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首页 土石坝 水利水电专业英语论文--英文对照及翻译

土石坝 水利水电专业英语论文--英文对照及翻译.doc

土石坝 水利水电专业英语论文--英文对照及翻译

李怀君
2017-09-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《土石坝 水利水电专业英语论文--英文对照及翻译doc》,可适用于综合领域

土石坝水利水电专业英语论文英文对照及翻译EnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringEarthandrockdamSummary概述Earthandrockdam,withanothername土石坝又称“当地材料as"localmaterialdam",ismainlybuilt坝”主要由坝址附近的土石withearthandrockmaterialsnearthe料填筑而成根据坝体所用材siteItcanbeclassifiedbasedonthe料不同又可分为土坝和堆石materialsitused,earthdammainlywith坝。坝体材料以当地土料和earth,sand,grit,andgravel,androck砂、砂砾、卵砾为主的称土坝dammainlywithrockballast,gravel,and以石渣、卵石、爆破石料为主explodedrocks的称堆石坝。Featuresofearthandrockdam土石坝的特点Strongpoints优点Withconvenientsupplyofmaterials,筑坝材料就地取材。可节manybuildingmaterialssuchassteel,省大量钢材、水泥、木材等建cement,andtimberscanbesavedWith筑材料。适应地基变形能力granularstructuremoresuitableto强。土石坝散粒体结构具有适foundationdeformation,itdemandsless应地基变形的良好条件对地onthefoundationVeryflexiblefrom基的要求比混凝土坝低。施工simpleartificialfillingtohighly方法选择灵活性大。能适应不mechanizedconstruction,theprocedure同的施工方法从简单的人工becomesimple,theconstructionbecome填筑到高度机械化施工都可efficient,andthequalityguarantee以且工序简单、施工速度快becomeeasySimplystructured,thecost质量也易保证。结构简单。造islow,theoperationisconvenient,价低廉、运行管理方便、工作worksisreliable,andmaintenanceand可靠便于维修加高。heightaddingisconvientWeakpoints缺点Overflownotallowed,spillwayhas坝顶不能溢流常须另开tobebuiltDiversionlessconvenient,溢洪道施工。导流不如混凝土costincreasesSectionlarger,earthto坝方便因而相应增加了工程befillediseasytobeaffectedby造价坝体断面大土料填筑的climateThiskindofdifficultmeans质量易受气候影响。这给施工possibleextentionoftimelimitandcost带来困难甚至延长工期、增increase加造价。EnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringEarthandrockdamtypes土石坝的类型Basedonconstructingways,earth土石坝按施工方法的不androckdamscanbeclassifiedinto同可分为:碾压式土石坝抛rolledonesofearthrock,thrown填式堆石坝定向爆破堆石rockfilledones,rockfilledones坝水中倒土坝和水力冲填坝withdirectionaldetonation,oneswith等。其中尤以碾压式土石坝应earththrownintothewater,andones用最广。filledbyhydraulicforcesAmongthem,rolledonesaremostpopularBasedontheearthproportionandthe按土料在坝体中配置和locationofantiseepageparts,there防渗体的位置不同又可分为arehomogeneous(evengranular)均质坝分区坝人工防渗材dams,zonedearthdams,anddamswith料坝。均质坝优点:材料单一、artificialantiseepagematerials工序简单缺点:坝坡较缓、Strongpointsofhomogeneousdams:one剖面大受气候限制坝体孔foldmaterials,simpleprocessweak隙水压力大高坝很少采用。points:flatgradient,largesection,分区坝分心墙坝、斜墙坝等weatherlimited,strongwaterpressure前者优点:土料占总方量比重inholesZoneddamsareclassifiedinto不大施工受季节影响小。缺oneswithcoreantiseepageandoneswith点:心墙与坝体大体要同时填frontantiseepageLessamountof筑相互干扰。后者优点:与earth,lessaffectofseason坝体施工干扰小。缺点:抗震interferingwiththefillingofthedam性能和适应不均匀沉陷的能bodyLessinterferencewiththe力不如前者。人工防渗材料坝constructionofthedambodyweaker的防渗体由沥青混凝土、钢筋antiearthquakeandunevensinkingThe混凝土或其他人工材料组成antiseepagepartsofdamswith其余部分由土石料筑成。其中artificialantiseepagematerialsuse防渗体在上游的称为斜墙坝asphaltconcrete,reinforcedconcreteor(面板坝)在坝体中央的称otherartificalmaterialsSometimes,为心墙坝。theantiseepagepartsareinthedamfrontfacingtheupstream,sometimes,theyareatthecoreofthedamWorkingconditions工作条件Trapeziformsection梯形剖面Earthrockdamisawaterretaining土石坝是由松散颗粒土structurebuiltwithloosegranulesof石料填筑碾压而成的挡水建earthandrocksfilledandroller筑物。由于土粒间的抗剪强度compactedWithweakerstrengthbetween小上下游坡如不维持一定的thesegranules,bothupsteamand坡度就可能发生坍塌现象。downsteamslopeshavetobekeptat所以土石坝的剖面一般呈梯acertaindegreetoavoidlandslideSo形。失稳的形式则是坝坡滑动Englishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringthedamsectionis或坝坡连同地基一起滑动的usuallytrapeziformItcanbe剪切破坏这是与其他建筑物destablizedintwoways,simpleslope的不同之处slidingandsametimeslidingofslopeandfoundationcausedbysheardamageIt'sadifferencefromotherstructuresSeepageeffects渗流影响Withalargesection,thedamis土坝挡水后由于坝体断generallykeptfromentiresliding面较大除坝基有水平软弱夹unlesscausedbyweakinterlayers层外产生整体滑动的可能性Effectedbywaterlevelsattheupsteam较小。但在上下游水位的作用anddownsteam,seepageiseasytohappen下水流经过坝身及坝基(包withstreamspassingthefaying括两岸)的结合面和坝体土与surfacesbetweenthedamandfoundation,混凝土等建筑物的结合面易andbetweendamearthandconcrete产生渗漏。渗流在坝体内形成buildingsTheseepingstreamsforma自由水面浸润线以下的土体freewatersurfaceinsidethedamUnder全部处于饱和状态。饱和区的thesurface,alltheearthbodyis土体受水的浸泡而使土的有saturatedDippedinthewater,the效重量减轻并使土的内摩擦earthbecomelighterineffectAndits角和粘结力减小。同时渗透angleofinternalfrictionisnarrowed,水流对土体还有动水压力的andcohesiveforceweakenedWiththe作用这些力增加了坝坡滑动hydrodynamicpressurefromtheseeping的可能性。渗透水流在土壤中steams,moreslidingofdamslopesis运动时如渗透坡降超过允许possibleWhenseepingsteamsmove渗透坡降还会引起坝体和坝insoil,thedambodyandfoundation基的渗透变形严重时会导致willbedeformedfromtoosteephydraulic坝的失事。gradientSometimesthedamevencrashesScoureffect冲刷影响Itsantiscourabilityisweak由于土料颗粒间的粘结becausethecohesiveforcebetweenearth力很小因此土石坝抗冲能力granulesissmallOntheonehand,the较低。雨水一方面侵入坝内降rainwaterentersthedamandlowerthe低坝的稳定性另一方面将沿stabilityofthedam,andontheother坝坡面下流而冲刷坝面库内hand,therainscourthedamsurface风浪对坝面也将产生冲击和alongtheslopeAtthesametime,the淘刷作用使坝面容易受到破wavesinsidethereservoiralsowashout坏甚至滑坡。因此上下游thedamsurface,puttingthesurfacein坝坡均需采取有效的保护措theriskofbeingdamaged施。Sometime,landslideevenhappensduetothisSoeffectiveprotectingmeasuresEnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringhavetobetakenfordamslopesbothupstreamanddownstreamSinkingeffect沉陷影响Thedambodyandfoundationwillsink由于土料间存在孔隙在undertheirselfweightandwaterload坝体自重和水荷载作用下坝besidesthespacebetweenearth体和地基(土基)都会由于压granulesIfitsinkstoomuch,the缩而产生沉陷。沉陷量过大会elevationlevelwillnotbesufficient,造成坝顶高程不足而影响坝andthentheoperationofthedamwillbe的正常工作过大的不均匀沉affectedAnd,toomuchunevensinkage陷量还会引起坝体开裂甚至willcausefractureofthedamboday,and造成渗水通道而威胁大坝安evenaseepagepassage,puttingthedam全。atriskOthereffects其它影响Infreezingregions,anicecovered在严寒地区当气温低于零度layerwillbeformedoverthereservoir时库水面结冰形成冰盖层。whenthetemperatureisbelowdegree当岸坡及坝坡冻结在一起冰Thenthebankslopeanddamslopewillbe层的膨胀对坝坡产生很大冰frozentogetherwiththeiceWhenthe压力易导致护坡的破坏。位iceexpands,slopeswillbepressedIn于水位以上的坝体粘土在冻thisway,theprotectingslopeswillbe融作用下会造成孔穴、裂缝。damagedBesides,theclayabovethe在夏季由于含水量的损失waterlevelwillhaveholesandcracks上述土壤也可能干裂引起集effectedbyfreezingandthawingIn中渗流。在地震区筑坝还应summer,withwaterlost,theclaywill考虑地震影响。地震的作用增cracked,makingseepagemuch加坝坡坍滑的可能性。粉沙地easierEarthquakeshavetobetakeninto基在强烈振动作用下还容易accountTheycanmakelandslidemore引起液化破坏。possibleIfthefoundationismadeofsiltysand,liquidifieddamageismorepossibleMaterialsforbuildingearthandrock土石坝的筑坝材料dam就地取材是土石坝设计Obtainingrawmateriallocallyisa的基本原则。一般而言常见basicdesignprincipleGenerally的土石料(沼泽土、斑脱土、speaking,familiarearthandrock地表土及含有未完全分解有materialscanbeusedexceptions机质的土料除外)均可用作筑includeswampysoil,bentonite,surface坝材料。因此应根据坝址附soil,andothersoilmaterials近土石料的具体条件选择坝containingorganicmatternotcompletely型。土石料场的选择宜储量充decomposedtherefore,damtypeisoften足以近为原则具体选用须Englishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringdeterminedbasedonavailabilityof通过技术经济比较而定。土石earthandrockmaterialsnearbythesite坝坝体主要由坝壳、防渗体、stockyardmustberichinstorageand排水设备、护坡等组成。由于nearindistanceAsfortheselection,他们工作条件不同因而对材technicalandeconomicfactorswillbe料的要求也不同。筑坝材料应consideredThedambodyismainlymade具有与其使用目的相适应的upofdamshell,antiseepage,drainage,工程特性并具有较好的长期andprotectionslopeTheyworkunder稳定性。differentconditions,sotheydemanddifferentlyMaterialsmustbedurableandsuitabletotheirpurposeAntiseepageandstructureofdamcrest坝的防渗体和坝顶构造Seepageproofingworkforadammust坝的防渗体必须满足将bebasedonstructuralandconstructing渗透坡降、下游坝体浸润线及requirements,reducingseepage渗流量降低到允许范围内还gradient,downstreamsaturationline,要满足结构上和施工上的要andseepagetoanallowanceextentWe求。作为坝的防渗体的材料有canuseterreneseepageproofting土质防渗体人工材料(沥青materialsandartificialmaterials混凝土钢筋混凝土)其中includingasphaltconcreteand用的最多的是土质防渗体。在reinforcedconcreteterrenematerials坝顶应该设路面如坝顶有交aremoreusedRoadisbuiltoncrestIf通要求则应按道路要求设trafficisnecessary,roadhastobe计如没有交通要求则可用builtbasedonrelevantstandardIf单层砌石或砾石护面以防雨trafficisnotanticipated,singlelayer水冲蚀。坝顶上游侧通常设防masonryorgravelsissufficientfor浪墙下游侧设拦杆。防浪墙resistingrainscouringantiwavewall高度通常为,米。用浆isbuiltupstream,andrailingsarebuilt砌石或钢筋混凝土筑成。墙的downstreamthewall,usuallyto基础应牢固地埋入坝内伸入metershigh,isbuiltwithstonemasonry防渗体内。为排除雨水坝顶路orreinforcingconcreteitsfoundation面通常向两侧或一侧做,mustbefirmlyburiedinthedam,的斜坡。有防浪墙时坡向下protrudingintoantiseepageForthe游并在坝顶下游侧设纵向排sakeofrain,theroadonthecrestis水沟以便汇集雨水经坡面usuallybuiltwithslopesononesideor排水沟排至下游。onbothsidesWhenthereisaantiwavewall,theslopeistowardsdownstream,andtherewillbealengthwaysdrainagedownstreamthedamcrestforgatheringwaterThewaterwillgodownstreamthroughdrainageEnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringDamslope坝坡Influencingdamstabilityand土石坝坝坡对坝的稳定constructiondirectly,damslopeis和工程有着直接的影响主要determinedbydamtype,damheight,dam取决于坝型、坝高、坝的等级、scale,materialofdambodyand坝体及坝基的材料性质、所承foundation,loadtobear,andconditions受的荷载、施工和运用条件等forconstructionandoperation因素。一般先参照已建工程的Generallyspeaking,damslopeis实践经验或用近似方法初步initiallydesignedaccordingtoprojects拟定坝坡然后进行稳定计completedThenapropersectionis算、确定合理的坝体断面。对decidedaftercalculationintermsof碾压式土坝砂、壤土类坝坡stabilityToslopesmadeofsandand其平均坡度一般在:~:soilinarolleddam,theirgradientis左右。当坝基较为软弱时between:and:Fordamfoundation还需适当放缓。whichisweaker,thegradientshouldbeslowForslopedesign,wehavetoconsider在拟定坝坡时应考虑到theshearingstrengthwhichofearthwill上游坝坡长期浸泡于水中土bereducedduetobeingsoakedin的抗剪强度降低。所以当采用upstreamwaterSoiftheupstreamand相同土料时坝的上游坡比下downstreamslopesaremadeofsameearth流坡要缓在一般情况下土质materials,theformeronehastobeslow斜墙坝的上游坡比心墙坝缓forearthdamswithinclinedsoilwalls,而下游坡则可比心墙坝陡些theirupstreamslopesareslowerthan砂壤土、壤土的均质坝坡比砂thoseofcoredams,andtheirdownstream或砂砾料的坝坡缓些粘性土slopesaresteeperthanthoseofcore均质坝的坝坡与坝高有一定damsforhomogeneousdamsofsandyloam关系其高度越大坝坡越缓。andloam,theirslopesareslowerthan砂或砂料坝体的坝坡与坝高thoseofdamsmadeofsandandgravels的关系则很小。一般坝的下游slopesofhomogeneousdamsmadeof坡每隔至米设置一条马cohesivesoilhavesomethingtodowith道。当坝的坡度自上到下有变damheightThehigherthedamis,the化时马道则设在变坡处。马slowertheslopeishowever,gradients道的宽度视其用途而定但其ofdamslopesmadeofsandorgravelhave最小宽度不得小于到littletodowithdamheightGenerally,米。马道上设置排水沟以汇集thereisaroadondownstreamslopeevery雨水防止冲刷还可用于观tometersWhengradientschanges,测、检修和交通。theroadwillbeatthechanginglinetheroadwidthisdeterminedbyitspurposes,butneverlessthantometersdrainageditchesarebuiltonroadforcollectingrainwater,resistingwash,observing,repairing,andtrafficEnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringSlopeprotection护坡Forearthandrockdams,theremust土石坝的上、下游坝面一beprotectionupstreamanddownstream般都要设置护坡。上游护坡的Forupstream,damagescausedbywave作用是为防止波浪淘刷、冰层scouring,damwisestreamscouring,ice,和漂浮物的损害、顺坝水流冲andfloatermustbeavoidedFor刷等危害均质坝下游护坡的downstreamofhomogeneousdams,damages作用是防止雨水冲刷风浪、causedbyrainscouring,storm,冰层和水流作用动物、冻胀ice,stream,animal,swelling,andmud干裂等对坝坡的破坏。如下游crackmustbeavoidedIfthereare坡由堆石、卵石、碎石砌成rocks,cobbles,andgravelsdownstream,可不设护坡。对上下游护坡的nomoreprotectionisneededRevetments要求是坚固耐久能抵抗各种mustbesturdyanddurable,ableto因素的破坏作用并保证底层resistdamagescausedbyvarious不受淘刷。尽可能就地取材factorsTheirundercoursemustnotbe以降低造价。施工简单维修scouredMaterialsshouldbeusedas方便。上游护坡的型式有:堆localaspossibletolowerthecost石护坡、砌石护坡、混凝土或Simpleconstructionandconvenient钢筋混凝土护坡、沥青混凝土repairingshouldbeguaranteedRocks,护坡下游护坡的型式有:砌stonework,concrete,reinforced石、堆石、碎石和草皮护坡。concrete,andasphaltconcreteareused护坡覆盖的范围上游由坝顶forbuildingrevetmentsupstream,and护至水库最低水位以下一定stonework,rocks,gravels,andturfsare距离一般在最低水位以下usedforthosedownstreamRevetments米。下游面则由坝顶护至protectthespacefromdamcresttothe排水棱体无排水棱体时则护lineacertaindistance,normallym,至坝脚。undertheminimumwaterlevelofthedamupstreamForthosedownstream,theyprotectthespacefromdamcresttodrainingprismortodamheelineventofnoprismEnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringEnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringEnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineeringEnglishforhydraulicandhydroelectricengineering

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土石坝 水利水电专业英语论文--英文对照及翻译

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