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首页 开发校本课程促进学生发展_对上海市实验学校案例和其他国家经验的思考(Thinking about…

开发校本课程促进学生发展_对上海市实验学校案例和其他国家经验的思考(Thinking about development of students in Shanghai experimental school _ case and the experience of other countries to promote the..

开发校本课程促进学生发展_对上海市实验学校案例和其他国家经验的…

带着眼泪带着伤口去流浪
2018-11-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《开发校本课程促进学生发展_对上海市实验学校案例和其他国家经验的思考(Thinking about development of students in Shanghai experimental school _ case and the experience of other countries to promote the.doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

开发校本课程促进学生发展对上海市实验学校案例和其他国家经验的思考(ThinkingaboutdevelopmentofstudentsinShanghaiexperimentalschoolcaseandtheexperienceofothercountriestopromotethe开发校本课程促进学生发展对上海市实验学校案例和其他国家经验的思考(ThinkingaboutdevelopmentofstudentsinShanghaiexperimentalschoolcaseandtheexperienceofothercountriestopromotethedevelopmentofschoolbasedcurriculum)Suddenly,suchasspringnight,thousandsofpeartreesAtthebeginningofShenXiYunGe,comingstorminTheautumnwindisblowing,anditisalwaysinthewindKeeployalanddevotedtothelast。Curriculum,teachingmaterials,teachingmethods,,FifthDevelopingschoolbasedcurriculumtopromotestudents'developmentReflectionsonthecaseofShanghaiexperimentalschoolandothernationalexperiencesShanghaiNormalUniversity,ZhangMinxuanAbstract:theexperienceofdevelopingschoolbasedcurriculuminShanghaiexperimentalschoolinthepastyearsshowsthatthereisnoneedfortalentsbroughtaboutbyreformandopeningupWiththetransformationofcurriculumdecisionmakingmanagementsystem,ShanghaiexperimentalschoolanditsschoolbasedcurriculumdevelopmenthavecitywasapprovedbyShanghaimunicipalgovernmentTheschoolwasformallyestablishedandgainedthegroundofanindependentbodyoflegalpersonsThismakestheschoolbasedcurriculumdevelopmentoftheexperimentalschooldevelopAssuranceofmanpower,materialresources,andautonomyUnderthesupportoftheStateEducationCommission,theHaiEducationCommissionhasbeguntoreformLeatherprimaryandsecondaryschoolcurriculummaterials,thedevelopmentoflocalteachingplaninShanghai,SyllabusandteachingmaterialsDesignationoflocalcurriculuminShanghaiInthecourseofthelocalteachingmaterials,ShanghaiexperimentalschoolproposedearlierTheconceptof"wholereform",therequiredcoursesandelectivecoursesCurriculumandpracticeactivitiesinthecurriculumstructureandChinesecurriculummaterialsFirst,thetwosessions(willread,willexplain),afterfour(willread,meeting)"Toexplain,write,anduse",priorityisgiventothedevelopmentofliteracyPrincipleandsoon,obtained"Shanghaiprimaryandmiddleschoolcurriculumcurriculumreform"Thecommittee'sexpertshaveprovidedexperienceandinspirationforthereformShowAftermorethanyears'trial,ShanghaiexperimentalschoolwasdevelopedThecurriculumenteredamatureperiodinthemiddleofthes,TheschoolbegantocompareandproveitsowndevelopmentandPracticeAteachingmaterial,publication,printingIn,ShanghaiExperimentalSchoolTheresearchresultshavebeenhighlyappraisedbytheacademicandeducationalcirclesinChinaAtthesametime,thecurriculumandteachingmaterialsdevelopedbyShanghaiexperimentalschoolarealsofollowedShanghai,Guangdong,Yunnan,Henan,Zhejiang,JiangsuTheschoolaskedforatrialSince,people'sEducationPressOfficiallylaunchedandpublishedbytheShanghaiExperimentalSchoolChineselanguageteachingmaterialsandmetacognitiveabilitytrainingmaterialsOnethousandninehundredandninetynineIn,thepeople'seducationpressalsoofficiallypublished,andlanguageteachingmaterialstomatchSleevecdInJuly,ShanghaiexperimentalschoolpassedthecourseofteachingTeachersareinvolvedinscientificresearchandcurriculumresearchanddevelopmentTheMinistryofeducationhascommendedandpublishedCDROMinChinaEducationTelevisionStationIthasbecomeanationalkeyteachertrainingtextbookThe"computerliteracy"sectionoftheChineselanguagecurriculumwasorganizedbytheMinistryofEducationTheexpertpanelisrecommendedas"thesevenmostefficientliteracyclassinthecountry"OneofthemethodsTake"number,shapeandprogression","earlypregnancy"and"lineconnection"SchoolmathematicstextbooksbasedonthebasicprinciplesofnetworkandculturethinkingTrainingabatchofqualifiedpersonnelhaslaidthefoundationandobtainedtheexpert'sgoodReviewTake"teachersandstudentsparticipation,moduledevelopment"asthebasicdevelopmentspecialtyTheintegratedcurriculumofnaturalsciencewasawardedtheShanghaiMunicipalEducationCommissionAndthepraiseoftheMinistryofeducationSupportedbytheHuaxiafoundationinHongkongRecentlypublishedbytheShanghaieducationpressShanghaiexperimentalschooldevelopsyearsofschoolbasedcurriculumThetestshowsthatthereisnoneedfortalentsbroughtaboutbyreformandopeningtotheoutsideworldThereisnonationalreformintheadministrativesystemof"gradingmanagement"Thecurriculumdecisionmakingmanagementsystemchanges,ShanghaiExperimentalSchoolWilllosethemeaningofsurvivalanddevelopment,schoolbasedcurriculumwillalsobelostConditionsforgrowthThroughoutthecountry,schoolbasedcourses"ChengCheng"researchanddevelopmentalsoexperiencedasimilarprocessofdevelopmentnoDecentralizationofreformandopeningupandtheentireadministrativepower,ChineseTeacherswillnotbesofamiliarwiththe"schoolbasedcurriculum"astheyaretodayRead,therewillnotbesomanyschoolstodaytojointheschoolbasedcurriculumProcessdevelopmentranksTwo,aboutschoolbasedcurriculumandcurriculumdecisionmakingsystemThedevelopmentofschoolbasedcurriculumisinfluencedbytheeducationaldecisionmakingbodyinChinaEspecially,itisrestrictedbythemanagementsystemofcurriculumdecisionmakingpenPeoplebelievethatnotonlyChina'ssituationisso,inothercountriesThespaceforschoolbasedcurriculumdevelopmentisalsoinfluencedbyeducationaldecisionsofvariouscountriesInstitutionalconstraintsClassesaroundsThecurriculumdecisionmakingsituationshowsthatthecurriculumdecisionmakingpowerstructureofeachcountryisapproximateCanbedividedintothefollowingfourmodes()thestatedecisionmakingpoweristhelargest,andthelocaldecisionmakingpowerissecond,SchooldecisionmakingpowerisminimalThetypicaldevelopedcountryisfranceThismodel(asshowninFig)fromtheEncyclopediaofeducationandNapoleonGrowinginEncyclopediaofcurriculumtheoryandacquisitionTherequirementsoftheEmpireare:inthenationaladministrativeandeducationalsystemAstrongcentralizedsystemCurriculumdecisionsandcoursesSetthe"rationalprinciple","universalprinciple"and"work"Theprincipleofprofit,everyschoolmustcarryoutthenationalunity,Acommon,detailed,scheduledcourse(Holmes,Mclean:),)SomescholarsbelievethattheFrenchcurriculuminTheplanprovidesexactlythesamesubjectandtimeforeachschoolTablebetweenComparedwiththetwohundredyeartraditionofthenationalcurriculum,FranceItbeganinstocallforattentiontolocaldifferencesThenthereweresomelocalcoursesthatdidn'ttakeexamsactThegovernmentallowsprimaryandsecondaryschoolstodecideonoftheteachingcontentbecauseEvenprivateFrenchCatholicschoolsarerareInadditiontoreligiousschoolbasedcourses,textbooks,onthecontrary,privateschoolsThecurriculumhasbeenactivelyadoptedbythenationalunifiedcurriculum(HolmesquotMcLean:,)(two)localdecisionmakingpoweristhelargest,followedbynationaldecisionmakingpower,SchooldecisionmakingpowerisminimalThismodel(asshowninFigure)isrepresentedbytheUnitedstatesfromIntermsofeducationalpowerinthestate,theUnitedStateshaslonghadnonationalUnifiedprimaryandsecondaryschooleducationgoalsandnationalunifiedcurriculumwholeNationaleducationalrequirementsareoftenraisedbyprofessionalbodiesorfoundationsOut,butwithoutthebindingofthelawUntil,theUnitedStatesMuchofthecurriculumreformliteratureinthecountryisstillfromthecivilsocietyhighTheNationalCouncilonqualityeducation,thenationatrisk:educationalreformItisimperativethatthehighschoolpassofCarnegieEducationAssociationIntheUnitedStatessecondaryeducationreport",Paidiyagroup"EducationTheManifesto'scallforcurriculumreformisaclassicexampleOneThesecondaryexceptionwasthenationaldefenseapprovedbytheUnitedStatesCongressinEducationlawOntheSovietsatellite,angelAmericasuddenlyrealizeditselfTheleadingpositionofscienceandtechnologyhasbeenshakenandattributedtoeducationrootAccordingtotheprovisionsofthenationaldefenseeducationlaw,theUnitedStateshasputforwardanewcurriculumCheng,"thenewthreearts",hiredexpertsandscholarstodesignanumberofScienceLearningandforeignlanguagecoursematerialsHowever,inthislackofnationalunityAcountrythatpracticeseducationaltraditions,evenifthefederalgovernmentpassestheUnitedStatesTheNationalScienceFoundationputsinalotofmoneyandbuildsseveral"Regionaleducationlabs"andpushedthroughtheRDDmodelYes,thenewcurriculumisalsoduetotheuseoffewerschooldistrictsandschools,EventhecurriculumreforminthiscountryhascometonothingAmericanprimaryandsecondaryschoolsThedecisionmakingauthorityofthecurriculumisintheStatesandtheschooldistrictsStateEducationTheMinistryisstilltheoutlineofthecurriculumforprimaryandsecondaryschoolsandthestandardsofvariousdisciplinesFramersOntheInternet,wecancheckouttheStatesCurriculumstandardsandrelatedteachingmaterialsforprimaryandsecondaryschoolsUSAThecurriculumdecisionmakingpowerinprimaryandsecondaryschoolsismainlythechoiceofteachingmaterialsandcoursesLayoutandsubjectsettings(three)theschooldecisionmakingpoweristhelargest,andthelocaldecisionmakingpowerissecond,TheminimumdecisionmakingpowerofthestateThismodel(asshowninFigure)isrepresentedbytheUnitedKingdomMainlyreferstoEnglandandWelshIntheprimaryeducationstage,EnglishTherearetwokindsof"stateownedprimaryschools"and"preparatoryschools"Withthetraditional,havetheabilityto"report"ofhadorThetraditionalpacket,""thePlowdenReportChildren'scenterrequirementsinthesecondaryeducationphase,theUnitedKingdomhasTheindependentschoolatthecoreisgrammar,modern,andtechnicalThreetypesoftraditionalschools,withtheriseofcomprehensiveschoolsafterthewar,allkindsofSchoolshavetheirowngroups,goalsandtraditionsThesecondaryeducationproficiencytestwasevaluatedbysixnonprofitmakingacademicachievementsTheimpactofnationalinstitutionsoncurriculumdecisionsItbecameoneoftheleastdevelopedcountriesAtthesametime,SchoolTheprincipalwasascaptain,graspsthedirectionandrequirementsofTeachersGreaterprofessionalautonomyAtStanHouse(LSten)House)MSkilbeck(Beck)andotherscholarsUndertheinitiative,thecurriculumdevelopmentofteachers'teachingstandardcurriculumdesignThemostappropriateplaceisforeducatorsandlearnerstoteach"Fang"andsoonhavebecomethemainstreamofEnglishcurriculumdevelopmentTherefore,SchoolsintheUKhavemorepowerovercurriculumdecisionsthanmostDevelopedcountry。UntilthereformandReforminsThestatutory"nationalcurriculum"hasreallyshakentheBritishstyleTheschoolcurriculumdominatesthetradition(four)thedecisionmakingpowerofthestateandschoolsisgreat,andlocaldecisionsaremadeSmallrightGlobaleducationreformsincesAndthecurriculumreformalsoremindspeoplethatthethreemajordecisionmakingmodelsareCountriesarenotstaticAccordingtotheauthor'sviewThecurriculumdecisionmodelinsomecountriesischangingstayBritain,authorizedbytheeducationreformactofHome(centralgovernment)curriculumdecisionmakingpowerincreased,thecountry'sthreedoorsCorecourses,sevenbasiccourses,determined,toyearsold,Bytheageof,thepublicschoolshavetherighttoapplyfortheexaminationFromthejurisdictionofthelocalgovernmentintoa"directsubsidyschool"andIndependentschoolsformthecurriculumatbothendsofthecountryandschoolAnewpatternofbigdecisionmakingpowerandnarrowlocaldecisionmakingpower(asshowninFigure)ShowTheUnitedStateshasalsopromulgatedanationalbenchmarkforvariousdisciplinesEnhancingnationalcurriculumdecisionmakingpowerSotherewasthefollowingFourthpatternsTheexperienceofcountriesaroundtheworldisalsoveryclear:Theschoolhasthemostdecisionmakingpower,andtheschoolbasedcurriculumdevelopsmostForsmoothinthe"nationaldecisionmakingpower"thelargestcountry,schoolbasedThespaceforcurriculumdevelopmentisminimalButdoesthestategrantlearningSchooltodevelop"schoolbasedcurriculum"space,orgivemoreschoolsThedevelopmentofthelargeschoolbasedcurriculum,exceptfortheeducationalsystemTheinfluenceofthesystemlargelydependsonsocietyatacertaintimeThebasicjudgmentofthedevelopmentofeducationinChinaandintheregionasAsaresult,theUnitedStatesandothercountrieshavestrengthenedthedecisionmakingpowerofnationalcurriculuminrecentyearsMainlyfromtheBritishAmericangovernmentandsociety,eagertorestoreandcarryforwardHighschool,primaryknowledge,qualityofeducation,thentheAsiaPacificregioninrecentyearsTheupsurgeofdevelopingschoolbasedcurriculumismainlyfromthefieldofattentionSocialdevelopmentofpersonalitydevelopmentandstudents'creativeabilityThree,theintrinsicvalueofschoolbasedcurriculumThecurriculumdecisionmakingsystemcanonlyprovideforthedevelopmentofschoolbasedcurriculumMaybe,thedevelopmentandapplicationofschoolbasedcurriculumdependmoreonSchoolbasedCurriculumDevelopmentTheintrinsicvalueofthecurriculumitselfShanghaiexperimentalschoolforyearsTheinspirationofsuccessfulexperienceisthatschoolbasedcurriculumdevelopmentisadevelopmentDevelopstudents'potential,promoteteachers'development,andgivefullplaytoschoolsAnimportantwaytofunctionandtoachieveeducationalidealsFirst,thesuccessfulexperienceofexperimentalschoolsshowsthatschoolbasedcurriculumTheprocessmeetsthepotentialdevelopmentandindividualityofthestudentswithdiversityThefunctionofexhibitionhasirreplaceablevalueTheexperimentalschoolisstudyingSystem(tenyears)isdifferentfromotherschoolsRecruitstudentsInadditiontotraining,therearebothstudentswhohave"middleintelligence"and"pass"Avarietyofwaysofadmiringstudents,controltheinitialconditionsIt'shardtocontrolHowever,theyareintheexperimentalschoolZhuoGrowingup,howdotheylearnfromthehighschoolintegratedcurriculumTodoresearch,theyarefromthe"Artsintersection"courseofknowledge,historyandPhilosophyTrue,theylearntowriteinthelanguagemodulecourse,heThroughtheITcourse,"lettheworldintotheclassroom",letoneselfwalkinTheworld,theyenjoythecharmofbeautyinthePerformingArtscurriculumAttheFudanUniversity,JiaotongUniversity,ShanghaidramaclassscienceliaisonThecollegedirectoranddepartmentareallactivegraduatesoftheexperimentalschoolSecond,thepracticeofexperimentalschoolsalsotellsusthatschoolbasedCurriculumdevelopmentnotonlyenablesteacherstohaveaprofessionaltalentfieldMoreover,itisalsototrainteachersandpromoteteacherstobeprofessionallyeducatedforlifeAneffectiveapproachtodevelopmentIntheonlycountries,curriculumandeducationarelargeTheunificationoftheera,themainfunctionsofteachersintheteachingofthecourseIsaloudspeaker,microphoneandasimpleimplementationofthecurriculum,teachingTheteacher'seducationalideaisconfined,andteacherslackpracticeAplaceforeducation,education,discoveryThus,teachertrainingOnceamolding,withoutcontinuousdevelopmentUntiethemindStoplater,recognizethatteachersneedlifelongprofessionaldevelopmentschoolThedevelopmentofthiscoursehasbecomeanimportantpartofteacherdevelopmentinexperimentalschoolsRealmWefindthatteachersknowthecourse,studythestudentsandexploreitThetalentforsocialandscientificdevelopmenthascomeintoplayespeciallyPrimaryandsecondaryschools,likeus,havereceivedcompletehighereducationTeachers,theyhavebothprofessionalandcognitiveabilitiesEveryday,facingstudents,textbooksandsociety,theyarefullyavailableThroughcooperationandexploration,thedevelopmentofexcellentschoolbasedteachingmaterialsThedevelopmentofschoolbasedcurriculumandteachingmaterialsinexperimentalschoolshasbecomeakindofMotivationhasenabledteacherstokeepintouchwithcoursesandteachingathomeandabroadThetrendofacademicreform,andstrivetomasterthetheoryofcurriculumteachingThesystemofgraspingthesubjectknowledgeandthedevelopmentofstudents'intelligenceCharacteristics,rhythmandlevel,absorbthelatestscientificandtechnologicalachievementsWiththelatestinformationtechnologyInthissense,itistrueFranksays,"withouttheprofessionaldevelopmentofateacher,thereisnolearning"Theschoolcurriculum"(quotedfromElliott:,)It'salsofromtherootThishasfosteredthehabitofteachers'continuousexplorationandpromotedteachersSustainabledevelopmentandlifelonglearningTherefore,inpromotingstudentsintoDuringtheperiodof"InquiryLearning",theexperimentalschoolalreadyhasAgroupof"researchlearning",goodatteachingthecourseResearchteacherThroughteachers'participationinschoolbasedcurriculumdevelopment,theexperimentalschoolsalsoFundamentallychangedtheteachertraininginthetraditional,single"Listeningtolectures"themodeofreceptivelearning,buildsacceptanceSex(improvingacademicqualifications,listeningtolectures,learningtechniques)andsharingSex(intramuralcommunication,outofschoolstudy)andresearchTeachingmaterials,studyingstudents,findingyourself)combininglearning,Thetrainingmodeof"scholarteacher"(showninFigure)Third,yearsofpracticeintheexperimentalschoolalsoshowedoneFact:schoolisauniquesocialorganization,aschoolsocietyTherealizationofthefunctionneedstomeettherequirementfromtwoaspectsSchoolbasedcurriculumdevelopmentcanhelpschoolsachievethefullcurriculumSocialfunctionTherequirementsofthesetwoaspectsareasfollows:ontheonehand,learningAschoolmustberesponsibleforthewholesocietyThegovernmentisresponsiblefortheoverallinterestsofthecommunitySchoolmustThroughtheimplementationofeducationandotherregulations,theimplementationofthenationaleducationsideTocompletetheeducationaltasksstipulatedbytheadministrativedepartmentsofthegovernmentFormalcoursesensurethatschoolsarebasedonthebasicrequirementsandnormsofsocietyToorganizeandcarryouteducationalactivitiesandcultivatethetalentsneededbysocietyOntheotherhand,schoolshavetofaceeverystudent,parentandcommunityThedistrictisresponsibleforeachstudentandparenttotheschoolCommunityresponsibilityInotherwords,schoolsmustmakefulluseoftheschool,Thecommunityprovideseducationalresourcestodevelopthefullpotentialofthestudents,SoastomeettheneedsofparentstotraintheirchildrenandmeettheneedsofthecommunitythroughschoolsTheexpectationthattheschoolwilltrainthetalentsinthiscommunityIntheprocessoftakingresponsibilityforthewholesociety,theschoolisfirstandforemostAnimplementationandoperationmechanism,and,accordingtopaymustbeinaccordancewiththelawEducationpolicyeducationInthehistoryofChina,theschoolisveryForalongtime,itwasmainlytheexecutivebodyofeducationalpolicybutIntheprocessofbeingaccountabletostudents,parentsandcommunities,theschoolalsoShouldbeananalysis,ajudgment,anexplanation,andadecisionmakingbodyButHavearegularanalysisofchangesinsocialneeds,analysisoftheactualstudentNeedtounderstandtheneedsandgraspanduseofparentsandcommunitiesSchoolresources,andonthisbasis,timelyadjustmentandenrichmentofschoolclassesAndtheteachingmethodstodeterminethedirectionofschooldevelopment,theschoolonlyMayberecognizedandwelcomedbystudents,parentsandthecommunityEnergysourcescontinuetofosterwhatsocietyandparentsexpectAfullydevelopedpersonTheschoolisclearlyawarethatWhetheritmeetstheexpectationsofstudents,parentsandcommunitiesisnotonlyAnindicatorthatissociallyresponsibleandrelatedtoschoolsWhetherwecandothequality,makethecharacteristic,andevenrelatetotheschoolstudentsImportanteventsofsustainabledevelopmentTheschoolbasedcurriculumisaccountabletostudents,parentsandcommunitiesDuringthecourse,wecanmakefulluseofthenationalandlocalcurriculumUseBecausethebasicmeaningofschoolbasedcurriculumliesinitscommitmentRecognizingthediversityofstudentsandthediversityoftheeducationalenvironment,itcanDirectservicetostudentdifferencesandeducationalconditionssituationalDiversityTheintrinsicvalueofschoolbasedcurriculumisnotonlyrelatedtoschoolThesocialfunctionsareconsistent,andtheschoolalsohasdevelopmentcoursesBasicconditionsofthejourneyFirstofall,schoolteachersarethebestabletounderstandStudentsneedprofessionals,andschoolsalsoknowtheparentsandclubsbestDistrictEducationexpectationsUnderstandingstudentneedsandparents,socialperiodsExpectationisthepremiseandfoundationofallcurriculumdevelopmentactivitiesSecondly,studyAsasocialorganization,theschoolalreadyhasacertainscopeThepossibilityofallocatingmaterialresources,manpower,andtimehasbeenThepossibilityofoutsidesupport,cooperationandcooperationMainreferencematerial:Elliott,J(),The,teacher',s,role,in,curriculTum,development:,An,unsolved,issue,in,English,atTempts,at,curriculum,reformCurriculum,Studies,Vol,ppHayhoe,R()China'sUniversities:A,century,of,cultural,conflictHong,Kong:HongKongUniversityKelly,A()The,curriculum:theory,andPracticeLondon:PaulChapmanMarsh,C()Key,concepts,for,understandIngcurriculumLondon:FalmerRudduck,JHopkis,D(eds)()ResearchAs,a,basis,for,teaching:readings,form,the,works,ofLawrenceStenhouseOxford:HeinemannSimpson,M(),"School,based,and,centrally"Directed,curriculum,duvelopmentthe,uneasy,middle"Ground",in,B,Moon,P,Murphy,J,Raynor(eds)Policies,for,the,curriculum,London:,HodderStoughton,pp,Skilbeck,M()SchoolbasedCurriculumDevelopmentInOpemUniversityCourseUnitMilton,Keynes:,Open,University,PressCuiXuSchoolbasedcurriculumdevelopment:TheoryandpracticeBeijing:TeachingEducationSciencePress,,J,Elliot,WangHongyuTeacherincurriculumdevelopmentRole:anunsolvedproblemintheUKJforeignprimaryandsecondaryschoolsYu,,():don'tfitflow,nomorethanThegreen,blue,andgreeninblueThegreen,maymyheartThreemountainsandahalf,offtheCastlePeak,awateregre
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