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首页 中国古代其它科学(Other sciences in ancient China)

中国古代其它科学(Other sciences in ancient China).doc

中国古代其它科学(Other sciences in anci…

是痞子英雄还是流氓
2018-08-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《中国古代其它科学(Other sciences in ancient China)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

中国古代其它科学(OthersciencesinancientChina)中国古代其它科学(OthersciencesinancientChina)MetallurgicalCastingTechnologyWaterconservancyArchitectureTransportationMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()BronzecastingtechnologyShangandZhouDynastyisaveryimportantinventionisthegoldenageofbronzeThereareaxes,drills,saws,andsomebronzeweapons,spears,swords,etcaccordingtoarchaeologicalresearch,thenthediameterofcmsmeltingfurnace,thefurnacetemperatureisuptoCMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()foursheepsquarestatue,thelateShangDynastyinearlybronzeBelongtotheritual,ritualsuppliesChineseThelargestpartyintheShangDynastybronzestatue,centimeterstall,weighingnearlykg,unearthedininthevillageofHunanCountyofNingxiangPuHuangYueLunearfromthehillsideNowhiddeninNationalMuseum,Beijing,chinaMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()IntheperiodofthespringandautumnandWarringStatesperiod,therecordofthealloyhasbeenrecordedinthebookoftestwork,whichistheempiricalsummaryoftheearliestalloyproportionintheworldMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()"KaoGongJi"isanimportantscientificandtechnicalworkItistheofficialbookoftherecordsofmanualtechnologybytheQipeopleattheendofthespringandautumnperiodItisacollectionoftechnicalspecificationsforhandicraftindustryThebookmainlydescribesthePepsiattack:attackofthewoodindustry,ofgoldindustry,leatherindustry,Schoolofdesign,scrapingwork,theworkofthesixpartandtuanInthebook"KaoGongJi",acompletesetofspecificationsoftheofficialcarmakingprocesswasrecordedMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()ThebellsoftheWarringStatesPeriodMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()MetallurgicalCastingTechnology()TheuseofthespringandAutumnperiodChinaironisveryextensive,accordingtothe"ZuoZhuan"ZhaoGongtwentyyearsrecords,thelatespringandAutumnperiod(yearsago),thecastapenaltyirontripod,thevanXuanziaspunishmentShuzhuaboveMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()IronimplementsinthespringandautumnperiodTheleftistheironCut,ahandtool,unearthedinHunaninChangshaRight,theironhoe,thefarmimplements,wasunearthedinHunan,Changsha,inThesetwopiecesofironUnearthed,showsthatpeopleinthespringandAutumnperiodhasbeguntograsptheironsmeltingtechnology,andtheuseofirontoolsandhandtoolsMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()In,asteelswordwasunearthedinChangshaattheendofthespringandAutumnperiod,andtheironandsteelproductiontoolswereannealedinthespringandAutumnPeriodinLuoyangcementplantInaddition,Hebei,YixianCounty,Shandong,LinziandotherplaceshaveironandsteelimplementsinthespringandAutumnPeriodTheheadoftheironplowInunearthedinHenanHuixianTheironsickleontherightwasunearthedinZhejiang,Shaoxing,inMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()MetallurgicalCastingTechnology()InthespringandAutumnperiod,thecastingtechnologyofQinandHandynastiesalsodevelopedgreatlyDigintotheTerracottaArmyofQinunearthedbronzechariots,thecastingprocessisexcellent,exquisite,amazingMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()GansuWuweiLeiTaiwanunearthedthetomboftheEasternHanDynastybronzehorse,alsoknownas"horseridingChebi",thebeautyofitsform,castingdexterityisuniqueTheheightiscm,thelengthiscm,andthewidthiscmTibetanMuseuminGansuMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()DuringthenorthernandSouthernDynasties,thesteelmakingtechnologyhadmadeanewbreakthrough,andinventedthesteelfillingmethodperfusingsteelmethodistocastironmeltingwaterwithhighcarboncontenttomakewroughtiron,wroughtironintosteelmethodTheuseofhydraulicblastinsmeltingimprovesthesmeltingtemperatureandefficiencyMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()ThemetallurgyoftheSuiandTangDynastieswaswelldeveloped,mainlyincastingmoney,weaponscasting,handicraftsanddailynecessitiescastingCastingandcastingarewidelyusedincastingMetallurgicalCastingTechnology()thebiggestcastingintheSuiandTangDynastiesisyearsCangzhouLiYuncastingabigironlionthelionheadheightofmeters,metershigh,metershigh,meterslong,Thebodyismeterswideandthetotalweightistonsonthetallbody,thenorthface,bulgingeyes,gowithheadhighandchestout,giantmouthopen,asifsuddenlyscurrylimbssplayed,stop,likebigstridesCeramictechnology()TheprimitiveporcelainappearedintheShangandZhouDynastiesfromtheslavesocietyofchinaTheShangDynasty,fineceramics,markingthepeoplehavestartedusingkaolinproductionmoldCeramictechnology()TheShangDynastyAppearedwhitepotteryandglazedpotteryandglaze,glazeismadeofkaolinbilletCeramictechnology()DuringthespringandAutumnperiodandWarringStatesperiod,thedevelopmentofprimitiveporcelainreacheditspeakCeramictechnology()theQinandHanDynastiesisanimportantperiodofdevelopmentofthehistoryofChineseceramics,bothproductqualityandvariety,andthescaleofproductionandmanufacturingtechniques,thanduringtheWarringStatesperiodhasmaderemarkableprogressandexpand,foundaroundtheQinandHanDynastypotteryfigurine,suchasTerracottaArmyinXi'anCeramictechnology()DuringtheEasternHanDynasty,themorematureporcelainsappearedRightThingsXiaoxianCountyofShangyuZhejiangporcelainaltarinthelateEasternHanDynastykilnDeviceapplicationGreenyellowglaze,highgloss,tirequalitylowwaterabsorption,goodtransparency,combinedwiththeglazeThebottomwithoutglaze,exposingthebodytoproveithasthecharacteristicsofporcelainInallrespects,thisjarhasreachedthestandardofrealporcelainItistheearliestceladonproductinchinaCeramictechnology()DuringthenorthernandSouthernDynasties,theproductiontechnologyofporcelainwasbecomingmature,theSouthwasmainlyceladon,andtheNorthwasmainlywhiteporcelainCeramictechnology()Ceramictechnology()TheSuiandTangDynastiesandtheFiveDynastiesTheburningporcelaintechnologyinTangDynastyhasdevelopedtoanewstageAgreatvarietyofbeautifulgreenporcelainwasproducedTheporcelain"GreenWhiteNorth"situation,especiallyinZhejiangShaoxing,Yuyaointhevicinityofthemostfamouskilnproductsthefivegenerationproducedceladonkilnarealsoverypopular,praisedas"greenastheday,brightasamirror,asthinaspaper,suchasthesound"Ceramictechnology()TheTangDynastykilnspunishmentkiln(nowHebeiNeiqiucounty)ofthewhiteporcelain,theporcelainbeadjadethinwallbottom,purecolor,lightshapeisexquisite,hasreachedthestandardofmodernporcelain,LuYuinthe"tea"iscalled"classsilver"and"snow"CaOcontaininghighwhiteporcelain,firingtemperatureinC,veryclosetothemodernChina'shelpCeramictechnology()thefivegenerationproducedceladonkilnarealsoverypopular,praisedas"greenastheday,brightasamirror,asthinaspaper,suchasthesound"Theancientkilnporcelain"describethecloudtheskyrain,sothecolordointhefuture"Ceramictechnology()Ceramictechnology()Ceramictechnology()Ceramictechnology()Waterresources()thespringandAutumnperiod,themostfamouswaterconservancyproject:AnhuiShouxianCountyFengchengHebeiZhangShaoPo,twelvewatercanal,SichuanGuanxianDujiangyan,ShaanxiJingWeiZhengGuoquRiverjunctionWaterresources()BecauseoftheflowthroughthePeonyPavilionShaobeinamedProjectinanFengcheng(today'sAnhuiProvince,ShouxianCountyprovince)ThespringandAutumnperiod,ChuZhuangwangSixteenyearstotwentythreeyears(BCBC)createdbySunShuao(onethatwasbuiltduringtheWarringStatesperiod,ChuZiSI)yearssofarhasbeenplayingindifferentdegreesofirrigationbenefitAccordingtothecharacteristicsofthelocalterrainSunShuao,thelocalpeople'sorganizationconstruction,theeastofJishishan,SoutheastandWestLu'anLongxuemountainpoolmountainstreamdownstreamtogetherinlowlyingShaobeiBuildfivegates,stonegatetocontroltheflowofwaterandwateruptoopenthedoortothesparse,waterconsumptionisclosedtostore",notonlyhavewaterforirrigationanddrought,avoidwaterflooddisasterWaterresources()TwelveZhangwatercanal,yeWeipeopleintheWarringStatesperiod(nowHebeiXimenBaoCixian,Linzhangarea)agroupofdiversionchannelcut,ItistheearliestfarmlandirrigationprojectrecordedinthetheYellowRiverRiverBasin,andhasbeenusedforalongtimeIthasaveryimportantpositioninthehistoryofwaterconservancyinchinaThetwelvecanalofZhangShuiisthefoundationofmultiheadwaterdiversionprojectinchinaMorethanoneheadisfrommanyplaces,sotherearealsomanycanals"Twelvecanals"meanstoconstructtwelvecanalheadwaterdiversionworksZhangRiverisasedimentladenriver,andmultiplewaterdiversionisadaptedtothischaracteristicThesedimentladenriveroftencausesthemainstreamtoswingandmigratebecauseofthechangeofsedimentdepositionItcannotbematchedwiththecanalmouth,unabletodrawwaterandsetupthewaterdiversiongate,whichcanavoidsuchdisadvantagesInaddition,ifoneoragroupofdiversioncanalfilling,canalsousetheotheroneortheothergrouptowaterdiversioncanaldredgingZhangditchdesignisreasonable,notonlyhastheleadrole,floodirrigation,alkali,dredgingandeasytorepair,reflectingtheprogressofthecauseoffarmlandirrigationUntiltheearlyHanDynasty,ZhangzhoucanalstillhadagoodirrigationeffectWaterresources()Dujiangyan,locatedwestoftheSichuancityofDujiangyanProvince,isalargescalewaterconservancyprojectChinaancientconstructionandusesofar,knownasthe"originator"worldwaterculture,DujiangyanwaterconservancyprojectisbyQinShujunLiBingandhissoninfulltomobilizepeopletobuildaroundyearsago,istheworld'soldest,sofaronlyretained,withnodamwaterdiversioncharacteristicsofthelargewaterconservancyproject,Waterresources()DujiangyanwaterconservancyprojectThescientificsubtleties,reflectthediversionofthreemajorprojectstoformacompletesysteminYuzuiwatershedembankmentfeishayanspillway,andbaopingkou,scientificsolutiontoautomaticallydiverttheriver,automaticflushing,waterflowcontrolandotherissues,inadditiontoeliminatefloodingWaterresources()WaterdiversiondiketosolvetheproblemofautomaticdistributaryofriverwaterWaterresources()feishayanspillway,scientificallysolvedtheautomaticflushingWaterresources()baopingkoucitedscientificsolutiontocontrolwaterflowproblemsWaterresources()ZhengGuoqu,yearsago(QinQinZhengYuannian)adoptedKoreanZhengGuo'sadvice,andpresidedoverbyZhengGuolargeirrigationcanalirrigation,itleadsWestJingEastuptomorethaninthenoteJingherushedoutfromthenorthernShaanximountains,flowstoLiquanintotheclosedopenWaterresources()ThespringandAutumnperiodDugmanycanals,oneofthemostimportanttwotheGrandeCanaleWuinthecommunicationoftheYangtzeRiverandHuaihehangouWei'scommunicationbetweentheYellowRiverandHuaiheWaterresources()QinandHanDynastiesBCinGuangxiCountyofXinganalongtheXiangjiangRiverandtheLijiangRiverconnectingtheLingqucanal,connectingYangtzeRiverandPearlRivertwoIt'sveryscientificinitsdesignandlayoutWaterresources()LingqualsocalledDouhe,namedfortheLingqudoumenThesteepgateistosetupthegateinthesteepflow,soastoshutoffthewater,improvetheupperwaterlevel,facilitatethenavigationoftheshipopenthesteepgate,andincreasethedownstreamwaterWaterresources()builtthefamousQiantangRiverseawallinZhejiangnearHangzhouintheHandynastyMorethanmileslong,itisoneofthegreatprojectsinancientChinaArchitecture()DuringthespringandautumnandWarringStatesperiod,theGreatWallwasbuiltforthesakeofsafetySuchasQi,Chu,Yan,ZhaoandothercountrieshaveArchitecture()ThetheGreatWallruinsinthespringandAutumnPeriodArchitecture()IntheQinandHanDynasties,theconstructionindustrywasrepresentedbytheworldmiracleoftheGreatWallAftertheunificationofChinabytheEmperorQinShihuang,thousandpeoplewerecontinuouslyemployedtoconnectthetheGreatWallofYan,ZhaoandweiHanDynastycontinuedtobuildtheGreatWallwork,sothattheGreatWall"fivemilesandonetunnel","tenlionepier","thirtymilesfort","Bailicity""IntheQinandHanDynasties,theGreatWallformedarelativelycompletedefensesystemthatstretchedforthousandsofmilesArchitecture()Architecture()Architecture()TheQinDynastybegantobuildthenewpalaceinXianyanginBC,absorbingthedifferentformsofthesixnationbuildings,ItwasthemasterofpalacearchitecturesincetheWarringStatesperiodBCQinShihuangbuiltasetoflargerbuildingstowardthehouse,whichisthefamousafanggongqiandianArchitecture()Architecture()MausoleumoftheFirstQinEmperor,thetotalareaofthecemeteryissquarekilometers(equivalenttotheImperialPalacesize)Onearth,theoriginalMausoleumofaboutmetershigh,isstillashighasmeters,therearetwocemeterywalls,theinnercircumferenceofmeters,theouterperimeterofmetersInsideandoutsidethecitywallhasaheightofaboutmetersofthecitywall,remainsremainstodayArchitecture()Architecture()ThreeJinandsouthernandNorthernDynasties,Buddhismprevailed,ledtotheemergenceofalargenumberoftemplesBuddhistarchitectureinChinaincludesBuddhisttemples,pagodasandgrottoesArchitecture()StupaSongyuetempletower,locatedinHenanSongshanSouthMountainundertheSongyuetemple,builtintheNorthernWeiDynastyislightyears,hasbeenmorethanyears,isChina'soldestbrickpagodaThistowerhasfloors,morethanmetershigh,majesticandtall,uniqueshapeThetowerplaneistwelveangles,thetowerisparabolic,theEast,South,Westandnorthsidesofthetowerareprovidedwithentrance,whichcangouptothetopfrombottomtotopItsfirstlayeristwelveangle,andfromthesecondlayeritbeginstobeoctagonalthispagodabuildingisunusual,althoughithasbeendownforthousandsofyears,thatthedesignandconstructionlevelisveryhighArchitecture()BuddhaTempleQixiatemple,NanjingLocatedintheQixiamountainsFengXiLu,QiYongmingwasfoundedinsevenyears(years),hasbeenyearsofhistory,isoneoftheBuddhistholylandinchinaLiuSongDynasty(~)years,ChuShiMingsengshaoinSheshan,housesforthetemple,named"Qixiajingshe"Architecture()GrottoesYungangGrottoes,theMaijishangrottoes,Dunhuanggrottoes,LongmenGrottoes,TianlongMountainGrottoes,ringGrottoesetcSomeofthesecaveshavebeenexcavatedforalongtime,andthescaleislargeandthecraftisexquisiteArchitecture()Architecture()MogaoGrottoes,DunhuangArchitecture()MaijishanGrottoesArchitecture()ThearchitecturaltechniquesofSuiandTangDynastieswerethefirstintheworldatthattimesuikaiHuangtwoyears(years),EmperorWenorderedtheChanganEastSouthBuildingShoushanDaxingCity,byYuwenKai,inthefamousarchitectundertheleadershipofthehighyingTheTangDynastyChangancityisbuiltinDaxingcityonthebasisoftheSuidynastyChangancityreconstructionisforeignArchitecture()PlanofChanganCityArchitecture()yearsoftheTangDynastyinNortheastJinyuaninthehighlandsoftheDamingPalaceoutsideoftheoriginalbuildingistherepresentativeofTangDynastypalaceTherearemorethanpalacesDamingPalace,isahugepalacebuildings,yearsWuZetianmovedtotheDamingPalacehearing,DamingPalacehasbecomethemainbodyoftheTangDynastyXijingofficeArchitecture()SuiandTangDynastiesAnothercitybuildingisLuoyangThisprojectwasdesignedandbuiltbyYuKai,anditsscaleisnolessthandaxingArchitecture()SuiandTangDynastiesAnothercitybuildingisLuoyangThisprojectwasdesignedandbuiltbyYuKai,anditsscaleisnolessthandaxingArchitecture()Architecture()Themid()ZhouQiaoZhaoLiChunpresidedoverthedesignandconstructionbycraftsmen,acrosstheZhaozhou(nowHebeiZhaoxianCounty)abovetheriver,designhavegreatoriginality,createunique,constructionmaterialsexceptstone,withnineironandcastironrodArchitecture()themeterlongspansinglearchstonebridgeismeters,istheworld'soldest,ThelongestspanofastonebridgeItplaysanimportantroleinthehistoryofbridgeintheworldTraffic()theQinandHanDynastiesbuiltlargescaleapplicationofroadandroad,landtransportvehicle,mostofwhichhavetwowheelers,wheelbarrowandfourwheeledvehiclesTraffic()thewaterwaytransportationandshipbuildingindustryiswelldeveloped,theQinandHanDynasties,theoccupiedanimportantpositioninthehistoryofworldshippingandChinaTraffic()ZhangQian,afamousdiplomatintheHanDynasty,madetwomissionstothewesternregionsinBCandBC,andvisitedseveralcountriesinCentralAsiaandWesternasiaAfterthedeathofZhangQian,theemperorhasrepeatedlysentwestbound,whichopenedfromXi'antoDatongQinhuangdao(ancientRome)internationaltransportation,whichistheworldfamous"silkroad"

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中国古代其它科学(Other sciences in ancient China)

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