionsandpreciousadviceofthisthesisSecondlyrsubconsciouslyandthentoattachthesecharacterstoeveryoneofthecommunityOncetheimageisset,itwouldbeaschemastoredinthemindwhichwillbetheobstacletothecorrectunderstandingofothersfromdifferentculturesSoinactualcrossculturecommunication,wecannotviewastaticschemaasthereferencepoint,otherwise,wewillgetthewronginferenceSchemaDifferenceItisbelievedthatLanguageisamirrorofcultureSodotheschematastoredinpeoplesmindThedifferencesofschemata,whichcanbeviewedasnegativetransfer,willleadtocommunicationbreakdownsThen,pragmaticfailureoccursIninterculturalcommunication,thesemanticdifferencesofwordsorexpressionsaresignificant,whichisworthyofnoteTheerrorrateofItemiscomparativelyhighwhichreachesItemWhenyourfrienddrawsthewinningticketinalottery,youwouldsay:A“youarealuckybird”B“youarealuckydog”C“youarealuckyboy”InEnglishculture,“dog”isthefaithfulfriendorcompanionofhumanbeingswhichisreflectedinsuchnonderogatoryexpressions,suchas“agaydog”(meansapersonwithhappiness),“aluckydog”(meansapersonwithluck),“atopdog”(apersonwithpower),“anolddog”(apersonwithtraditionalconventions)andsoonWhileinChinese,dogisalwaysderogatorywhichisrevealedinsuchexpressionas“走狗”,“狗急跳墙”,“狗拿耗子多管闲事”etcAnotherexampleisabout“dragon”Inwesterncountries,theschemaofdragoninpeoplesmindisafierceandcruelmonsterWhileinchina,dragonisthesymbolChapterFourSchematicAnalysisofPragmaticFailuresofroyalhouseholdwhichistotallydifferentfromtheschemaofwesternpeopleItemgivesusanexampleofnonverbalinterculturalcommunicationItemInAmerica,whatdoesthisgesture“raisinghandsinasortofhandshakeoveroneshead”meanAitmeansakindofgreetingBitindicatesasignofvictoryCitisagestureofaskingforleaveImakethisitemfromahistoricalstoryNikitaKhrushchevwastheleaderoftheUnionofSovietSocialistRepublicsinsandearlysDuringhisvisitinAmerica,hehadmadesomecontroversialgestures,oneofwhichwasraisinghandsinasortofhandshakeoveronesheadHeapparentlywantedtoshowhisfriendshipandgreetAmericansButithadntmadeanyeffectInAmerica,theschemaofthatgestureisasignofvictoryafteraboxerhasdefeatedhisopponentwhichmakesNikitaKhrushchevlookslikegloryinginhistriumphInaword,duringtheinterculturalcommunication,withoutpayingenoughattentiontoschemadifferences,peopleusedtocomprehendnewcontextsoreventsinaccordancetothepreviousorfixedschema,whichwillleadtomisunderstandingsSchemaDeficiencyBecauseofthedifferencesincultures,languages,thinkingpatternsandsoon,onecommunicatorincrossculturecommunicationmaynothavetheschematathattheothercommunicatorhasWeusuallycallthissituationcognitiveschemadeficiency,whichmakesthecommunicatorsunabletofindtherelativeschemainthemindduringschemainferenceandthen,theywillbeunabletounderstandormisunderstandeachotherTheculturalschemadeficiencyofwordsandphrasesisoneofthemainfactorswhichresultsinpragmaticfailure,becausewordsandphrasescontaindeepseatedinformationabouthistory,culture,literature,religionandsoonForexample,thefailurerateofItemreachesItemWhatisthemeaningof“myrib”MasterofArtsThesisAmywifeBmymotherConeofmygoodfriendsBibleplaysanimportantroleinwesternpeoplesdailylifeAdamisplacedintheGardenofEdenandEveislatercreatedfromhisribtoeasehislonelinessSowesternersuse“rib”torefertooneswife,whichisunknowntomostEFLlearnersSodoesItemwhosefailurerateisItemThereisakindofpersonwhocanbecalled“Hamlet”Whatkindofpersondoesthe“Hamlet”refertoA(有王子一样高贵气质的人B优柔寡断的人C(做事有勇无谋的人D穿着邋遢的人Hamlet,theprinceofDenmark,isthemaincharacterinShakespearesfamoustragedyHamletInthisplay,Hamlet,withaquick,sharpmind,hasstrongsenseofresponsibility,whilehischaracterissuspiciousandindecisiveHefindsthatitishisunclewhohasmurderedhisfather,hedecidestoavengeButwhenthechancescome,hishesitationmakeshimgiveupAtlast,hediedwithhisuncle,motherandhisloversbrotherIfChineseEFLlearnersknowlittleaboutEnglishliterature,knowlittleaboutShakespeare,therewillbeno“Hamlet”schemaorevensimilarschemaintheirmindsDuetolimitedculturalknowledge,suchasreligion,literature,EFLlearnerscannotactivatethesimilarorrelativeschematawhentheyencountersuchproblem,whichinturnproducespragmaticfailuresChapterFiveImplicationsoftheStudyChapterFiveImplicationsoftheStudyWiththerapiddevelopmentofglobalizationofeconomyandthefrequentcontactsamongdifferentcountries,peopleofdifferentculturalbackgroundscommunicatewitheachothermoreandmorefrequentlythaneverbeforeBeingdeeplyinfluencedbytheirnativeculturebackgrounds,peoplecommunicatewiththeirownculturalvalues,thinkingpatterns,communicativemodes,andlinguisticknowledgewhichgivesrisetopragmaticfailuresInthatcase,peoplecanneithercorrectlyunderstandtheintensionsofothersnorappropriatelyconveytheiroriginalthoughtsIninterculturalcommunication,pragmaticfailuresfrequentoccurrencebringslotsofobstaclesofunderstandingeachotherwhichhasabadeffectoncommunicationHowcanwereducepragmaticfailuresininterculturalcommunicationThroughtheanalysisabove,therearesomestrategiesforbothEFLteachersandlearnersAsforteachers,theyshouldteachculturalknowledge,teachwithcomparisonsandteachincontextsAsforstudents,theyshouldadjustingstudyattitude,updatetheschemastoragefrequentlyandbroadenthegeneralknowledgeofbothculturesImplicationsforLanguageTeachingTeachingCulturalKnowledgeNowadays,moreandmoreEFLteachersfindthatalotofChinesestudentswhogethighmarkinexamcannotquiteunderstandothersormakehimorherselfbeunderstoodwhenhavingaconversationwithforeignersThatistosay,onlymasteringvocabularyandgrammarisfarfromagoodEnglishlearnerHuWenzhong()findsthatculturalmistakesmadethem(nativespeakers)moreuncomfortablethangrammaticalmistakesSoteachingculturalknowledgeisalsoofgreatimportancewhichhastwofunctions:improvingstudentscrossculturalawarenessanddevelopingstudentscommunicativecompetenceTeacherscanpaymoreattentiontotheculturallyloadedwordsorexpressionsespeciallythosewhichhavenodirectequivalentsinChinese,forexample,thelostgeneration,cowboy,AdamsappleandsoonDuringteachingculturalknowledge,therearetwoprinciples:first,layingemphasisonculturalteachingisnottosaythatlinguisticMasterofArtsThesisknowledgecanbeignoredTheteachershouldbalancebothsidesandmakethelinguisticcontentmorecloselytotheactualuseindailylifeSecond,teachersshouldmakeculturalteachingnonjudgmentalWemustrealize,asIsraeliPrimeMinisterShimonPereshasoncestated:allpeoplehavetherighttobeequalandtheequalrighttobedifferentWeshouldrespectculturaldiversityandneversaythatcultureissuperiororinferiorjustbecauseitisdifferentfromoursTeachingwithSchemataComparisonsRobertLabopointsoutthatwhenthenegativetransferoccursduringtheforeignlanguagestudying,thelearnersareabletoknowthereasonsoftheproblemthroughcomparingthedifferencesbetweentwokindsofculturesInshort,onlythroughcomparingthosetwokindsofcultures,canstudentsrealizethedifferencesComparativeteachingwaycanworkasthecoreofconstructingcultureschemastructureandmaketheboringcontextintolovelyThroughcomparisonandanalogythattherelationshipcanbecreatedbetweennewinformationandoriginalschemasothatstudentscanknowmoreaboutdifferentculturalschemataForexample,whenwecometowesternwomenssocialstatus,wecanmakeacomparativestudyofthedifferentaspectsofeducationalbackground,politicalstatus,economiccondition,etcInwesterncountries,especiallyinAmericathemoralcultureofequalrightshasbeendeeplyrootedinpeoplesheartsAmericanwomenarenotalwayspassive,butactivetheyturncomplimentintorebellionWhileinchina,ethicsisanimportantpartofChinastraditionalcultureIntraditionalsociety,Confucianism,themainstreamofsocialconsciousness,expectsawomanjusttobeagoodwifeandadevotedmotherThroughthecomparativestudy,studentscanbuildamorecomprehensiveschemaofwomenssocialstatusofbothcultureswhichcanenhancemutualunderstandingTeachinginContextsMostEnglishteachersinchinastilladoptthetraditionallanguageteachingmethodwhichconsidersformsandrulesoflanguageonlybutseldomconcernsabouthowtousetheformsandrulesintherightplaceandattherighttimeItsbetterforteacherstocreaterealcontextsasmuchaspossibleduringteachingFirst,teachershouldsupplyauthenticChapterFiveImplicationsoftheStudyteachingmaterialThereisajokeOnce,aChinesestudenthadanaccidentonfreewayinAmericaandfelloffthecliffwithhiscarWhenthetrafficpolicecameandshouted:“Howareyou”thestudentanswered:“ImfineThankyou!Andyou”withnohesitationAfterhearingthat,thepoliceleftandthestudentlosthislifeThereasonwhythestudentmake“Howaresucharesponseisthatalmostalltheanswersintextbooktothatquestionyou”is“ImfineThankyou!Andyou”Thoughitisjustajoke,itrevealstheproblemofourunreal,impersonalandinactiveteachingmaterialwhichishelpfultothestudyofgrammarrulesbutharmfultothecultivationoftheirpragmaticcompetenceUnderthecurrentChineseexamorientededucationmode,teachersputmoreemphasisontheresultofwrittentestItisbettertoaddthetestofstudentspragmaticcompetenceAsteachers,itisimpossibleforthemtochoosetextbookandchangethetestsystemTheeffectivesolutiontheycanadoptistomakegooduseofclassroomteachingTheycanmaketheteachingstudentcenteredandcarryoutvariousactivitieswhichareclosetostudentslivesandrelevanttotheirinterestsatclassForexample,speechcontest,Englishdebating,roleactingandsoonItaimstoarousestudentsinitiativetousealltheresourcesaroundthemsuchasinternet,books,movies,fromwhichstudentscangetvariouscontexts,SothatstudentscanconstructrealcognitiveimageschematafrommulticultureperspectivesImplicationsforLanguageLearningAdjustingStudyAttitudesUndertheexamorientededucationmode,mostChineseEFLlearnersholdtheviewthatthepurposeoflearningEnglishistomasternewwordsandgrammarruleswhichcanhelpthemgethighmarkinexaminationsThewaytheylearnEnglishisjustrecitingvocabularyandgrammarrulesasmanyastheycanButtheultimategoaloflearningalanguageistohavetheabilitytousethislanguageincommunicationinrightplacesandatrighttimeswhichneedsbothlinguisticcompetenceandcommunicativecompetenceAccordingtoDellHymes()theoryofcommunicativecompetence,studentsshouldpayattentiontofouraspects:MasterofArtsThesisapossibility:whetherornotsomethingisformallypossibleItisconcernedwithwhetheralanguagepermitsasentenceasgrammaticallypossiblebfeasibility:theabilitytoproducesentenceswhichcanbeunderstoodbythehumanbraincappropriateness:theabilitytousecorrectformsoflanguageinaparticularsituationdperformance:thefactthattheutteranceiscompletedLinguisticcompetenceisonlyacorneroficebergInordertoperformlikenativespeakers,alltheEFLlearnersshouldfirstadjusttheirpurposeoflearningasecondlanguageandsparenoefforttodeveloptheircommunicativecompetenceUpdatingtheSchemaStorageFrequentlyAccordingtoJMandler(),schemaisjustacognitivestructureincludingslotsanddefaultvalueswhichareusedforfillingtheslotsWhenevertheslotisfilled,aschemaisformedDuetothehierarchicalfeatureofslot,schemaishighlyflexibleWhicheverdefaultvalueismodified,thestoredschemashouldmakesomechangesaccordinglyWiththemoreandmorebodilyinteractionswiththeworld,thedefaultvaluesarechangingallthetimeTheprocessofacquiringknowledgeinfactisaprocessofenlargingandupdatingtheexistedschemataSotheschematastoredinourmindaredynamicratherthanstaticForexample,afterseeingmaple,thecolourslotofleaveisturnedfromgreenandyellowtogreen,yellowandredDuetotheinadequategeneralknowledgereserveandlimitedpragmaticcompetence,theschemastoredinmindcanneverbeenoughtomeetourneedsStudentsshouldrenewreservedschemataandconstructnewschematasothattheschemastoragecanbemoresubstantialandcomprehensiveImprovingtheUnderstandingofBothCulturesAccordingtotheanalysisabove,weknowthatpragmaticfailurewilloccurwhentheinterlocutorshavenocrossculturalawarenesswhichdescribesthesensitivitytotheimpactofculturallyincludedbehaviorsinvariouskindsoflanguageuseincludingcommunicationValdes(:)statesthefourgoalsofculturalinstruction:adevelopingagreaterawarenessofandaborderknowledgeaboutthetargetcultureChapterFiveImplicationsoftheStudybacquiringacommandoftheetiquetteofthetargetculturecunderstandingdifferencesbetweenthetargetcultureandthestudentsculturedunderstandingthevaluesofthetargetcultureAsweallknow,languageisnotonlyatoolofcommunicationbutalsoabridgewhichconnectsthenativeculturewiththeoutsideworldIthelpsusknowalmosteverycornerontheearthandatthesametime,itprovidesachannelforothernationstohaveacquaintancewithus,agreatnationwithlonghistorySoduringthesecondlanguagelearningprocess,studentsshouldconsciouslyenlargetheirculturaldepositsofnotonlythetargetculturebutalsoourownculturesuchaspolitics,religions,literature,values,conventions,andsoonBydoingthis,studentscanhavetheawarenessofculturaldifferencesandschemadiversitiessothattheycanactivatetheappropriateschemainrealcontextcrossculturecommunicationMasterofArtsThesisChapterSixConclusionWiththerapiddevelopmentofglobalizationofeconomyandthefrequentcontactsamongdifferentcountries,peopleofdifferentculturalbackgroundscommunicatewitheachothermoreandmorefrequentlythaneverbeforeBeingdeeplyinfluencedbytheirnativeculturebackgrounds,peoplecommunicatewiththeirownculturalvalues,thinkingpatterns,communicativemodes,andlinguisticknowledgewhichgivesrisetopragmaticfailuresInthatcase,peoplecanneithercorrectlyunderstandtheintensionsofothersnorappropriatelyconveytheiroriginalthoughtsIninterculturalcommunication,pragmaticfailuresfrequentoccurrencebringslotsofobstaclesofunderstandingeachotherwhichhasabadeffectoncommunicationSinceinterculturalcommunicationisaninevitabletrend,researchonpragmaticfailureininterculturalcommunicationhasbecomeahotissueofboththeoreticalsignificanceandpracticalvalueImageschema,thebaseofcognition,isonekindofcognitivestructurewhichisformedfromthebasicanalysisoftherelationshipbetweendifferentitemsandalsoonekindofcognitivestructurethatpeopleuseitfortheabstractionandconceptualization,atthesametime,itisanimportantpartofthepeoplesthinkingstructureGenerallyspeaking,theprocessthatpeoplecommunicatingwithothersisastotheinteractiveprocessofexchangingbetweennewinformationandtheknowledgewhichhasexistedinthemindSo,analyzingtheinterculturalcommunicationpragmaticfailuresfromtheperspectiveofimageschemaistoconsiderthepsychologicalaspectsinsteadofthoseoutsidefactorswhichwillrevealthedeepseatedreasonsofthesefailuresThetheoreticalsignificanceofthisdissertationisthatithasadoptedacognitiveperspectiveofanalyzingpragmaticfailuresininterculturalcommunicationAsdiscussedabove,wefindthattheoccurrenceofpragmaticfailuresininterculturalcommunicationisduetonegativeschemainference,schemadifferenceandschemadeficiencyAlso,thisdissertationcanenrichtheapplicationofschematheoryandlayfoundationsforfurtherstudyofpragmaticfailuresininterculturalcommunicationfromothercognitivetheoriesChapterSixConclusionThispaperadoptsaquestionnaireandasemiopeninterviewtoinvestigateEFLlearnerspragmaticcompetenceandstimulateEFLlearnersinterculturalawarenessThroughtheanalysisoftheresultofthesurveystudy,thisdissertationsuppliessomestrategiesforbothEFLteachersandstudentstoreduceoravoidinterculturalcommunicationpragmaticfailuresItisthepracticalsignificanceofthisstudyAsforteachers,theyshouldteachculturalknowledge,teachwithschematacomparisonsandteachincontextsAsforstudents,theyshouldadjustingstudyattitude,updatetheschemastoragefrequentlyandbroadenthegeneralknowledgeofbothculturesDuetothepoortheoreticalabilityoftheauthorandthecomplexityofthisproblem,thisthesisofinterculturalcommunicationpragmaticfailurefromtheperspectiveofschemaisfarfrombeingcompleteTherealsosomeshortcomingsofthesurveystudyBecauseoflimitedmanpowerandmaterialresources,thesubjectsareonlysixtystudentswhicharefarfromenoughtoshowaccuratesituationofChineseEFLlearnersandtheitemscannotcoveralltheaspectofdailycommunicationTheanalysisofnonverbalcommunicationpragmaticfailuresisoversimplifiedInthefuture,moreadvancedmethodsshouldbeadoptedtogetthecomprehensivelevelofChineseEFLlearnerspragmaticcompetence,andmoretheorieswillbeemployedtoanalyzethishotissuewhichmayprovidemoresolutionstoreducepragmaticfailuresaswellaspracticalteachingmethodstopromoteEFLstudentspragmaticcompetenceMasterofArtsThesisAppendixQuestionnaireClassGradeDirection:ThisquestionnaireisintendedtoinvestigateEFLlearnerspragmaticcompetenceandstimulateEFLlearnersinterculturalawarenessReadthesituationfirstandguesswhatthewesternswouldchooseThenselectappropriateanswersfromfollowingchoicesMorethanoneanswermaybecorrectinthecorridorbeforeclassroomJohnbumpedintoLiLeiaccidentallyJohn:“Imterriblysorry!”A“Itdoesntmatter”LiLei:B“Dontmentionit”C“Thatsallright”inclassroomafterclassJohnwantstocallonhisclassmate,LiLeiA“CanIgotoyourhometomorrow,LiLei”John:B“CanIcometoyourhometomorrow,LiLei”AtLiLeishouseLiLeiwantstogivehisclassmateJohnsomeorangejuicetodrinkLiLei:“Wouldyoulikesomeorangejuice”A“Nopleasedoesntgotoanytrouble”John:B“Thankyou”C“Yes,please”intheofficeofaninternationalcorporationLorettaasksLiuHongtoprepareallthematerialsfortomorrowsmeetingLiuHongdoesntcatchalltherequirementsandhopeLorettacanrepeatthemA“Pardon”LiuHong:AppendixB“canyourepeat”C“What”intheofficeofaninternationalcorporationLiuHonghaspreparedallthematerialsforthemeetingforLorettaLiuHong:“ThankyouverymuchThatsagreathelp”A“Itsnothing”Lorettareplied:B“Youarewelcome”C“Itsmypleasure”inthestreetonSundayLorettawearsanewdressandmeetsLiuHongLiuHong:“Yourdressissobeautiful!”A“No,noitisjustsoso”Loretta:B“ThankyouItsreallykindofyoutosayso”C“reallyIdontthinkso”inthecampusonthemorningJohngreetshisEnglishfriendMaryBrownwhoisaunmarriedteacherA“Goodmorning,TeacherBrown”John:B“Goodmorning,MissMary”C“Goodmorning,MissBrown”D“Goodmorning,Mary”inashopWhentheguestscomingintotheshop,theshopassistantasked:“Whatdoyouwant”“WhatcanIdoforyou”“Whatdoyouwanttobuy”ItisTuesday,Febth,inarepairshopRepairman:“yourbikewillbefixednextFriday”ThecustomershouldcometotakehisbikeonMasterofArtsThesisFriday,Febth,Friday,Febth,BothAandBatLorettasbirthdaypartyLiuHonggivesabirthdaypresenttoLorettaLoretta:“ThanksalotItssocute”A“Doyoulikeit”LiuHong:B“Imhappyyoulikeit”C“DontmentionitItsjustonlyasmallthing”inthemanagersofficeThesecretaryLiPingfindsthatthemanagerhasgotabadcold,shewouldsay:APutonmoreclothesanddrinkmorewaterBLookafteryourselfCIdohopeyoullbebettersoonWhatisthemeaningof“toputallhiseggsinonebasket”A千钧一发B孤注一掷C厚积薄发Whatsthemeaningof“tokillthegoosethatlaysgoldeneggs”A饮鸩止渴B杀鸡取卵C搬起石头砸自己的脚Whenyourfrienddrawsthewinningticketinalottery,youwouldsay:A“youarealuckybird”B“youarealuckydog”C“youarealuckyboy”Thereisakindofpersonwhocanbecalled“Hamlet”Whatkindofpersondoesthe“Hamlet”refertoA(有王子一样高贵气质的人B优柔寡断的人C(做事有勇无谋的人whatcantheChineseidiom“挥金如土”betranslatedtoAppendixAtospendmoneylikewaterBtospendmoneylikesandsCtospendmoneylikestonesWhatisthemeaningof“myrib”AmywifeBmymotherConeofmygoodfriendsInEnglish,whichanimalreferstothemeaningofwisdomAlionBowlCbirdInAmerica,whatdoesthisgesture“raisinghandsinasortofhandshakeoveroneshead”meanAitmeansakindofgreetingBitindicatesasignofvictoryCitisagestureofaskingforleaveBill,anAmericanstudent,wantstoaskLiPingtocome,heAshakeshishandwiththepalmturningdownwardBshakeshisfingertowardhimselfCshakeshisrighthandfromlefttorightsideMasterofArtsThesisAppendixResultsofallthesubjectsGroupNumberGradeTeacherGAOneExperiencedGBOneYoungGCThreeExperiencedGDthreeYoungPartItemPercentageAveragepercentagePPNote:theprobablyrightanswersarewithshadowPGAGBGCGDItemPercentagePercentagePercentagePercentageAppendixAppendix:ResultsofeachgroupGroupNumberGradeTeacherGAOneExperiencedGBOneYoungGCThreeExperiencedGDthreeYoungPartItemPercentageAveragepercentagePPNote:theprobablyrightanswersarewithshadowPGAGBGCGDItemPercentagePercentagePercentagePercentag
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