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首页 热处理工艺规程(工艺参数)

热处理工艺规程(工艺参数).doc

热处理工艺规程(工艺参数)

深夜个人静静地听着歌
2017-09-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《热处理工艺规程(工艺参数)doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

热处理工艺规程(工艺参数)BZ,(工艺参数)年月日目录主题内容与适用范围„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„常用钢淬火、回火温度„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„要求综合性能的钢种„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„要求淬硬的钢种„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„要求渗碳的钢种„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„几点说明„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„常用钢正火、回火及退火温度„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„要求综合性能的钢种„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„其它钢种„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„几点说明„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„常用钢去应力温度„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„各种热处理工序加热、冷却范围„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„淬火„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„正火及退火„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„回火、时效及去应力„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„工艺规范的几点说明„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„化学热处理工艺规范„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„氮化„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„渗碳„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„锻模热处理工艺规范„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„锻模及胎模„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„切边模„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„锻模热处理注意事项„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„有色金属热处理工艺规范„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„铝合金的热处理„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„铜及铜合金„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„几种钢锻后防白点工艺规范„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„第组钢„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„第组钢„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„热处理工艺规程(工艺参数)主题内容与适用范围本标准为“热处理工艺规程”(工艺参数)它主要以企业标准《金属材料技术条件》BHJ,年版所涉及的金属材料和技术要求为依据(不包括高温合金)并收集了我公司生产常用的工具、模具及工艺装备用的金属材料。本标准适用于汽轮机、燃气轮机产品零件的热处理生产。常用钢淬火、回火温度要求综合性能的钢种:表技术要求淬火温度冷却有效面淬火后回火温回火后硬()介质积硬度度度强硬度材料牌号(d)()(d)(mm)度)HB(dσs~~水~~(~)~~~~~~~(~)~~~~~油~~~~~(~)CrA~~~~~~~~水油~~~(~)油~~~~(~)水油~~~~~~~~~~(~)油~~~CrMoA~~~~~(~)水油~~~~*CrNiMoA~油~~~(~)~~(~)*CrMoV~油~~(~)~~油~(~)CrMoVTiB*~~油~~~油~~~~~~(~)水油~~~~~油~~CrMoAlA~~~~~(~)水油~~~油~~~~~~(~)水油~~~油~~~CrMoA~~(~)水~~~~~~~(~),~~CrMoVA~油~~~~(~),~~,~~~(~),~,~~CrNiMo~油~(~),~,~~~(~),~*MnMoVN~油~()~CrMo~油~~(~)~~~~(~)~~~Cr油~~~~(~)~~~~Cr油~~~(~)~~~~~~~(~)Cr~油~~~~~~(~)~~~空~~(~)~~油~~~(~),Cr空~~~~(~)油~~~空~~~~(~)油~~~~~~~(~)~~~~~~CrMoV油~(~)~~~~~~(~)~~~~~~(~)~~CrWMoV油~~~(~)*~~~(~)~CrNiMoWV~油~~(~)~~~~(~)~~~CrMoV~油~~~~(~)~~~~~CrNiTi水~~()~CrNiTi~水~CrNi~梅花试~ZGCr油~(~)棒~~叶片本精~ZGCr空~~~(~)体铸~梅花试叶ZGCrMoV~油~(~棒~片~梅花试ZGCrWMoV~油~(~棒~ZGCrNi~水~~注:采用日本材料时淬火温度为,回火温度允许比表中温度高~。有效截面小于mm者可采用空冷。要求淬硬的钢种(新HRC,)表要求硬度范围淬火温度冷却介质淬火后硬度回火温度材料牌号()()HRCHRC,~~~~~水~~~~~,~~~~~~水~~~~~~~,~,CrA~油~,~,CrMoA,油,,,CrMoVA,,油,CrMoV,空,,,,Mn,,油,,,,,,,,SiMnA,油,,,,,CrVA,,油,,,,,,Cr,,油或空,,,,,,,,,,Cr,空,,,,,,,,Cr,空,,,,,,,,TA,,水或水油,,,,,,T,水油,,CrWMn,油,,CrWMn,油,,CrSi,油,,,Cr,油,,,,,GCr,油,,Cr,油,WMoCrV,油,WMoCrV,油,注:回火后油冷。淬火加热时要加以保护以防脱碳。回火脆性区为,严禁采用。回火脆性区为,严禁采用。要求渗碳淬硬的钢种表要求硬度范围淬火温度()冷却介质淬火后硬度回火温度材料牌号()HRCHRCCrNiA,油,CrA,油,,低碳钢,水或水油,,几点说明:表,中提供的淬火、回火温度范围是供生产时按具体情况选定参数用的不是某一炉允许的温度偏差。凡水冷的钢种(奥氏体钢除外)均应及时回火以防开裂。表中的σs数值为σ的数值。、CrMoA、CrNiMoA为保证取样部位合格毛坯送检硬度允许适当提高。对感应加热快速加热的零件淬火温度允许适当提高。表中标有*者生产上尚未用过或较少用过其参数不够成熟尚待生产中进一步验证生产中允许在验证基础上进行修改。表,中冷却为水油者允许用水空水代替具体方法为:水冷一段时间后将零件提起空中(让零件反热后)再入水继续冷却。常用钢正火、回火及退火温度要求综合性能的钢种表技术要求正火温度回火温度有效厚度材料牌号σHB()()(mm),,,CrMoA*,,CrMoV,,,,CrMo,,,,,~~~ZG,,,ZG,,,,ZGCrMo,,,ZGCrMoA,,,ZGCrMoV,,,,ZGCrMoV,,,ZGCrMo,,其它钢种表正火温度正火后硬度回火温度退火温度退火或回火后材料牌号()(HB)()()参考硬度(HB)CrMoVTiB,,CrA,,CrNiMoA,,CrMoA,,CrMoV,CrMoAlA,,CrMoV(P),CrMo,,Cr,,,CrCr,,Cr,,Cr,,CrMoV,,CrWMoV,,CrNiMoWV,,CrNiMo,Mn,,,,SiMnA,,,,CrVA,,,,CrNiA,,,TA,,,,T,,,,CrWMn,,,,~CrWMn,,~Cr,~CrWV,,~CrMnMo,,,CrNiMo,,~注:用于消除粗晶。用于软化用于细化晶粒。用于消除粗晶。正火为消除过热组织及网状碳化物。模具翻新退火温度为,。模具翻新退火温度为,。几点说明:表中列出的正火、回火、退火温度范围是供生产中在这区间内选用的不是指一炉允许的温度偏差一般情况下选用中限。表规定的回火根据技术条件要求均在正火后进行。表规定的回火根据具体情况可在正火后进行也可在锻后单独进行。渗碳钢消除渗碳层中网状碳化物的正火温度一律采用,。常用钢除应力温度表调质回火温度除机械加工应力除焊接应力温度除铸造应力温度()及校直应力温度()()材料牌号(),,CrMoA,,,,CrA,,,CrMoA,,CrNiMoA,,Cr,,碳钢,,MnMoVN,,ZG,铸钢件不专门除铸,造应力通常用正火ZG,,或正火、回火代替CrNiMo,,铸铁件,,CrMoAlA,,CrMoVA,CrMoV,CrMoV,,,用正火、回火代替ZGCrMo,,不做专门的去应力回火。,所有未经调质、正火、回火的钢号,Cr,,Cr,Cr,,CrMoV,,,CrWMoV,,CrMo,,CrNiMoWV,,CrMo,,,CrMoV,,ZGCrMoV,,用两次正火一次回,火所代替不做专门ZGCrMoV,,的去应力回火ZGCrMoA,,,ZGCrMo,,级大齿轮最终去应力温度为如控温准确时可提到转子除应力温度为h注:经正火回火的铸件或型材件。用于QA对易变形焊接构件去焊接应力温度可选择中、下限其余情况按上限温度选择但加热温度范围都应限制在。除焊接应力时按h升h降执行。正火后的回火温度几点说明:两种或两种以上钢材去应力并炉时一般几种材料除应力温度温差不应超过并炉后的除应力温度应以几种材料中最低除应力温度为准。特殊情况下在不影响材料原性能前提下并炉范围可酌情放宽。但氮化零件氮化前除应力时温度不准低于表规定因而不准与除应力温度低于氮化件除应力温度的零件并炉。两种或两种以上钢材组合焊接时除焊接应力温度应为几种材料中最低的除焊接应力温度。必要时采用专用工艺。除焊接应力的回火温度原则上为调质回火温度下限减(,)如表中未列除焊接应力回火温度的材料牌号需进行除焊接应力时可按此原则自行选定。氮化件氮化后校直时去应力的温度应低于氮化温度即:组钢为,。、组钢为,(钢的组别分类见表)。各种热处理工序加热、冷却规范淬火碳素、合金结构钢形状复杂的碳钢件及部分合金钢件(见表)冷却用水油。形状复杂的碳钢件及部分合金钢件(见表)采用此段。铬不锈钢及奥氏体钢工具钢低合金钢预热依工件形状和尺寸酌情而定。正火及退火正火退火回火、时效及去应力回火注:以下按此系数计算回火时间。时效(奥氏体钢)除应力形状简单的零件去校直应力时空冷。当炉子实际升温速度超过时不能满足工艺要求时零件装炉升温至保温,小时再随炉升温保温小时后,每升温保温小时直到保温温度为止。对阀杆等形状复杂易变形零件必须保证时必要时可用手动控制。工艺规范的几点说明:“透”系指工件装炉后炉子到温起至工件与炉膛火色一致止的时间。装炉温度栏之“不限”一般系指不超过曲线中保温温度以下的各温度。(如曲线中有两个保温温度则应不超过第一段的保温温度)CrMoAlA钢淬火保温时间应按规定再延长,。要求淬硬零件的回火保温时间至少不小于小时。除应力的时间:除机械加工和校直应力不得小于小时除焊接及铸造应力不得小于小时。氮化件氮化后除校直应力时除应力的整个过程均需通氮。按ZGH时效热处理为入炉随炉升温至保温烧透,h出炉空冷达HRC,。化学热处理工艺规范氮化氮化技术要求表氮化层深度氮化层硬度组别材料牌号氮化层脆性备注(mm)(HV)CrMoAlACrMoVACrMoV级CrMoVZGCrMoVCrNiMo喷嘴组层深为CrMoV~(mm)CrWMoVCrNiMoWV工艺规范炉冷具体规定见注意事项。喷嘴组保温时间为,小时。加药丸去除零件表面钝化膜用量每炉,片。注意事项:零件氮化前必须清除表面锈斑用汽油清洗表面油污。零件装炉时所有要氮化的表面不许互相接触特别注意大工件不要放在热电偶的附近严禁工件靠在热电偶上。对于局部氮化的零件要检查镀锡部位是否正确。对M以下的螺孔和,以下的盲孔、通孔及经镀锡保护有螺纹的氮化件的螺纹部分、退刀槽氮化前均进行涂料保护。氮化件入炉后应先通氮分钟排除箱内的空气氨气压力控制在,mm油柱待空气排除后按工艺要求调节压力控制分解率。氮化过程中氨气自始至终不得中断。氮化冷却时先停电随炉冷却至时停氨取出零件。炉内氨气压力只做参考操作时以控制分解率为准。渗碳固体渗碳保温时间根据渗碳炉装箱的数量及箱的大小而定。气体渗碳几点说明:固体渗碳剂配方:,BaCO,NaCO其余,木碳(滨河化工厂配制)新旧渗碳剂比例为:。气体渗碳剂:(a)苯一滴速:升温时控制在,滴分保温时控制在,滴分。(b)*煤油酒精各,滴速与苯同。首次使用时先进行试验确定合适的滴速。渗碳保温时间到达前,小时看预测试样根据测得的结果决定出炉时间。气体渗碳装炉时零件之间要保持一定的距离至少要保持,mm。固体渗碳装箱零件间或箱壁间距不得小于,mm。渗碳后如果发现渗碳层有网状碳化物存在均应进行正火处理以消除。锻模热处理工艺规范锻模及胎模:表技术要求淬火温度回火温度材料牌号备注()()工作面硬度燕尾硬度HB,t模锻锻(d~)模胎模HB,CrMnMo,(d~)HB,~(d~)t、t模锻锻模HB,HB,CrNiMo,(d~)(d~)淬火出油后立即装入准备好的回火炉中。回火CrNiMo回火油冷。说明:燕尾采用自行回火。淬火过程:小型模具(Hmm)全部入油′,′(中型、大型入油′,′)然后把燕尾提出油面待油面燃烧时再浸入油中反复,次使燕尾自行回火。中型模具H,,mm大型模具H,mm。出油温度为,不得低于并准备一台,的回火炉出油后立即入回火炉。切边模表材料牌号技术要求淬火温度回火温度(新HRC)()()冲头凹模Cr,见表,,淬火Cr预冷温度为,。回火锻模热处理注意事项:模具返修或翻新必须先进行退火以防开裂。模具淬火加热均要保护锻模保护见示意图其它模具均应用生铁屑及干燥木炭保护其工作面以防脱碳并将模具垫起,mm。淬火后均要及时回火。曲线中的保温时间,模具高度×加热系数(分mm)。“透”系指从炉膛到温起至工件各部颜色与炉膛颜色一致为止的持续时间。有色金属热处理工艺规范铝合金的热处理热处理方法代表符号T,人工时效T,固溶自然时效T,固溶不完全时效T,固溶完全时效铸造铝合金表合金代号热处理方法固溶温度保温时间冷却方法时效温度保温时间冷却()(h)()(h)方法T,,,空ZL,T~,空水,T~,,~,水ZL,T~,~空水铜及铜合金温度表冷扎、冷拉、冷弯后再锻后或热轧后退火去应力低温退火结晶退火材料牌号温度温度温度冷却冷却冷却()()()纯铜T、T、T、T~,,空HMn空水,黄铜~,水HPb,空青铜QA~水空时间:铜及铜合金保温时间依温度及装炉量不同而异。高温退火加热系数一般按碳钢退火加热系数的,计低温退火按去机械及校直应力的加热系数而计此外还有依装炉量的多少而适当调整。几种钢锻后防白点工艺规范第组:CrNiMoCrNiMoCrNiA工艺规范CrNiA过冷温度为,。第组:CrNiMoACrMnMoCrSi工艺规范

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