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首页 the role of marketing

the role of marketing.doc

the role of marketing

hungry145
2019-06-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《the role of marketingdoc》,可适用于市场营销领域

THEROLEOFMARKETINGSectionB(e)ofthePaperFABStudyGuidestatesthatcandidatesshouldbeabletodescribetherolesandfunctionsofthemaindepartmentsinabusinessorganisation:researchanddevelopment,purchasing,production,directserviceprovision,marketing,administrationandfinanceThenextsectionoftheStudyGuideamplifiestherequirementsinrelationtomarketing,settingoutthefollowinglearningoutcomesExplaintheroleofmarketinginanorganisation:thedefinitionofmarketingthemarketingmixtherelationshipofthemarketingplantothestrategicplanThisarticleprovidesanintroductiontotheseimportantmarketingconceptsWHATISMARKETINGThedefinitionofmarketingpublishedbytheUK’sCharteredInstituteofMarketingis‘themanagementprocessresponsibleforidentifying,anticipatingandsatisfyingcustomerneedsprofitably’Thereisnodoubtthatmarketingisamanagementprocess,asmostsuccessfulorganisationsregarditasacrucialsetofcoordinatedactivitiesthatmustbedrivenfromthestrategiclevelofabusinessManyorganisationshaveanexecutivedirectorwithfunctionalresponsibilityformarketingbut,evenifthisisnotthecase,itisusuallynecessaryforastrategicmarketingplantobeputinplaceandimplemented,consistentwiththegoalsandobjectivessetoutinthecorporateplanDespiteawidelyheldperceptionthatmarketingissynonymouswithselling,thedefinitionconfirmsthatthescopeofmarketingextendsfarbeyondsellingaloneIndeed,abusinessstrategybuiltonsellingandwithoutdueattentiontootherimportantmarketingactivitiescanhaveseriousshortcomings:thecustomer’sneedsmaybeoverlooked,theorganisationmaysellgoodsandservicesthatthecustomerdoesnotneed,orthecustomermayhaveneedsfortheorganisation’sproductsandservicesbutmaypurchasethewrongonesTheessenceofmarketingiscapturedinthewords‘identifying,anticipatingandsatisfying’Theseimplyaprocessthroughwhichtheorganisationmustfindoutwhatcustomerswant,orcarryoutresearchintowhatcustomersarelikelytowantinthefuture,andthenfulfiltheseneedsbydeployingitsresourcesinanappropriatemannerTheprocesshastobedynamic,asneedsandpreferenceschangeovertime,renderingsomegoodsandserviceslesssuitablefortheirneeds,orevenobsoleteTherearecountlessexamplesofproductsthathavefulfilledgenuineneedsinthepast,sometimesforlongperiodsoftime,buthaveeventuallybeensupersededbyalternativechoicesduetochangesinneeds,tastesandpreferences,orhavebecometotallyunnecessaryforconsumersExamplesincludeaudiocassettes,Supercinefilmsandprojectors,‘twintub’washingmachinesandcashregistersSuccessfulbusinessorganisationsthereforeregardmarketingasacontinuousprocess,throughwhichactualandperceivedcustomerneedsareconstantlyanalysedandmonitoredinordertofulfiltheseneedstotheextentthattheorganisation’sresourcesandcapabilitiesallowTHEMARKETINGMIXThemarketingmixisamodelusedwhenconsideringtherangeofactivitiesnecessarytoconstructandimplementacomprehensivemarketingstrategyItismostcommonlyexpressedintermsof‘thefourPs’ofproduct,price,promotionandplace‘Place’inthiscontextreferstoallactivitiesassociatedwithdistributionProductThiselementofthemarketingmixconsidersthetechnicalfeatures,benefitsandlimitationsoftheproductorproductsofferedbythebusinessDependingonthenatureofthebusiness,productscanbephysicalgoodsorservicesThetechnicalfeaturesoftheproductareimportantbecausetheywilldeterminewhetheritwillmeettheactualoranticipatedneedsofthecustomerFeaturesareexpressedastechnicalspecificationsandcapabilities,andsometimesthelimitstowhichtheproductissubjectBenefitsaretheutilitytothecustomerandconfirmwhatmaybeexpectedoftheproductBenefitshaveanimportantroletoplaywhendevisingpromotionalactivities,andarethereforethecruciallinkbetweentheproductandpromotionelementsofthemixSomeproductsaresubjecttoaderiveddemand,sothefeaturesmaybequitedistinctfromthebenefitsoftheendproductForexample,nobodyactuallywantsamortgage,asthisrepresentsalarge,longtermfinancialcommitmentThebenefitliesinowninganapartmentorhouse,andwithoutthemortgage,ofcourse,fewpeoplecanrealisethisaspirationintheshorttermProductplanningconsidersthepositionoftheproductwithintheportfolioofproductsofferedbytheorganisation,andthepotentialcontributiontheproducthastomaketoitsfuturesuccessNearlyallproductsmaybeconsideredwithreferencetotheproductlifecycleThismodelsuggeststhatproductspasssequentiallythroughvariousstagesovertime,withrevenuesincreasingthroughtheintroductionandgrowthstages,thentailingoffandeventuallydecliningasshakeout,maturityanddeclinetakeplaceThe‘product’ofprofessionalfirmsistheservicestheyoffer,whicharemainlyintangiblebutmaysometimesbedeliveredasreportsandotheroutputsPriceThisrefersnotonlytothepriceoftheproduct,buttoallcostsrelatedtothepurchaseItmaybeexpressedinmonetaryterms,arateofinterest,costs,fees,oracombinationofalltheseelementsThepricemaybeaoneoffpayment,oraseriesofpaymentsovertimeItmaybesubjecttotimelimits(suchasaspecialdealforalimitedperiod)Itmayalsobeconditionalonpurchasingotherproducts,oraminimum‘lockin’period,suchasamobiletelephonecontractwithaminimumdurationInthecontextofprofessionalservices,priceisexpressedasfeesorchargesPromotionPromotionreferstoallactivitiesthatareintendedtoinformthecustomerandinfluencethepurchasingdecisionTherangeofpromotionalmediadeployedbyanorganisationissometimesreferredtoasthepromotionalmixThisincludes:advertisingdirectselling,suchasfacetofaceinteractionsandtelephoneoronlinesalespublicrelationsmerchandisingsponsorshipPromotionmaybehighlyspecifictoindividualproductsorarangeofproducts,ormayenhancebrandrecognitioninrespectoftheorganisation’spublicimageInsomecases,thenameoftheproductmaybecomesynonymouswiththeorganisationitselfForexample,theballpointpenwasoncereferredtoroutinelyasa‘biro’,whichisboththeinventor’ssurname(LaszloBiro)andthenameofhiscompanyLikewise,avacuumcleanerisstillcalleda‘hoover’bymanyconsumers,HooverbeingthenameofjustoneproducerThepromotionalmixvarieswidelyfromorganisationtoorganisationFastmovingconsumergoodsproducersrelyextensivelyonadvertising,whilelifeassurancecompanieshavetraditionallyuseddirectsellingtoamuchgreaterextentMarketsegmentationcanbeusedforbothresearchandplanningpurposesItishighlyrelevantwhenconsideringthepromotionalmix,andisalsoimportantwhenconsideringtheotherelementsofthemarketingmixMarketsegmentationinvolvesanalysisofthemarketwithreferencetohomogeneoussubsetsthatsharelikecharacteristicsCommonlyusedsegmentsinclude:agegendergeographicallocationsocioeconomicgroupspsychologicalfactors,suchasriskappetite,desiretoconformorbedifferent,andsoonSegmentationprovidesinsightsintostrategicopportunitiesandoptionsForexample,somecompanieschooseahighlyfocusedapproachbytargetedmarketingaimedatveryspecificmarketsegments(Clubholidays,insurancefordriverswith‘clean’licences),whileothersapplydifferentiatedmarketingstrategiestoaddressseveralsegmentsdeployingdifferentmarketingmixes(fastmovingconsumergoodscompaniesoftenproducelowpricebrandsandpremiumpricedbrandswithintheirproductportfolios)Aslegalconstraintsanduniversallyacceptedprofessionalstandardshavechangedovertime,thepromotionalmixusedbyprofessionalfirmshaschangedradicallyinrecentyearsInmanycountries,accountants,lawyersanddoctorswereforbiddenfromadvertisingatall,andhadtorelyontestimonialsandpersonalreferrals,andevenwhensuchruleswererelaxed,manyprofessionalsfrowneduponpromotionintheconventionalsenseSuchattitudesarerarelyencounteredtodayPlaceThisreferstoallactivitiesrelatedtomovingtheproductfromtheproducertotheconsumerItisconcernedwithdistributionthroughtheproducer’schannelstomarketDistributionmayinvolvephysicallymovingtheproducttotheconsumer,ortointermediarieswhotakeresponsibilityfordifferentstagesofdistribution,suchasagentsandwholesalersInretailindustries,distributionwasonceonlyconcernedwithtransferringgoodsfromthepointofproductiontothepointofsale,butthelogisticshavenowchangedasmorecompaniesembraceonlineordersandhomedeliveryalongside(and,insomecases,insteadof)theirstoresAdvancementsininformationandcommunicationstechnologyhavechangedthefaceofdistributioninthelastyearsInmanycountries,ithasbecomeapparentthatretailshopsarefindingitincreasinglydifficulttocompetewiththemoredirectchannelsfacilitatedbyecommerceWhilefortheforeseeablefutureconsumerswillcontinuetorelyonthetraditionalshoppingexperienceforcertaingoods,suchasfreshfoodandfashion,itisclearthatcertainbusinessescannotexpecttheirtraditionalbusinessmodeltobesustainableThishasbeenborneoutbythecollapseofsomelongestablishedcompanies(suchasWoolworth)andthedifficultiesencounteredbyothers(suchasvarioustravelandholidaycompanies)Professionalfirmsnowrelyheavilyonvirtualchannelstomarket,havingpreviouslybeenhighlydependentonfacetofaceinteractionTHEEXTENDEDMARKETINGMIXInadditiontothefourPs,someorganisationsincorporateadditionalelementsintotheirmarketingmixThemostcommonofthesearepeople,processesandphysicalevidencePeopleThiscomponentofthemarketingmixisespeciallyimportant:whengoodsofferedareconsideredtobehomogeneousbycustomersforservices,whichareintangibleandthereforehavetobedifferentiatedinaneffectivemannerPeoplearethemostunpredictableresourceemployedbyanorganisation,asthecontributionofanyindividualcanvaryfromdaytoday,orevenduringanysingledayPeoplefacilitateinteractionsbetweenthebusinessandthecustomer,soitisimportantthatemployeesaddvalueatthepointofsaleandinbackofficerolesSomewritersrefertoeachinteractionbetweenthecustomerandanindividualemployeeasa‘momentoftruth’Eachmomentoftruthisanopportunitytodelightthecustomerormerelysatisfythecustomer,butitisalsoamomentwheninappropriatebehaviour,attitudes,moodorlanguagecandrivethecustomeraway,possiblynevertoreturnWhenconsideringthispartofthemarketingmix,theorganisationhastoconsidermatterssuchas:thedutiesthatshouldbecarriedoutbypeople,andhowthesedutiesshouldbeallocatedbetweenthemtheextenttowhichtaskscanbeautomated,makingtheserviceexperiencemoreeffectiveandefficient,butwithoutdiminishingvaluetothecustomertheexpectationsofcustomerswhendealingwithpeopleintheorganisationtheextenttowhichcompetitiveadvantagecanbeobtainedbyenhancingthecontributionthatemployeesmaypotentiallymake,whichcanbeachievedthrougheducation,training,development,incentivesandothermotivationalstimuliProcessesProcessesarevitallyimportantwhentheycanimpactontheeffectivenessofdeliveringbenefitstothecustomerAutomationandthelinkingofprocesseshavepartstoplayhereSuccessfulbusinessescapitaliseontheuseoftechnologytoundertaketasksthatareperformedbetterbymachinesthanpeople,whileatthesametimeaskingtheirpeopletofulfilrolesthatonlypeopledowellManybusinesseshaveseenarevolutioninthewaythatcustomerneedsareaddressedbyfocusingonprocesschangesTheseincludethesystemsusedbyairlinesforbooking,ticketingandmovingcustomersthroughairportsandontoairplanes,andthesystemsusedbyfinancialinstitutionstoprovideremotebankingservices,includingcurrentaccountsandcardproductsAddingvaluethroughchangesinprocessesmaybeachievedbyadjustingandrefiningexistingsystems(processdesignandredesign),orbyreengineeringprocessescompletelyPhysicalevidenceWhenconsideringthepurchaseofagood,thecustomermayrespondtophysicalcues,suchaswhetherthepackagingispleasingontheeyeorwhetherthegooditselfisaestheticallyattractiveInthecontextoftheextendedmarketingmix,physicalevidenceisespeciallyrelevanttoservicesAsstatedearlier,servicesareintangible,sothoseresponsibleformarketingcandesignandimplementphysicalcuestowhichthecustomermayrespondpositivelyTherearemanywaysthatthiselementofthemixcanbeusedeffectively,includingattentionto:thedesignofthebuildinginwhichtheserviceisdelivered,andsometimestheenvironmentinwhichthebuildingissituatedinteriorlayout,decor,signage,aswellasuseofcontemporaryfloorplansuniformsdesignofwebpagesandformsbusinesscardsloyaltycardsTHERELATIONSHIPOFTHEMARKETINGPLANTOTHESTRATEGICPLANThestrategicplanofanorganisationisformulatedinordertoachievetheorganisation’slongtermobjectivesAtypicalplanninghorizonisfiveyears,thoughthismaydependonthenatureofthebusinessForexample,a‘dotcom’companymaychooseashorttimescaleiftechnologicaldevelopmentsinitsfieldofoperationarechangingfast,whileanoilormineralsextractioncompanymightplanforamuchlongerperiodoftimeThestrategicplansetsobjectivesthatwillbeconsistentwithitsvaluesandmissionasenvisagedbythedirectorsInordertorealisetheobjectivessetdownintheplan,itisnecessaryforeachfunctionalareaofthebusinesstocreateitsownplanTherefore,therewillbeaproductionplan,ahumanresourcesplan,afinancialplan,andsoonMarketingobjectivesmustbeconsistentwithstrategicobjectives,andbedrawnupalongsidethemFeworganisationscanoperatewithoutpayingattentiontotheenvironmental(PEST)factors,sooneofthefirststagesofplanningistoanalysethesefactorsandconsidertheminrelationtotheopportunitiesandthreatspresentedbyexternalforcesThemarketingplanmustalsotakeaccountoftheinternalstrengthsandweaknessesoftheorganisationStrengthsaretheplatformuponwhichcompetitiveadvantagecanbebuilt,whileweaknessessignalcurrentlimitationsthattheorganisationmayormaynotbeabletoovercomeAtthisstage,manyorganisationscarryoutamarketingaudit,whichaddressesthreequestions:wherearewenowwheredowewanttobehowdowegetthereThemarketingplancanthenbeformulated,settingspecificobjectivesanddetailedplansonhowmarketingresourceswillbeappliedtoachievethemFormanyorganisations,thedetailedplansmaybestructuredaroundthevariouselementsofthemarketingmixWrittenbyamemberofthePaperFFABexaminingteamLastupdated:Feb

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