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首页 中国古代的改革、变法及其历史经验教训(The reform and political refo…

中国古代的改革、变法及其历史经验教训(The reform and political reform in ancient China and its historical experiences and lessons).doc

中国古代的改革、变法及其历史经验教训(The reform a…

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2018-12-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《中国古代的改革、变法及其历史经验教训(The reform and political reform in ancient China and its historical experiences and lessons)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

中国古代的改革、变法及其历史经验教训(ThereformandpoliticalreforminancientChinaanditshistoricalexperiencesandlessons)中国古代的改革、变法及其历史经验教训(ThereformandpoliticalreforminancientChinaanditshistoricalexperiencesandlessons)ThereformandpoliticalreforminancientChinaanditshistoricalexperiencesandlessonsItcanbesaidthatthereformrunsthroughthehistoryofChina'sancienttimesAlthougheachperiod,thepolitical,economicandsocialsituationisdifferentindifferentdynasties,differentspecificreformcontent,purpose,means,butthereisacommonpointisobviously,thatreformisnottobeadaptedtothenewpoliticalandeconomicsituation,theoldlegalsystemorpolicyOrasQinShangyangsaid:"atthattimeandthelegislation,becausethingsandtreattheritual"or"WangYuchengsaidastheNorthernSongDynastytimebychangingovertonewmethods,legislation,throughcontinuousreformofsurvival,development,prosperityToday,thereformandopeningupisthemainthemeofthetimes,thestudyofancienthistoryofreform(majorreformintroducednewtextbooksChineseancienthistory,atotalof),summingupthepreviousreformsofthelessonsofsuccessandfailure,hasthepositivesignificancetoourmentorKnowledgecardingInthespringandautumn()Guan"phaseandthedeclineoflevyreform"IntheWarringStatesperiod()LiKuiWei,ChuWuqi,SouthKoreashenbuhaiandQiJireform,QinShangYang'sreform(content,effect)In()WangMang(newrestructuringbackground,maincontentandresults)In()theNorthernWeiEmperorXiaowenreform(thebackground,content,effect)IntheLaterZhouDynasty()Shizongreform(contentandeffect)IntheNorthernSongDynasty()QingliandWangAnshireform(time,background,content,effectandcauseoffailure)IntheMingDynasty(),ZhangJuzheng(thereformofcontentandeffect)MetastasisUIDpostessencepointsreadingauthority,fromLiaoning,Huludaoonlinetimehours,registrationtime,finallylogintoseedetailsTOPColchicineDiamondWarriorPersonalspacesendsshortmessagetofriend,currentoffline#ispublishedinonly,seethisauthoronlySynchronoustutoringTheessenceofthereformismainlytothenationalmanagementsystem(generalizedsystemshouldincludepoliciesandlaws,theyshouldbelongtothesuperstructureofthenew)Basically,whenthepoliticalandeconomicsystemcannotguaranteethenationalimplementationofeffectivemanagement,thusviolatingtherequirementsofthedevelopmentofproductiveforces,thereformofthesystem,whichisonthesuperstructureofsomeagingandcorruptlinkstomakethenecessaryadjustments,renewalandtransformation,andmakecorrespondingadjustment,upgradingandtransformationofsomelocallinksintherelationsofproductionwillbecomeaninevitabletrendTherefore,thereformisactuallytheresultofthecontradictorymovementbetweenproductiveforcesandproductiverelations,economicbaseandsuperstructure,andisnotapracticethatistransferredbyhumanwillItisbecauseoftheinevitableandobjectivetrendofreformthatitcanreleasehugeenergyandshowitsgreatpowerThepositivesignificanceofthereform:thereformoftheancientChinaearlyintheeraofslaveryandslaverytothefeudalperiod,itshowsitsmacromanagement,forcountriestorevivetheeconomy,tremendousroletoenhancethenationalstrengthAsforthefeudalreform,nomatterwhatperiodittookplaceinthedynasty(early,middle,latestage),IsaproductofreformofthecontemporaryorformermaladministrationandinnovationTheprosperousstageoffeudalsocietyandthereformofthedynasty,someZTEalsoandthereformoftheWesternHanDynasty,suchasthe"ZhaoXuanZTE"(throughthereformoftheemperorsystemonthesocialandeconomicrecovery),Tang(byLiuYan,themidNorthernSongDynastyreform)economicrecovery(WangAnshimethod)etcAsforthereformofthelaterperiodoftheQingDynastyasalso,EmperorXiaowenreform,afterfivegenerationsofZhouShizongreform,reformofthenumberofcasesoftheMingDynastyZhangJuzhengThepositivesignificanceofthesereformshasbeenfullydemonstratedasaresultofthetransformationoftheeconomyfromdecaytoprosperityTheunderstandingoftheresistancetothereform:reformisapioneeringundertaking,willencounteravarietyofresistanceandrequirespainstakingexploration,oftendifficultroadsignsofdangerappearingeverywhereThereforethereformnotonlyneedafirmbelief,butalsoneedtohavethecouragetofirmandindomitablewillandpushingforwarddespiterepeatedfrustrationsAlmosteveryreforminhistoryhasviolatedthevestedinterestsofsomenoblesorbureaucratsandlandlords,sotheyarealwaysopposed,attacked,andevenslanderedbytheireffortsThereformofShangYangwasbehindthearistocraticopposition,EmperorXiaowenreformbyXianbeinoblesopposedthereformofWangAnshiwastheofficialopposition,thebiglandlordYangYan'stwolaw,ZhangJuzheng's"awhip"reformwasthebiglandlordagainstfailedTheseshowthatinthereform,especiallythesupremerulersonlyreformersvowedtostandfirm,inordertoensurethereformandachievesuccessAtthesametime,thegovernment'ssupportforthereformersisalsoanimportantfactorinensuringthesuccessofthereformInXiaoGuan,QiHuanGongtoShangYang,theemperortosangandsoon,arethesupremerulerstoreformtofirmlysupportthesuccessofthereformThesehistoricalexperiencesareworthyofthehighestauthorityoftodayThereformoftheclassificationofancientChineseDynasty:accordingtoreasonandnaturecanbedividedintodifferenttypesasfollows:()theinternalreformoftheslavesociety(suchasGuanfuguoqiangbingreform)()topromotethetransformationoftheoldsocialformintoanewsocialform(suchasShangYang'spoliticalreform)()politicalreformwithinthefeudalsociety(suchasWangAnshi'spoliticalreform)()ethnicHancultureandsystemreformofadvancedlearning(suchastheEmperorXiaowenreformetc)TheinductionofreformRationality:()thereformistherequirementofhistoricaldevelopmentandproducts()thesocialreformistopromotetheprosperityofthecountrymeansmaladministration()tomeettheneedsofthedevelopmentofproductiveforces,conformtothelawsofsocialdevelopmentandadvancethereformofthepeople'swishes,promotesocialprogressandhistoricaldevelopment()thereforminevitablyinvolvestheprivilegesandinterestsofsomepeopletherefore,reformwillhaveresistance,andevenbefullofsharpandintenseworryThereflectionofWangMang'sreform:WangMangrestructuringisareformofthelandlordclassofselfhelpandthereformisaimedatthattheannexationofland,slavesfloodedsocialrealityFromthereformofthecontent,theOTAsystemissystemundertheformoflimitingfarmlandandland,itsessenceistolimittheannexationofland,easetheclasscontradictionsButforbidtradinginslaveswithconcernedaboutthesufferingsofthepeople,protecttheinterestsofsmallfarmersandconstructionrequirements,theschemehassomereasonablefactorsButWangMangrestructuringresultsdidnotachievetheintendedpurpose,buttheintensificationofthevarioussocialcontradictions,includingthecontradictionswithintherulingclass,thecontradictionbetweenthelandlordclassandthepeasantclass,thecontradictionbetweenWangManggroupandminorities,thefinalregimeinthepeasantuprisinginthedemiseofthestormWangMangwhyreformwillfail,itsreasonisinmanyaspectsFirstofall,somepoliciespromulgatedbyWangMangduringthereformprocessviolatedtheobjectivelawSuchas"WangTian",thenationallandnationalization,andaccordingtothesystemofredistributionToeliminatetheannexationoflandimmediatelyhereWangMangpaysattentionto,theoriginalmeaningispoor,butthispolicyviolatesthelawofdevelopmentoffeudallandownershipatthetime,thatitwasdoomedtofailAgaintorestoretheoriginalcurrencycurrencyreformhasbeeneliminated,adirectviolationofthelawofmonetarydevelopment,increasethemoneycirculationdisorderSecondly,reformexcessivelyfast,easytotakesomepolicymeasuresoverthedamagetotheinterestsofthemajority,resultinginsocialreformandlandlessAsWangMangwillbechangedto"private"slaves,andtoprohibitthesaleofslaves,isintendedtostoptheexpansionofthenumberofslaves,slavestosolvetheincreasinglyseriousproblemofsocietyButthismeasurealsosufferedfromtheslavehouse,downtothelandlesspeopleagainst,becausetheprohibitionofslavetrading,whichviolatedthebureaucracy,andtheinterestsofthelostlandandnowayoutofthefarmerscutoffaservitudefortheslavelifeThird,WangManghasalsotakenadministrativemeasurestoenforceinappropriatereformmeasures,whichhasarousedwidespreaddiscontentAsthecurrencyreforminsmall,withalightweightchanging,whichcastalargespring,buttheweightisonlyequivalenttobaht,cointimes,butwhenthefivebahtmoney,castaheavybahtKoizumi,butwithgoldcoinsSuchunreasonableratioexists,itisdifficulttoprohibitthetheftofprivatemoneycastingWangManghadtoimplementsuchas"illicitcastingmoneytodeath","acastofmoney,fivehome,notintoaslave"torturetoforcethebanButpolicyenforcementisirresistibletothelawsoftheeconomySonomatterWangMangforcedtostrengthenthepoliticalandtowhatextent,isstilltheordersandprohibitionsThereformmeasuresthataretakenforgrantedwillnotbecarriedoutintheendInaddition,WangManghasrepeatedlyprovokedwarwiththesurroundingethnicminorities,tryingtodivertthepeople'ssight,resultinginheavierburdensonthepeopleandintensifiedethnicconflicts

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中国古代的改革、变法及其历史经验教训(The reform and political reform in ancient China and its historical experiences and lessons)

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