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首页 Winning(赢)JackWelch杰克韦尔奇

Winning(赢)JackWelch杰克韦尔奇.doc

Winning(赢)JackWelch杰克韦尔奇

小戋戋1999
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Winning(赢)JackWelch杰克韦尔奇Winning(赢)JackWelch杰克韦尔奇JackWelchwithSuzyWelchWINNINGTothethousandsofmenandwomenwhocaredenoughaboutbusinesstoraisetheirhandsTheauthors’protsfromthisbookarebeingdonatedtocharityCONTENTSINTRODUCTION“EveryDay,ThereIsaNewQuestion”UNDERNEATHITALLMISSIONANDVALUESSoMuchHotAirAboutSomethingSoRealCANDORTheBiggestDirtyLittleSecretinBusinessDIFFERENTIATIONCruelandDarwinianTryFairandEffectiveVOICEANDDIGNITYEveryBrainintheGame―v―CONTENTSYOURCOMPANYLEADERSHIPIt’sNotJustAboutYouHIRINGWhatWinnersAreMadeOfPEOPLEMANAGEMENTYou’veGottheRightPlayersNowWhatPARTINGWAYSLettingGoIsHardtoDoCHANGEMountainsDoMoveCRISISMANAGEMENTFromOhGodNotoYesWe’reFineYOURCOMPETITIONSTRATEGYIt’sAllintheSauceBUDGETINGReinventingtheRitualORGANICGROWTHSoYouWanttoStartSomethingNewMERGERSANDACQUISITIONSDealHeatandOtherDeadlySinsSIXSIGMABetterThanaTriptotheDentist―vi―CONTENTSYOURCAREERTHERIGHTJOBFindItandYou’llNeverReallyWorkAgainGETTINGPROMOTEDSorry,NoShortcutsHARDSPOTSThatDamnBossWORKLIFEBALANCEEverythingYouAlwaysWantedtoKnowAboutHavingItAllButWereAfraidtoHearTYINGUPLOOSEENDSHERE,THERE,ANDEVERYWHERETheQuestionsThatAlmostGotAwayAcknowledgmentsIndexAbouttheAuthorOtherBooksbyJackWelchCreditsCoverCopyrightAboutthePublisher―vii―Introduction“EVERYDAY,THEREISANEWQUESTION”FTERIFINISHEDmyautobiography―afunbutcrazilyAintensegrindthatIwedgedintothecornersofmyrealjobatthetime―IsworeI’dneverwriteanotherbookagainButIguessIdidMyexcuse,ifthereisone,isthatIdidn’tactuallycomeupwiththeideaforthisbookItwasgiventomeItwasaretirementpresent,ifyouwill,fromthetensofthousandsofterricpeopleIhavemetsinceIleftGE―theenergized,curious,gutsy,andambitiousmenandwomenwhohavelovedbusinessenoughtoaskmeeverypossiblequestionyoucouldimagineInordertoanswerthem,allIhadtodowasgureoutwhatIknew,sortitout,codifyit,andborrowtheirstories―andthisbookwasoffandrunningThequestionsI’mreferringtorststartedduringthepromotionaltourformyautobiographyinlateandthroughmuchof,whenIwasoverwhelmedbytheemotionalattachment――INTRODUCTIONpeopleseemedtohavetoGEFromcoasttocoast,andinmanycountriesaroundtheworld,peopletoldmetouchingstoriesabouttheirexperiencesworkingforthecompany,orwhathappenedwhentheirsister,dad,aunt,orgrandfatherdidButwiththesestories,IwasalsosurprisedtohearhowmuchmorepeoplewantedtoknowaboutgettingbusinessrightRadiocallinguestspressedmetoexplainGE’ssystemofdifferentiation,whichseparatesemployeesintothreeperformancecategoriesandmanagesthemuporoutaccordinglyPeopleattendingbooksigningeventswantedtoknowifIreallymeantitwhenIsaidtheheadofhumanresourcesateverycompanyshouldbeatleastasimportantastheCFOIdid!AtavisittotheUniversityofChicagobusinessschool,anMBAfromIndiaaskedmetoexplainmorefullywhatareallygoodperformanceappraisalshouldsoundlikeThequestionsdidn’tstopafterthebooktourTheycontinued―inairports,restaurants,andelevatorsOnceaguyswamovertomeinthesurfoffMiamiBeachtoaskmewhatIthoughtaboutacertainfranchiseopportunityhewasconsideringButmainlythey’vecomeattheorsoQAsessionsIhaveparticipatedinoverthepastthreeyears,incitiesaroundtheworldfromNewYorktoShanghai,fromMilantoMexicoCityInthesesessions,whichhaverangedfromthirtytovethousandaudiencemembers,Isitonastagewithamoderator,usuallyabusinessjournalist,andItrytoansweranythingtheaudiencewantstothrowatmeAndthrowtheyhave―questionsabouteverythingfromcopingwithChinesecompetition,tomanagingtalentedbutdifcultpeople,tondingtheperfectjob,toimplementingSixSigma,tohiringtherightteam,toleadinginuncertaintimes,tosurvivingmergersandacquisitions,todevisingakillerstrategyWhatshouldIdo,I’veheard,ifIdelivergreatresultsbutIworkforajerkwhodoesn’tseemtocare,orifI’mtheonlypersoninmy――INTRODUCTIONcompanywhothinkschangeisnecessary,orifthebudgetprocessinmycompanyisfullofsandbagging,orI’mabouttolaunchagreatnewproductandheadquartersdoesn’twanttogivemetheautonomyandresourcesIneedWhatcanIdo,peoplehaveasked,ifmanagersinmycompanydon’treallytellitlikeitis,orIhavetoletgoofanemployeeIreallylikebutwhojustcan’thackit,orIhavetohelpleadmyorganizationthroughthecrisiswe’vebeentryingtodealwithforayearTherehavebeenquestionsaboutjugglingthecollidingdemandsofkids,career,andallthatotherstuffyouwanttodo,likeplaygolf,renovateyourhouse,orraisemoneyinawalkathonTherehavebeenquestionsaboutlandingthepromotionofyourdreams―withoutmakinganyenemiesTherehavebeenquestionsaboutmacroeconomictrends,emergingindustries,andcurrencyuctuationsTherehavebeenliterallythousandsofquestionsButmostofthemcomedowntothis:WhatdoesittaketowinAndthatiswhatthisbookisabout―winningProbablynoothertopiccouldhavemademewanttowriteagain!BecauseIthinkwinningisgreatNotgood―greatWinninginbusinessisgreatbecausewhencompanieswin,peoplethriveandgrowTherearemoreIhavebeenaskedjobsandmoreopportunitieseverywhereandforeveryonePeoplefeelliterallythousandsofupbeataboutthefuturetheyhavequestionsButmosttheresourcestosendtheirkidstoofthemcomedowncollege,getbetterhealthcare,buytothis:Whatdoesitvacationhomes,andsecureacomtaketowinfortableretirementAndwinningaffordsthemtheopportunityto――INTRODUCTIONgivebacktosocietyinhugelyimIthinkwinningisportantwaysbeyondjustpayinggreatNotgood―moretaxes―theycandonatetimeandmoneytocharitiesandmentorgreatBecausewhenininnercityschools,tonamejustcompanieswin,peopletwoWinningliftseveryoneitthriveandgrowTheretouches―itjustmakestheworldaaremorejobsandmorebetterplaceWhencompaniesarelosing,onopportunitiestheotherhand,everyonetakesahitPeoplefeelscaredTheyhavelessnancialsecurityandlimitedtimeormoneytodoanythingforanyoneelseAlltheydoisworryandupsettheirfamilies,andinthemeantime,ifthey’reoutofwork,theypaylittle,ifany,taxesLet’stalkabouttaxesforaminuteInfact,let’stalkaboutgovernmentingeneralObviously,governmentisavitalpartofsocietyFirstandforemost,itdoesnothinglessthanprotectusallfromtheinsidiousandpersistentchallengestonationalsecuritythatarewithusnowandfortheforeseeablefutureButgovernmentprovidesmuchmore:thejusticesystem,education,policeandreprotection,highwaysandports,welfareandhospitalsThelistcouldgoonandonButevenwiththevirtuesofgovernment,itiscriticaltorememberthatallofitsservicescomefromsomeformoftaxrevenueGovernmentmakesnomoneyofitsownAndinthatway,governmentisthesupportfortheengineoftheeconomy,itisnottheengineitselfWinningcompaniesandthepeoplewhoworkforthemaretheengineofahealthyeconomy,andinprovidingtherevenuesforgovernment,theyarethefoundationofafreeanddemocraticsociety――INTRODUCTIONThat’swhywinningisgreatNow,itgoeswithoutsayingthatyouhavetowintherightway―cleanlyandbytherulesThat’sagivenCompaniesandpeoplethatdon’tcompetefairlydon’tdeservetowin,andthankstowellhonedinternalcompanyprocessesandgovernmentregulatoryagencies,thebadguysareusuallyfoundandkickedoutofthegameButcompaniesandpeopleinbusinessthatarehonest―andthat’sthevast,vastmajority―mustndthewaytowinThisbookoffersaroadmapItisnot,incidentally,aroadmapjustforseniorlevelmanagersandCEOsIfthisbookhelpsthem,terricIhopeitdoesButthisbookisalsoverymuchforpeopleonthefrontlines:businessowners,middlemanagers,peoplerunningfactories,lineworkers,collegegraduateslookingattheirrstjobs,MBAsconsideringnewcareers,andentrepreneursMymaingoalwiththisbookistohelpthepeoplewithambitionintheireyesandpassionrunningthroughtheirveins,wherevertheyareinanorganizationYouwillmeetalotofpeopleinthisbookSomemayremindyouofyourself,somemayjustseemveryfamiliar:There’stheCEOwhopresentsthecompanywithalistofnoblevalues―say,quality,customerservice,andrespect―butneverreallyexplainswhatitmeanstolivethemThere’sthemiddlemanagerwhofumesduringameetingwithanotherdivisionofhiscompany,knowingthathiscoworkerscoulddosomuchmore―iftheyjuststoppedpattingthemselvesonthebackforaminuteThereistheemployeewhohasbeenunderperformingforyearsbutisjustsofriendlyandnice―andclueless―youcan’tbringyourselftolethergoThereisthecolleagueyoucan’tlookintheeyebecauseheisa“DeadManWalking,”slowlyandpainfullybeingmanagedoutthedoorTherearetheemployeeswhoeatluncheverydayatwhattheyhavedubbed“TheTable――INTRODUCTIONofLostDreams,”makingashowHaveapositiveattitudeoftheirresentmentofauthorityandspreaditaround,There’stheengineerwhospentfteenyearsbuildingagreatcareer,neverletyourselfbeaonlytothrowitinonedaywhenshevictim,andforgoodness’realizedthatshehadjuggledlifeandsake―havefunworktomakeeveryonehappy―butherselfYou’llalsomeetalotofpeoplewhosestoriesareexamplesofinnovation,insight,andgritThere’sDavidNovak,theenergeticyoungCEOofYum!Brands,whohasturnedeveryoneofYum!’smorethanthirtythreethousandrestaurantchainoutletsintoalaboratoryofnewideasandtheentireorganizationintoalearningmachineThere’sDenisNayden,theconsummatechangeagent,whoneversettlesforgoodenoughandhasintensitytoburnThere’sJimmyDunne,whorebuilthiscompanyoutoftheashesoftheWorldTradeCenter,usinglove,hope,andanattitudethatanythingispossibleThere’sSusanPeters,aworkingmotherandtheNoHRexecutiveatGE,whocouldwriteabookherselfonsuccessfullynavigatingthehillsandvalleysofworklifebalanceThereisChrisNavetta,theCEOofUSSteelKosice,whohelpedtransformastrugglingcityinSlovakiawhileturningaformerstateownedsteelmillintoaourishing,protableenterpriseThere’sKennethYu,theheadofM’sChineseoperations,whocatapultedhisbusinessesfrommodesttohighgrowthbythrowingoutthephonyritualofannualbudgetingandreplacingitwithasky’sthelimitdialogueaboutopportunitiesThere’sMarkLittle,whowasdevastatedafterademotionatGEbutfoughthiswaybacktoahugepromotionwithcourage,perseverance,andgreatresultsPeopleareeverythingwhenitcomestowinning,andsothisbookisalotaboutpeople―insomecases,themistakesthey’ve――INTRODUCTIONmade,butmoreoften,theirsuccessesButmostlythisbookisaboutideasandthepowerofputtingthemintoactionNow,atthispoint,theremightbereadersouttherewhoareskepticalThey’rethinking:WinningisjusttoonuancedandcomplexatopictocoverintwentychaptersIdon’tcarehowmanypeopleandideasareinthisbook!Yes,winningisnuancedandcomplex,nottomentionbrutallyhardButitalsohappenstobeachievableYoucanwinButtodothat,youneedtoknowwhatmakeswinninghappenThisbookoffersnoeasyformulasTherearenoneDependingonthechapter,thisbookdoes,however,giveyouguidelinestofollow,rulestoconsider,assumptionstoadopt,andmistakestoavoidThestrategychapterprovidesathreestepprocessthechapteronndingtherightjoboffersyougoodsignsandwarningsignalsTherearealsoseveralthemesyou’llhearagainandagain:theteamwiththebestplayerswins,sondandretainthebestplayersdon’toverbrainthingstothepointofinactionnomatterwhatpartofabusinessyou’rein,sharelearningrelentlesslyhaveapositiveattitudeandspreaditaroundneverletyourselfbeavictimandforgoodness’sake―havefunYes,havefunBusinessisagame,andwinningthatgameisatotalblast!THEROADAHEADBeforewegetstarted,awordonhowthisbookisorganizedIthasfourpartsTherst,called“UnderneathItAll,”isconceptualItcertainlycontainsmoremanagementphilosophythanmostbusinesspeoplehavetimeforonanygivenday,andcertainlymorethanIeverthoughtaboutinonesittingwhenIwasworkingthedayshiftBut――INTRODUCTIONthereisasubstructureofprinciplestomyapproachtobusiness,andsoIlaythemoutinthisrstpartInbrief,thefourprinciplesareabouttheimportanceofastrongmissionandconcretevaluestheabsolutenecessityofcandorineveryaspectofmanagementthepowerofdifferentiation,meaningasystembasedonmeritocracyandthevalueofeachindividualreceivingvoiceanddignityThenextsectionofthisbook,“YourCompany,”isabouttheinnardsoforganizationsIt’saboutmechanics―people,processes,andcultureItschapterslookatleadership,hiring,peoplemanagement,lettingpeoplego,managingchange,andcrisismanagementAfter“YourCompany”comes“YourCompetition,”thesectionofthisbookabouttheworldoutsideyourorganizationItdiscusseshowyoucreatestrategicadvantages,devisemeaningfulbudgets,groworganically,growthroughmergersandacquisitions,anditattemptstodemystifyatopicthatneverceasestointrigueandbafepeople,thequalityprogramSixSigmaThenextsectionofthisbookiscalled“YourCareer,”andit’saboutmanagingthearcandthequalityofyourprofessionallifeItstartswithachapteronndingtherightjob,notjustarstjobbuttherightjobatanypointinyourcareerItalsoincludesachapteronwhatittakestogetpromoted,andanotheronahardspotweallndourselvesinatonetimeoranother―workingforabadbossThelastchapterofthissectionaddressestheveryhumandesiretohaveitall―allatthesametime―whichasyoualreadyknow,youcan’treallydoYoucan,however,knowwhatyourbossthinksaboutthematter,andyoushould―andthat’soneaspectofthischapterThelastsectionofthisbookiscalled“TyingUpLooseEnds,”andinit,IanswerninequestionsthatdidnotfallintoanyoftheabovecategoriesTheyconcernmanagingthe“Chinathreat,”diversity,theimpactofnewregulationsliketheSarbanesOxley――INTRODUCTIONAct,andhowbusinessshouldrespondtosocietalcriseslikeAIDSThereisalsoaquestioninthereabouthowmysuccessor,JeffImmelt,isdoinginaword,great,thestatusofmygolfgame,andwhetherIthinkI’llgotoheavenNow,thatwasaquestionthatstoppedme!Asfortherestofthequestionsinthisbook―theydidn’texactlystopme,buttheydidchallengemetothinkhardaboutwhatIbelieveandwhyThisbookhasalotofanswers,butnotall―becausebusinessisalwayschangingandtheworldisalwayschangingAsaDutchentrepreneursaidtomelastyear,“Everydayinlife,thereisanewquestionThatiswhatkeepsusgoing”Therearenewquestions―andnewanswerstooInfact,IhavelearnedalmostasmuchaboutbusinesssinceIleftGEaswhenIworkedthereIlearnedfromeverysinglequestionaskedofmeAndIhopemyresponseswillhelpyoulearntoo――UNDERNEATHITALLMISSIONANDVALUESSoMuchHotAirAboutSomethingSoRealCANDORTheBiggestDirtyLittleSecretinBusinessDIFFERENTIATIONCruelandDarwinianTryFairandEffectiveVOICEANDDIGNITYEveryBrainintheGameMissionandValuesSOMUCHHOTAIRABOUTSOMETHINGSOREALEARWITHME,ifyouwill,whileItalkaboutmissionBandvaluesIsaythatbecausethesetwotermshavegottobeamongthemostabstract,overused,misunderstoodwordsinbusinessWhenIspeakwithaudiences,I’maskedaboutthemfrequently,usuallywithsomelevelofpanicovertheiractualmeaningandrelevanceInNewYork,Ioncegotthequestion“Canyoupleasedenethedifferencebetweenamissionandavalue,andalsotelluswhatdifferencethatdifferencemakes”Businessschoolsaddtotheconfusionbyhavingtheirstudentsregularlywritemissionstatementsanddebatevalues,apracticemadeevenmorefutileforbeingcarriedoutinavacuumLotsofcompaniesdothesametotheirseniorexecutives,usuallyinanattempttocreateanoblesoundingplaquetohanginthecompanylobbyToooften,theseexercisesendwithasetofgenericplatitudesthatdonothingbutleaveemployeesdirectionlessorcynicalWhodoesn’tknowofamissionstatementthatreadssomethinglike,――UNDERNEATHITALL“XYZCompanyvaluesqualityandservice,”or,“SuchandSuchCompanyiscustomerdriven”Tellmewhatcompanydoesn’tvaluequalityandserviceorfocusonitscustomers!Andwhodoesn’tknowofacompanythathasspentcountlesshoursinemotionaldebateonlytocomeupwithvaluesthat,despitethegoodintentionsthatwentintothem,soundasiftheywerepluckedfromanallpurposelistofvirtuesincluding“integrity,quality,excellence,service,andrespect”Givemeabreak―everydecentcompanyespousesthesethings!Andfrankly,integrityisjustatickettothegameIfyoudon’thaveitinyourbones,youshouldn’tbeallowedontheeldBycontrast,agoodmissionstatementandagoodsetofvaluesaresorealtheysmackyouinthefacewiththeirconcretenessThemissionannouncesexactlywhereyouaregoing,andthevaluesdescribethebehaviorsthatwillgetyouthereSpeakingofthat,IpreferabandoningthetermvaluesaltogetherinfavorofjustbehaviorsButforthesakeoftradition,let’sstickwiththecommonterminologyFIRST:ABOUTTHATMISSIONInmyexperience,aneffectivemissionstatementbasicallyanswersonequestion:HowdoweintendtowininthisbusinessItdoesnotanswer:WhatwerewegoodatinthegoodolddaysNordoesitanswer:HowcanwedescribeourbusinesssothatnoparticularunitordivisionorseniorexecutivegetspissedoffInstead,thequestion“Howdoweintendtowininthisbusiness”isdeningItrequirescompaniestomakechoicesaboutpeople,investments,andotherresources,anditpreventsthemfromfallingintothecommonmissiontrapofassertingtheywillbeallthingstoallpeopleatalltimesThequestionforcescompa――MISSIONANDVALUESniestodelineatetheirstrengthsandweaknessesinordertoassesswheretheycanprotablyplayinthecompetitivelandscapeYes,protably―that’sthekeyEvenBenJerry’s,thecrunchygranola,hippy,savetheworldicecreamcompanybasedinVermont,has“protablegrowth”and“increasingvalueforstakeholders”asoneoftheelementsofitsthreepartmissionstatementbecauseitsexecutivesknowthatwithoutnancialsuccess,allthesocialgoalsintheworlddon’thaveachanceThat’snotsayingamissionshouldn’tbeboldoraspirationalBenJerry’s,forinstance,wantstosell“allnaturalicecreamandeuphoricconcoctions”and“improvethequalityoflifelocally,nationallyandinternationally”ThatkindoflanguageisgreatinthatitabsolutelyhasthepowertoexcitepeopleandmotivatethemtostretchAttheendoftheday,effectivemissionstatementsbalancethepossibleandtheimpossibleTheygivepeopleaclearsenseofthedirectiontoprotabilityandtheinspirationtofeeltheyarepartofsomethingbigandimportantTakeourmissionatGEasanexampleFromthrough,wesaidweweregoingtobe“themostcompetitiveenterpriseintheworld”bybeingNoorNoineverymarket―xing,selling,orclosingeveryunderperformingbusinessthatcouldn’tgetthereTherecouldbenodoubtaboutwhatthismissionmeantorentailedItwasspecicanddescriptive,withnothingabstractgoingonAnditwasaspirational,too,initsglobalambitionEffectivemissionThismissioncametolifeinastatementsbalancebunchofdifferentwaysFirstoff,inathepossibleandthetimewhenbusinessstrategywasmainlykeptinanenvelopeinheadimpossiblequartersandanyinformationabout――UNDERNEATHITALLitwastheproductofthecompanygossipmill,wetalkedopenlyaboutwhichbusinesseswerealreadyNoorNo,andwhichbusinesseshadtogetrepairedquicklyorbegoneSuchcandorshockedthesystem,butitdidwondersformakingthemissionrealtoourpeopleTheymayhavehateditwhenbusinessesweresold,buttheyunderstoodwhyMoreover,weharpedonthemissionconstantly,ateverymeetinglargeandsmallEverydecisionorinitiativewaslinkedtothemissionWepubliclyrewardedpeoplewhodrovethemissionandletgoofpeoplewhocouldn’tdealwithitforwhateverreason,usuallynostalgiafortheirbusinessinthe“goodolddays”Now,itispossiblethatinwecouldhavecomeupwithanentirelydifferentmissionforGESayafterlotsofdebateandanindepthanalysisoftechnology,competitors,andcustomers,wehaddecidedwewantedtobecomethemostinnovativedesignerofelectricalproductsintheworldOrsaywehaddecidedthatourmostprotableroutewouldhavebeentoquicklyandthoroughlyglobalizeeverybusinesswehad,nomatterwhatitsmarketpositionEitherofthesemissionswouldhavesentGEoffonanentirelydifferentroadfromtheonewetookTheywouldhaverequiredusSettingthemissiontobuyandselldifferentbusinessesthanwedid,orhireandletgoofistopmanagement’sdifferentpeople,andsoforthButresponsibilityAmissiontechnically,IhavenoargumentwithcannotbedelegatedthemasmissionsTheyareconcretetoanyoneexcepttheandspecicWithoutdoubt,theelectricalproductsmissionwouldpeopleultimatelyheldhavecomeasacomforttomostaccountableforitpeopleinGEAfterall,that’swhatmostthoughtwewereTheglobal――MISSIONANDVALUESfocusmissionwouldhaveprobablyalarmedothersRapidchangeusuallydoesAnalwordaboutmissions,anditconcernstheircreationHowdoyoucomeupwithoneTome,thisisanobrainerYoucangetinputfromanywhere―andyoushouldlistentosmartpeoplefromeveryquarterButsettingthemissionistopmanagement’sresponsibilityAmissioncannot,andmustnot,bedelegatedtoanyoneexceptthepeopleultimatelyheldaccountableforitInfact,amissionisthedeningmomentforacompany’sleadershipIt’sthetruetestofitsstuffANDNOWABOUTTHOSEVALUESAsIsaidearlier,valuesarejustbehaviors―specic,nittygritty,andsodescriptivetheyleavelittletotheimaginationPeoplemustbeabletousethemasmarchingordersbecausetheyarethehowofthemission,themeanstotheend―winningIncontrasttothecreationofamission,everyoneinacompanyshouldhavesomethingtosayaboutvaluesYes,thatcanbeamessyundertakingThat’sOKInasmallenterprise,everyonecanbeinvolvedindebatingtheminallkindsofmeetingsInalargerorganization,it’salottougherButyoucanusecompanywidemeetings,trainingsessions,andthelike,forasmuchpersonaldiscussionaspossible,andt

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