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首页 论文英文翻译最终版

论文英文翻译最终版.doc

论文英文翻译最终版

罗裕民
2019-05-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《论文英文翻译最终版doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

序号(学号):  长春光华学院毕业设计(论文)译文Electronictechnique电子技术 姓名盛遵义教学院电气信息学院专业电子信息工程班级电信指导教师张淑艳(讲师)  年月日      ElectronictechniqueFromtheworldofradiointheworldtoasinglechipmoderncomputertechnologyindustrialrevolutiontheworldeconomyfromthecapitalintotheeconomytoknowledgeeconomy。Fieldintheelectronicworldfromthethcenturyintotheeraofradiotocomputertechnologyinthestcenturyasthecenteroftheintelligentmoderneraofelectronicsystems。Thebasiccoreofmodernelectronicsystemsareembeddedcomputersystems(referredtoasembeddedsystems)whilethemicrocontrolleristhemosttypicalandmostextensiveandmostpopularembeddedsystems。  radiohascreatedgenerationsofexcellenceintheworldFiftiesandsixtiesinthethcenturythemostrepresentativeoftheadvancedelectronictechnologyiswirelesstechnologyincludingradiobroadcastingradiowirelesscommunications(telegraph)AmateurRadioradiopositioningnavigationandothertelemetryremotecontrolremotetechnology。Earlythattheseelectronictechnologyledmanyyoungpeopleintothewonderfuldigitalworldradioshowwasawonderfullifetheprospectsforscienceandtechnology。Electronicsbegantoformanewdiscipline。Radioelectronicswirelesscommunicationsbeganeworldjourney。Radiotechnologynotonlyasarepresentativeofadvancedscienceandtechnologyatthattimebutalsofrompopulartoprofessionalfieldsofscienceattractingtheyoungpeopleandenablethemtofindalotoffun。Orefromthebedsidetothesuperheterodyneradioradioreportissuedfromtheradioamateurradiostationsfromthetelephoneelectricbelltotheradiocontrolmodel。Becamepopularyouthradiotechnologyscienceandtechnologyeducationisthemostpopularandmostextensivecontent。SofarmanyoftheoldergenerationofengineersexpertsProfessoroftheyearareradioenthusiasts。Funradiotechnologyradiotechnologycomprehensivetrainingfrombasicprinciplesofelectronicselectroniccomponentstotheradiobasedremotecontroltelemetryremoteelectronicsystemshastrainedseveralgenerationsoftechnologicalexcellence。  Fromthepopularityoftheradioeratoeraofelectronictechnology。Theearlyradiotechnologytopromotethedevelopmentofelectronictechnologymostnotablyelectronicvacuumtubetechnologytosemiconductorelectronictechnology。Semiconductortechnologytorealizetheactivedeviceminiaturizationandlowcostsomorepopularwithradiotechnologyandinnovationandtogreatlybroadenthenumberofnonradiocontrolareas。Thedevelopmentofsemiconductortechnologyleadtotheproductionofintegratedcircuitformingthemodernelectronictechnologyleapfromdiscreteelectronicsintotheeraoferaofintegratedcircuits。Electronicdesignengineersnolongerusethediscreteelectroniccomponentsdesignedcircuitmodulesanddirectselectionofintegratedcircuitcomponentsconstituteasinglesystem。Theyfreedthedesignofthecircuitunitdedicatedtosystemdesigngreatlyliberatingtheproductiveforcesofscienceandtechnologypromotethewiderspreadofelectronicsystems。Semiconductorintegratedcircuitsinthebasicdigitallogiccircuitsfirstbreakthrough。Alargenumberofdigitallogiccircuitssuchasgatescounterstimersshiftregistersandanalogswitchescomparatorsetc。fortheelectronicdigitalcontrolprovidesexcellentconditionsforthetraditionalmechanicalcontroltoelectroniccontrol。Powerelectronicdevicesandsensortechnologytomaketheoriginaltotheradioasthecenterofelectronictechnologyturnedtomechanicalengineeringinthefieldofdigitalcontrolsystemstestinginthefieldofinformationcollectionmovementofelectricalmechanicalservodrivecontrolobject。Semiconductorandintegratedcircuittechnologywillbringusauniversalageofelectronictechnologywirelesstechnologyasthefieldofelectronictechnologyapartof。yearsintothethcenturylargescaleintegratedcircuitappearedtopromotetheconventionalelectroniccircuitunitspecificelectronicsystemsdevelopment。Manyelectronicsystemsunitintoadedicatedintegrateddevicessuchasradioselectronicclockscalculatorselectronicengineersintheseareasfromthecircuitthesystemdesignedtodebugintothedeviceselectionperipheraldeviceadapterwork。Electronictechnologyandelectronicproductsenrichedelectronicengineerstoreducethedifficultybutatthesametimeradiotechnologyelectronictechnologyhasweakenedthecharm。Thedevelopmentofsemiconductorintegratedcircuitsclassicalelectronicsystemsarematuringremaininthelargescaleintegratedcircuitotherthantheshrinkingofelectronictechnologyelectronictechnologyisnottheolddaysofradiofuntimesandcomprehensiveengineeringtraining。 Fromtheclassiceraofelectronictechnologytomodernelectronictechnologyofthetimesyearsintothethcenturythecenturyofeconomicchangeisthemostimportantrevolutioninthecomputer。Thecomputerrevolutioninthemostimportantsignisthebirthofthecomputerembeddedapplications。Moderncomputernumericalrequirementsshouldbeborn。Alongperiodoftimeistodevelopthemassivecomputernumericalduty。Butthecomputershowsthelogicoperationprocessingcontrolattractingexpertsinthefieldofelectroniccontroltheywantdevelopmenttomeetthecontrolobjectrequirementsofembeddedapplicationscomputersystems。Ifyoumeetthemassivedataprocessingcomputersystemknownasgeneralpurposecomputersystemthenthesystemcanbetheembeddedobject(suchasshipsaircraftmotorcyclesetc。)inacomputersystemcalledtheembeddedcomputer。Clearlyboththedirectionoftechnologydevelopmentaredifferent。Theformerrequiresmassivedatastoragehandlingprocessingandanalysisofhighspeeddatatransmissionwhilethelatterrequiresreliableoperationinthetargetenvironmenttheexternalphysicalparametersonhighspeedacquisitionanalysisandprocessinglogicandtherapidcontrolofexternalobjects。Itwilladdanearlygeneralpurposecomputerdataacquisitionunittheoutputdrivercircuitreluctancetoformaheattreatmentfurnacetemperaturecontrolsystem。Thisgeneralpurposecomputersystemisnotpossibleformostoftheelectronicsystemusedandtomakegeneralpurposecomputersystemmeetstherequirementsofembeddedapplicationswillinevitablyaffectthedevelopmentofhighspeednumericprocessing。Inordertosolvethecontradictionbetweenthedevelopmentofcomputertechnologyinthethcenturyssemiconductorexpertsanotherwayinfullaccordancewiththeelectronicsystemembeddedcomputerapplicationrequirementsamicrocomputer'sbasicsystemonachiptheformationoftheearlySCM(SingleChipMicrocomputer)。Aftertheadventofsinglechipinthecomputerindustrybegantoappearinthegeneralpurposecomputersystemsandembeddedsystemsthetwobranches。Sincethenboththeembeddedsystemorgeneralpurposecomputersystemshavebeendevelopedrapidly。  AlthoughtheearlygeneralpurposecomputerconvertedtheembeddedcomputersystemsandrealembeddedsystembeganintheemergenceofSCM。BecausethemicrocontrollerisdesignedspecificallyforembeddedapplicationstheMCUcanonlyachieveembeddedapplications。MCUembeddedapplicationsthatbestmeetenvironmentalrequirementsforexamplechiplevelphysicalspacelargescaleintegratedcircuitslowcostgoodperipheralinterfacebusandoutstandingcontrolofinstruction。Acomputersystemmicrocontrollercoreembeddedelectronicsystemsintelligentelectronicsystemsforthefoundation。Thereforethecurrentsinglechipelectronicsysteminwidespreaduseofelectronicsystemstoenablerapidtransitiontotheclassicalmodernintelligentelectronicsystems。  SinglechiptocreatethemoderneraofelectronicsystemsAmicrocontrollerandembeddedsystemsEmbeddedcomputersystemsfromembeddedapplicationsembeddedsystemsforearlygeneralpurposecomputeradaptedtotheobjectsystemembeddedinavarietyofelectronicsystemssuchastheship'sautopilotenginemonitoringsystems。Embeddedsystemisprimarilyacomputersystemfollowedbyitbeingembeddedintotheobjectsystemobjectsintheobjectsystemtoachieverequireddatacollectionprocessingstatusdisplaytheoutputcontrolfunctionsasembeddedintheobjectsystemembeddedsystemcomputerdoesnothaveanindependentformandfunctionofthecomputer。SCMisentirelyinaccordancewiththerequirementsofembeddedsystemdesignsoSCMisthemosttypicalembeddedsystems。SCMistheearlyapplicationoftechnicalrequirementsinaccordancewiththedesignofembeddedcomputerchipintegrationhencethenamesinglechip。SubsequentlytheMCUembeddedapplicationstomeetthegrowingdemandsofitscontrolfunctionsandperipheralinterfacefunctionsinparticularhighlightthecontrolfunctionsohasinternationalnamethesinglechipmicrocontroller(MCUMicrocontrollerUnit)。MCUmodernelectronicsystemsconsistingofelectronicsystemswillbecomemainstream  MCUisadevicelevelcomputersystemsitcanbeembeddedintoanyobjectsystemtoachieveintelligentcontrol。Smalltomicromachinerysuchaswatcheshearingaids。LowcostintegrateddevicelevellowtoafewdollarstendollarsenoughtospreadtomanycivilianSCMapplianceselectronictoystogo。SCMconstitutesamodernelectronicsystemshasindepthtothehouseholdsarechangingourlivessuchashomeaudiotelevisionswashingmachinesmicrowaveovenstelephonessecuritysystemsandairconditioners。SCMinnovationtheoriginalelectronicsystemssuchasmicrowaveovensuseSCMitcaneasilysettheclocktheprogrammemorypowercontrolairconditionerafteruseofSCMisnotonlyconvenientforremoteparametersettingrunningautomaticallytransformfrequencycontrolcanbeachieved。AtpresentmanyhouseholdappliancessuchasVCDDVDonlysinglechiptoachieveitsfunctionmayoccurbefore。EmbeddedSystemsledtheentireelectronicsindustryCurrentelectroniccomponentsindustryinadditiontomicroprocessorsembeddedsystemdevicesthemostmodernelectronicsystemsaroundthesupportingcomponentsindustriessuchaskeysusedtomeetthehumancomputerinteractionLEDLCDdisplaydriversLEDLCDdisplayunitsvoiceintegrateddeviceetc。tomeettherequirementsofdataacquisitionchanneldigitalsensorADCdataacquisitionmodulesignalconditioningmodulestomeettheservodrivecontrolintheDACsolidstaterelayssteppermotorcontrollerfrequencycontrolunitetc。tomeetthecommunicationrequirementsvariousbusdriverlevelconverters。Electroniccomponentsintheembeddedsystemsworlddrivenbyembeddedapplicationsalongfullymeetrequirementsofmodernelectronicsystemsdevelopment。Thismakestheoriginalclassicworldofincreasinglysmallelectronicsystems。Practitionersinthevariouselectronicsystemstomodernelectronicsystemsasearlyaspossibletostay。SCMwillcreateanewgenerationofelectroniceliteifthe'sradiohascreatedseveralgenerationsoftheworldelitethentoday'sSCMwillcreateanewgenerationofeworldelite。AsinglechipwithyoutotheintelligentelectronicsIfweasadeadclassicelectronicsystemelectronicsystemthentheintelligentmodernelectronicsystemsisa"life"oftheelectronicsystem。ApplicationSystemofhardwareelectronicsystems"body"microcontrollerapplicationstheapplicationgivesit"life。"Forexampleinthedesignofintelligentmachinesmonitordisplayitcanbootthesystemselftestresultsshownottoentertheworkshowsavarietyofstandbystateequipmentruntimedisplayrunningprocessesworkcanbedisplayedaftertheendofthecurrentresultsselfresultsrawdatareportsandothervariousprocessing。Unattendeditcanrunautomaticallygivenavarietyoffunctions。Intelligentelectronicsystemsfortheendlessrealmoftenwithoutadditionalhardwareresourcescanachieveallkindsofrenovatedfunction。Itisalsopresentinmanyhouseholdappliancesfeaturealargenumberofadditionalfactors。singlechipcomputerwithyoutotheindustrialareaThestcenturyisthecenturyofhumanityintothecomputeragemanypeoplearenotusedinthemanufactureofcomputeristhecomputer。   Peopleusingthecomputeronlythepeopleengagedinembeddedsystemapplicationsreallyintotheinternalcomputersystemhardwareandsoftwaresystemscanwetrulyunderstandthenatureofthecomputer'sintelligenceandgrasptheknowledgeofintelligentdesign。MCUapplicationsstartingfromthelearningtechnologyapplicationsintoday'scomputersoftwaretraininghardwareandtechnicalpersonnelofoneofthebestroads。SCMbringyouintothemostattractiveinthedigitalworldCharmingsinglechiptoenableyoutoexperiencethetruemeaningofthecomputeryoucandesignintelligentmicrocontrollerhandsontoysdifferentapplicationscanbedesignedtoachievedifferentfunctions。Bothsoftwaredesignandhardwaremakingtherebothmentalandphysicalbutalsohands。Primarylevelcandevelopintelligenttoyswithmacroprogramming。Intermediatelevelscandevelopsomeintelligentcontrollersuchascomputermousesmartcarsallkindsofremotecontrolmodel。Highlevelscanbedevelopedrobotssuchasrobotsoccerthedevelopmentofindustrialcontrolunitsnetworkcommunicationsandhighlevellanguagewithassemblylanguageordesignapplication。Microcontrollerandembeddedsystemsaroundtheformationofthefutureoftheelectronicsindustrywillprovideavastworldofelectronicfansanevenbroaderthanthecurrentwirelessworldrichermoredurablemoreattractiveinthedigitalworld。Plungeintothemicrocontrollerintheworldtowillbenefityourlife。  MCUAttacksCurrentlytherearefoursinglechipattacktechniquenamely:()softwareattackThetechnologyiscommonlyusedprocessorcommunicationinterfaceanduseprotocolencryptionalgorithmorthealgorithmofsecurityvulnerabilitiestoattack。ThesuccessofsoftwareattackisatypicalexampleoftheearlyATMELATCMCUattacks。AttackersinglechiperaseoperationofthetimingdesignflawerasetheencryptionusedbyourselveslockedinplacethenextstoponchipprogrammemorydataeraseoperationthusbringingintotoocloseasinglechipSCMnotencryptedandthenusetheprogrammertoreadoutchipprogram。()electronicdetectionofattacksThetechnologyisusuallyahightimeresolutiontomonitortheprocessorduringnormaloperationofallpowerandinterfacesimulationfeaturesandbymonitoringtheelectromagneticradiationcharacteristicsofittoattack。BecauseSCMisanactiveelectronicdevicewhenitexecutesadifferentcommandthecorrespondingchangesinthepowerconsumptionaccordingly。Thisthroughtheuseofspecialelectronicmeasuringinstrumentsandmathematicalstatisticalanalysisanddetectionofthesechangesyoucanaccesskeyinformationspecificmicrocontroller。()faultgenerationtechnologyAbnormalworkingconditionsofthetechnologyusedtomaketheprocessorerrorsandprovideadditionalaccesstoattack。Producethemostwidelyusedmeansofattackincludingthefaultoftheimpactandtheclockvoltageshock。Lowvoltageandhighvoltageprotectioncircuitattackcanbeusedtoprohibittheworkofprocessorexecutionerrorsorenforcementaction。Clocktransitionmayresetthetransientprotectioncircuitwillnotdamagetheprotectedinformation。Powerandclocktransientstransitioneffectsincertainsingleprocessorinstructiondecodingandexecution。()probeThistechnologyisdirectlyexposedtochipconnectionandthenobservemanipulateinterferewithsinglechiptoachievetheattackpurpose。Forconveniencethesefourpeoplewillattacktechniquesaredividedintotwocategoriesistheintrusiontypeattack(physicalattack)suchattackrequiresdestructionofpackagethenusesemiconductortestequipmentmicroscopesandmicropositioningdeviceinaspeciallaboratoryspendhoursorevenweekstocomplete。Allofthemicroprobetechniquesareinvasivetypeattack。TheotherthreemethodsarenoninvasivetypeattackattacktheMCUwillnotbephysicaldamage。Insomecasesnoninvasivetypeattacksareparticularlydangerousbutbecauseofnoninvasivetypeattackscanusuallybemadeandthenecessaryequipmenttoupgradesoitischeap。Mostnoninvasivetypeattackrequirestheattackerhaveagoodknowledgeofprocessorsandsoftwareknowledge。Incontrasttheinvasivetypeofprobedonotneedtoomuchoftheinitialattackofknowledgeandusuallyasetofsimilartechnologyavailabletodealwithawiderangeofproducts。MCUgeneralprocessofinvasiontypeattack。  Invasivetypeofattackisthrownoffitsfirstchippackage。Therearetwowaystoachievethisgoal:thefirstoneiscompletelydissolvedoutchippackageexposedmetalconnections。Thesecondisonlyremovedtothetopoftheplasticpackagesiliconcore。ThefirstmethodistheneedtobindtothetestfixtureonthechipusingbindTaiwantooperate。Thesecondmethodrequirestheattackerinadditiontoacertaindegreeofknowledgeandnecessaryskillsbutalsothewisdomandpatiencebutoperaterelativelyeasy。Abovetheplasticchipscanbeopenedwithaknifeepoxyaroundthechipcanbeerodedbyconcentratednitricacid。Hotconcentratednitricacidwilldissolveoutwithoutaffectingthechipchippackagingandconnection。Thisprocessusuallyverydryconditionsbecausethepresenceofwatermayerodethealuminumwireconnectionshavebeenexposed。Theninultrasoniccleaningofthepoolfirstchipwithacetonetoremoveresidualnitricacidthenwashedwithwatertoremovesaltanddried。Noultrasoundpoolaregenerallyskipthisstep。ThiscasethechipsurfaceabitdirtybutdonotaffecttheoperationofUVeffectsonthechip。ThefinalstepistofindthelocationoftheprotectionfuseandfuseprotectionunderexposuretoUVlight。Generaluseatleastatimesmagnificationmicroscopefromtheprogrammingvoltageinputpinoftheconnectiontrackingintofindprotectionfuse。Ifthereisnomicroscopetheuseofdifferentpartsofthechipisexposedtoultravioletlightandobservetheresultsunderthesimplesearchmode。Operationappliedopaquepapercovertoprotecttheprogrammemorychipsarenoterasedbyultravioletlight。WillprotectthefuseexposedunderUVlighttominutestodestroytheprotectionbitoftheprotectiveeffectuseasimpleprogrammercandirectlyreadthecontentsofprogrammemory。TheuseoftheprotectivelayertoprotecttheMCUEEPROMcellusingultravioletlightresetprotectioncircuitisnotfeasible。ForthistypeofMCUthegeneraluseofmicroprobetechnologytoreadthememorycontents。Inthechippackageisopenedthechipplacedunderthemicroscopecaneasilyfindfromthememorycircuitconnectedtootherpartsofthedatabus。Forsomereasonthechiplockbitprogrammingmodeisnotlockedinthememoryofthevisit。Advantageofthisflawonthedatalinestoprobetheabovedatacanbereadallyouwant。Inprogrammingmoderestarttheprocessofreadingandconnectprobetotheotherdatacanbereadonlineprogramanddatamemoryalloftheinformation。Thereisalsoapossiblemeansofattackistheuseofmicroscopyandlasercuttingmachinesandotherequipmenttofindthefuseprotectiontothispartofthecircuittracingandlinkingallthesignallines。Becauseofthedesigndefectssolongascutofffromothercircuitprotectionfusetoaonesignallineyoucanbantheentireprotection。Forsomereasonthisthreadisveryfarfromtheotherlinesotheuseoflasercuttingmachinecancutthewirewithoutaffectingtheadjacentline。Inthiswayusingasimpleprogrammercandirectlyreadthecontentsofprogrammemory。AlthoughthemostcommonsinglechipmicrocontrollerhasfuseblowninsidethecodeprotectionfeaturesbutbecauseofgenerallowendMCUisnotpositioningtheproductionofsafeproductssotheyoftendonotprovidetargetedpreventivemeasuresandthelowlevelofsecurity。MCUapplicationswithabroadlargesalesvolumecommissionprocessingandtransferoftechnologybetweenfirmsfrequentlyspilledalotoftechnicaldatamakinguseofloopholesinthedesignofsuchchipsandtestinterfacemanufacturerandbymodifyingtheinvasivetypefuseprotectionbitsetc。meansofattackorinvasiontypeattacktoreadMCU'sinternalprocedureshavebecomeeasier。AboutcommonsinglechipSTCmicrocontrollerSTC'smainlybasedonthemicrocontrollercoreisanewgenerationofenhancedMCUtheinstructioncodeisfullycompatiblewiththetraditionaltotimesfasterwithADCRoadPWMdualserialportsaglobaluniqueIDencryptionofgoodstrongantiinterference。PICMicrocontroller:MICROCHIP'sproductsisitsprominentfeatureisasmalllowpowerconsumptionreducedinstructionsetinterferencereliabilitystronganaloginterfacethecodeofconfidentialityisgoodmostofthechiphasitscompatibleFLASHprogrammemorychips。EMCSCM:Elan'sproductsinTaiwanwithmuchofthePICbitmicrocontrollercompatibleandcompatibleproductsresourcescomparedtothePIC'smorecheaptherearemanyseriesofoptionsbutlessinterference。ATMELmicrocontroller(MCU):ATMElcompany'sbitmicrocontrollerwithATATtwoseriesATseriesisthebitFlashmicrocontrolleriscompatiblewiththestaticclockmodeATRISCMCUistoenhancethestructureallstaticmethodsofworkcontainingthelinecanbeFlashMCUprogrammingalsoknownAVRmicrocontroller。PHLIPISPLCMicrocontroller(MCU):PHILIPScompany'sMCUisbasedontheCmicrocontrollercoreembeddedpowerdowndetectionsimulationandonchipRCoscillatorandotherfunctionswhichmakesLPCinhighlyintegratedlowcostlowpowerdesigntomeetvariousapplicationsperformancerequirements。HOLTEKSCM:ShengYangTaiwanSemiconductor'ssinglechipcheapmorecategoriesbutlessinterferenceforconsumerproducts。TIcompanymicrocontroller(MCU):TexasInstrumentsMSPprovidestheTMSandtwoseriesofgeneralpurposemicrocontroller。TMSMCUisthebitCMOSMCUwithavarietyofstoragemodeavarietyofexternalinterfacemodesuitableforrealtimecontrolofcomplexsituationsMSPMCUisalowpowerhighfunctionalityintegratedbitlowpowermicrocontrollerespeciallyforapplicationsthatrequirelowpowerconsumptionoccasionsTaiwanSonix'ssinglemostlybitmachinessomewithPICbitmicrocontrollercompatiblecheapthesystemclockfrequencymaybemoreoptionstherePMWADCinternalnoisefilteringwithinthevibration。ShortcomingsRAMspaceistoosmallbetterantiinterference。

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