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首页 Climate Change and China - 中华人民共和国外交部:Climate Ch…

Climate Change and China - 中华人民共和国外交部:Climate Change and China - the people´s Republic of China Ministry of Foreign Affairs.doc

Climate Change and China - 中华人民…

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2018-11-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Climate Change and China - 中华人民共和国外交部:Climate Change and China - the people´s Republic of China Ministry of Foreign Affairsdoc》,可适用于高等教育领域

ClimateChangeandChina中华人民共和国外交部:ClimateChangeandChinathepeople´sRepublicofChinaMinistryofForeignAffairsClimateChangeandChinaLondonSchoolofEconomicsFuYing年月日:ProfessorCorbridge,LadiesandGentlemen,IamhonouredtotalktoyouonsuchanimportantsubjectasclimatechangeIt’saspecialhonour,becausetheLSEiswellknownforitsscholarshiponclimatechangeanditscrucialcontributiontothisglobaldebateChinaisahugecountrywithapopulationofbillionIthasdiverseclimaticconditionsandafragileenvironmentTheeffectofclimatechangeisaveryrealthreatwhichwefaceeverydayAccordingtoChinesescientists,theaveragetemperatureinChinahasrisenbydegreescentigradeinthelastdecadesItishigherthanthereportedglobalaverageWeareseeingmorefrequentboutsofextremeweatherinmanypartsofthecountryLastspring,forexample,themostseveredroughtinyearshitnorthernChinaaffectingthelivelihoodofmillionpeopleEnvironmentaldamageandclimatechangeisarealityforusOutoftheworld’smostpollutedcities,halfareinChinaofChineseriversarepollutedtosomedegreeChinahasbecomethelargestcarbonemitteroftheworldHowhavewegothereChinahasreachedthisstagewhenitismakinggreatendeavourstoliftpeopleoutofpovertyUnlikeyouhere,wehavecondensedcenturiesofindustrializationintoonlyyearsNow,theChinesepeoplehavewokentothethreatand,withthesamezealthatwehaveembracedindustrialization,weareembracingcleanerdevelopmentInChina,climatechangeisnotjustatopicfordiscussionIt’sbackedupwithpolicyandactionthroughoutthecountryLetmesharesomeexampleswithyouFirst,onthelegalandpolicyfrontChinasetforwardavoluntaryreductionprogramfortoperiod,includingreductioninenergyintensityperunitofGDPToachievethis,weamendedtheLawonEnergySavingandtheLawonRenewableEnergyWe’vealsosetupastrictevaluationsystemforenergyefficiencyThisenablesthecentralgovernmenttoholdprovincialleadersaccountableformeetingenergyefficiencytargetsLastmonth,theevaluationresultforwasreleasedonthewebforalltoaccessOutofprovincesandregions,fulfilledemissionreductiontargetsOnecan’tunderscoreenoughtheimportanceofhavingsuchtransparencyasitplacesgreatpressureonthosewhoarenotmeetingthetargetBeijingisdoingbetter,overfulfillingitstargetfor,withoverIamsuretheOlympicshelpedIthasalreadyachievedoverforthetargetofAtthebottom,youcanseeXinjiangItislaggingfarbehindandlooksunlikelytomeetthetargetandwouldneedalotofhelpSecondly,nowtheindustrieshavetotakeverytoughdecisionstoachievecleandevelopmentProjectswithhighemissioncannolongergoaheadandsomeexistinghighemittersarebeingphasedoutItisunderstandablydifficulttopushthroughsuchreformsandthereis,inevitably,resistanceBeingadevelopingcountry,shuttingdownfactoriesmeansjoblossesformanywhoneedthemForexample,wehaveachievedcuttingdowntheaverageconsumptionofcoalperunitofpowerby,bydemolishingthehighpollutingandinefficientpowerplantsButitledtothelossof,jobsSothethirdpointisthatwehaveincreasedandwillcontinuetoincreasethepercentageofcleaneralternativeenergysourcesLowcarbonandenergyconservationhavebecomenewgrowthsectorsinChinaManyBritishcompaniesareactivelyinvolvedincleandevelopmentprojectsinChinaInthefirstmonthsofthisyear,cleanenergycontributedathirdofChina’snewlyaddedpowercapacityChinanowranksasfirstintheworldforsolarheatingandphotovoltaicgeneration,aswellasinstalledhydropowercapacityYoumaybesurprisedtoknow,infamiliesinChinaalreadyusesolarenergyThatincludesmyfamilyManynewbuildingsinChinesecitiesareequippedwithsolarenergyThefactthattheChinesepeoplearesokeentoadoptcleanenergyisanexcellentindicatorofourdedicationtoabetterfutureNext,let’stalkabouttreesandreforestationWeallknowhowtreescanabsorbCOfromtheatmosphereChinesepeoplehavereallytakentreeplantingtoheartIthasevenbecomefashionableforyoungcouplestoplanttreestomarktheirweddingChinahasplantedmoretreesthananyothercountryintheworld,withbilliontreesplantedThatistreesperindividual,anincrediblenumberLastbutnotleast,theonlymeansforChinatoreallyachieveitsambitiousplanisthroughscienceandtechnologyThisiswhyChinaisinvestingheavilyinresearchanddevelopmentThecountryhasbecomeagiantlaboratoryfortestingallkindsofcleanenergytechnologiesInthelateststimuluspackageworthbillionpound,wasinvestedinaddressingclimatechangeIamsureyouwillagreethatitisahugeamountbyanystandard,especiallyduringthefinancialcrisisThankstoalltheseefforts,ChinaiswellontracktoreachourtargetssetforThatwouldmeanareductioninCOemissionsofbilliontonsinfiveyearsbyThisisanachievementthatcompareswellwiththeeffortsofothercountriesAttheUNclimatechangesummitlastSeptember,PresidentHuJintaostatedthatChinawouldtakeevenfurtherstepstocounterclimatechangeTofollowup,theChinesegovernmenthasannounceditstargetsforbasedonlevelsTheyinclude:bringingdownCOperunitofGDPby,increasingtheratioofnonfossilenergyto,expandingforestcoveragebymillionhectares,thatisbiggerthanoneandhalftimesthesizeofUnitedKingdomWewillmakealltheseintocompulsoryandverifiabletargets,withintheframeworkofourdomesticdevelopmentprogramIhopeyouwillappreciatethatachievingthesetargetsandfurtherreducingemissionwillgetincreasinglyharderLetmeelaborateonthatpointWehavealreadycloseddownmanyoftheoldandhighenergyconsumingfactories,Thatistosay,theeasierpartisdoneBetweento,theperunitGDPenergyconsumptioncamedownbyandbetweentoitwillagaincomedownbyThenextwillberaisingtheenergyefficiencyoftheremainingplantsIt’sgoingtocostmoreandinvolvemoresacrificetoreducefurtherThisiswhyinvestinginresearchanddevelopmentissocriticalforus,asonlyinnovationcanhelpChinatomakethatleapAndthisiswhywearelookingtodevelopedcountriesfortechnologytransferandcapacitybuildingAccordingtotheInternationalEnergyAgency,ifChinafulfilsitstargetfor,itwillhavereduceditsemissionsofCObybilliontonsThatwillbeagreatachievement,giventhatweareadevelopingcountryandwehaveequallypressingsurvivalprioritiesIfyouwouldallowme,I’dliketoexpandonthispointChinamaysoonbecomethendlargesteconomyintheworldYetitremainsadevelopingcountryThisissomethingthatmanypeopleoftenforgetChina’spercapitaGDPhasjustpassed,USdollarsUKandUSaretotimesthatofChinaChinaisbehindJamaicaandNamibiaNow,letmeaskyouallaquestion:InwhichyearinhistorydoyouthinkBritainwasatthesameincomelevelChinanowisatAccordingtoBritisheconomistAngusMaddison,theansweristheyearInpercapitaGDPterms,ChinaonlyranksatthplaceintheworldItmightbeasurprisetosomeofyouthatChinahasmillionpeoplelivingunderonedollaradaySometimeseventhemostbasicthingsthatwetakeforgranted,likewater,arebeyondthereachofsomeChinesepeopleTakeforexample,inChina’snorthwest,waterissoscarcethatfarmersinavillageinGansuprovinceonlytakethreebathsintheirentirelife,atbirth,atmarriageandatdeathWhendiscussingclimatechange,wetendtotalkmostlyaboutfactsandfigures,butweshouldnotforgetthat,thereisalsothehumandimensionImaginewhenelectricityreachesthisGansuvillage,whichiswhatChinahasbeendoing,bringingelectricitytoeveryvillage,notonlyarethefarmersabletodrilldeeperforwater,butalsotheirchildrenwouldbeabletowatchTVforthefirsttimeandseethewonderfuloutsideworldTheyofcoursewilldreamaboutabetterlifeandallthethingsthatcomewithitWhoarewetotellthem,thattheyhavenorighttohavewhatwehaveWhoarewetotellthemthattheycan’tlivelikethepeopleinShanghaiorLondontheyseeonTVWhycan’ttheyhaveipods,laptopsandrefrigerators,orevencarsThisisthehumandimension,andthisisthechallengeChina’sdifficultmissionistoenableallofitsbillionpeopletohavetheopportunitytorealizetheirdreams,buttoachieveitinaenvironmentallyresponsiblewayNowlet’scomebacktothepointaboutChinabeingtheworld’sbiggestCOemitterIfyoulookatthefiguresinpercapitaterms,anaverageChineseperson’semissionistonsAnaverageAmericanemitstons,intheyellowcolourandBritaintonsinthebluecolourYoucanhardlycallChinaenergygreedy,canyouYet,accordingtoanFTsurvey,ofAmericansbelievethatChinaisnotdoingenoughandthatitshouldundertakemoreemissionreductionItfeelslikeapersontakingpiecesofbreadaskingthepersonwhogotthefirstpieceofbreadtogoondietBetweenand,developedcountriesaccountedforoftheworld’sCOemissionsEventoday,withonlyoftheworld’spopulation,developedcountriespumpmorethanofthetotalemissionsintotheatmosphereSowhenitcomestoemissions,developedanddevelopingcountriescan’tbecomparedlikeforlike,nottobepaintedinthesamebrushThisiswhyweattachsomuchimportancetotheUNFrameworkConventiononClimateChange,whichsetouttheprincipleofcommonbutdifferentiatedresponsibilitiesThisisultimatelyaboutfairnessandequalrighttodevelopmentTheCopenhagenconferencewillcommenceindays’timeItwillbeamajormilestoneintheglobalefforttotackleclimatechangeandthepeopleoftheworldhavehighhopesonitsoutcomeForCopenhagentobesuccessful,ChinabelievesseveralthingsneedtohappenFirst,developedcountriesshouldundertaketoachievesubstantialemissionreductiontargetsforthesecondcommitmentperiodundertheKyotoProtocolCountriesthathavenotsigneduptotheKyotoProtocolshouldformulatesimilarreductiontargetsSecond,effectivemechanismsshouldbesetuptoensurethatdevelopedcountriesprovidefinancialandtechnologicalsupporttodevelopingcountriesThird,developingcountryshouldalsoadoptmitigationmeasuresaccordingtotheirnationalconditions,withintheframeworkofsustainabledevelopmentandwithfinancialandtechnologicalsupportfromthedevelopedcountriesChinesePremierWenJiabaowillattendtheconferenceChinaiswillingtoplayaconstructiveroleinbringingthenegotiationstoasuccessfulconclusionWelookforwardtoclosecooperationwiththeUKandtherestoftheworldinthisprocessAllinall,climatechangeisaglobalchallenge,whichcanonlyberesolvedthroughglobalcooperationAsamother,IdohopemydaughterandthefuturegenerationswillbreathecleanairandliveinagoodenvironmentSocountriesshouldworktogetheraspartnerstomakesurethatourchildreninheritabetterworldThankyou

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