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首页 英语重音规则

英语重音规则.doc

英语重音规则

张安仁
2017-09-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语重音规则doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

英语重音规则学习英语时我们常因单词重音位置的飘忽不定而大伤脑筋尤其是遇上双音节以上的词汇要准确无误地读准其重音确实不太容易。其实英语词汇的重音位置通常是有规律的。例如:有些双音节词汇做名词时重音往往落在首音节上而做动词时重音就落在第二音节上了。这些词汇常见的有:addictaccentabstractannex等。可见掌握好并读准单词的重音有一定的规律可循。为了便于记忆和学习现将部分规则按重音位置和字母顺序作如下归纳并从理论上进行简要分析。一、归类部分(重音落在末音节的字母组合以ee结尾读音为i:的词汇:appelleechimpanzeeconfereecontesteedecreedraweeevacueeemployeegoateegrandeeguaranteeindicteeinductee以act结尾读音为ækt的词汇多为动词:contactcontractdetractdistractexactenactintactinteractairaire或are结尾读音为的词汇:affairconcessionaireenclairmillionaireawareprepare以ade结尾读音为eid的词汇:arcadebrigadecolonnadeescaladeescapade(exception:decade)以ane结尾读音为ein的词汇:inaneinsaneprofanehumane以ceive结尾读音为si:v的动词:conceivedeceiveperceivereceive以duce结尾读音为dju:s的词汇:conducededuceinduceintroducereducereproducesubducetraduceseduce以ease结尾读音为i:s或i:z的词汇:appeasedeceasedecreasediseaseincreasepredeceasereleasesubleasesurcease以een结尾读音为i:n的名词:colleencanteenpretteenSalweenshagreenthirteenspalpeenvelevteenyestreen以eer结尾读音为的名词:cannoneercompeerdomineerengineerfronteergadgeteergazetterpamphleteerpatrioteer()以ect结尾读音为ekt的动词:affectbisectcollectdefectdirectdetectcorrectconfectconnectdisinfectejectelect()以ede结尾读音为i:d的动词:accedeantecedeconcedeimpedeintercedeprecederecederetrocedesecedesupercede()以end结尾读音为end的动词:attendamendcommendcomprehendcontenddefenddependextendintendrepresendsubtend()以el结尾读音为el的词汇:compelimpelNobelmarcelpropelrebel(v()()以ert结尾读音为:t的词汇:assertconcertconvertdesertintrovertsubvert()以ese结尾读i:s或i:z的词汇:ChineseJapaneseNapalesesudanesetelegraphesevietnamese()以clude结尾读音为klu:d的动词:concludeexcludeincludeoccludeprecludeseclude()以esce结尾读音为es的词汇:coalescedeliquesceeffloresceevanescerecrudesce()以ess结尾读音为es的动词:compressconfessdepressexpressimpressprofessredressrepresssuppresstransgress若不是动词以ess结尾的词汇之重音位置不固定:'progress'congresspro'cessun'less()以est结尾读音为est的动词:adjestcongestcontestdigestinfestprotestsuggest()以ette结尾读音为et的词汇:cassettecigarettebrunettecoquettechemisetteforssettefrisettegazettegrisette()以form结尾读音为f:m的动词:conformperformreformtransform(但uniform是名词)()以ict结尾读音为kt的动词:afflictconflictconstrictcontradictinflictpredictrestric()以ide结尾读音为ad的词汇:asideastridebesideconfidedivideprovideresidesubside()以ign结尾读音为ain的动词:assigncondigndesignconsignresign()以ire结尾读音为a的动词:conspireesquireexpiredesireinquireinspirerequirerespire()以lapse结尾读音为læps的词汇:collapseprolapserelapse()以mit结尾读音为mit的词汇:admitcommitdemitemitintermitomitpermitpretermitremitsubmittransmit(若是名词重音落在首音节如:'limit'summit'vomit)()以ort结尾读音为:t的动词:disportdistortescortexportimportreportretortsupporttransport(若是名词重音多落在首音节:escortexportimportbistortpurport等。)()以ore结尾读音为:的词汇:aforebeforedeploreexplorerestore()以pose结尾读音为pus、puz的动词:deposedecomposeexposeimposeinterposeopposeindisposepredisposeproposesuppose()以scribe结尾读音为skrab的词汇:conscribedescribeescribeprescribesubscribetranscribe()以scend结尾读音为send的词汇:ascendcondescenddescendtranscend()以oon结尾读音为u:n的词汇:afternoonballoonbuffooncartooncocoondecocoondragoonfestoongalloonoctoroonpocaroon(exception:forenoon)()以que结尾读音为k的词汇:antiqueboutiqueblottesqueburlesquearabesquecaciquecritiquegrotesqueJapanesquemystique()以r结尾现在分词和过去分词均要双写r(redring):demurincurinterinferoccurpreferrecurrefertransfer()以uct结尾读音为kt的词汇:conductconstructdeductinstructobstructproduct()以ult结尾读音为lt的词汇:consultexultinsultoccultmidcultresult()以ume结尾读音为ju:m的词汇:assumeconsumeperfumepresumesubsume()以use结尾读音为ju:s或ju:z的词汇:accuseconfuseexcuseperfuserefusesuffusetransfuse()以ure结尾读音为j的词汇:accureimpureimmureinsecureinsureinurematureobscureperdureprocuresecure(exceptions:'epicure'manicure)(重音落在倒数第二个音节的字母组合:以ial结尾读音为l、l或jl的词汇:l:confidentialdecrialexistentialimpartialinferentialinffluentialinitialprejudicialsacrificialsubstantialil:authorialbimestrialcolloquialgressorialmaterialmercurialministerialmotorialpictorialprefatorialtectorialvisitorialjl:antimonialbicentennialcolonial以ian结尾读音为n、n、jn的词汇:n:academicianarithmeticianacousticianelectricianEurasianLinguisticianmusicianPersianpoliticianpracticianin、jn:CantabrigiancollegianColombianhistorianrosariansalutatoriansubclavian以ia结尾读音为i的词汇:国名、地名:AustraliaEthiopiaIndonesiaMalaysiaMauritaniaRomania医学:abuliaachromatopsiaacidemiaacrophobiaaerophobiabilharziainsomnia其他:academiaacediacryptomeriarazziaencyclopedia以ic结尾读音为ik偶或包括以ics结尾的词汇:atomaticatmosphericautarkicautographicballisticclimaticcosmeticentericepidemic以ior结尾读音为的词汇形容词居多:inferiorjuniorposteriorpriorseniorsuperiorulterior以it结尾读音为t的词汇:cohabitdemeritdiscreditdiscomfitdecrepitdepositexplicitdispiritdisinheritinspiritinheritinhabitinhibitreposittransitvisit以scence(n()或scent(adj)结尾:acescenceacquiescencedeliquescenceconvalescenceevanescenceobsolescencereminiscencerenascencedecrescentmarcescentpubescentrecrudescentquiescentresipiscentsuffrutescent以ion或sion结尾:accusaionabolitionconfusionexplosiondecisionimpressionpersuasionexcitationsuggestioninvitation(重音落在倒数第三个音节的字母组合:以fy结尾读音为fa的动词:acidifyidentifyintensifyemulsifylapidifypersonifyqualifymodifyprettifysimplifytransmogrify以ical结尾读音为kl的词汇:academicalchemicalelectricalpoliticalperiodicalencyclicalteleologicalinimicaltheoreticaltechnological以icide结尾读音为sad的词汇:suicideaborticideacaricidefoeticidefratricideherbicideinfanticideliberticideuxoricide以itude结尾读音为tju:d的词汇:attitudedecrepitudeinfinitudelassitudelatitudeplatitude以ity结尾读音为iti的词汇:abilitycuriositycivilityfacilityfragilityopportunitypersonalitypossibilitysensitivitysimplicityspecialityutilityvanitywhimsicality以graph或phy结尾读音为græf或fi的词汇:aerographybibliographybiographycalligraphychirographygeographylexicographyphotographyplanographytelegraphytheosophyphilosophy以ology结尾读音为ldi的词汇:aerologybibliologybryologycrytologyecologyEgyptologylexicologytechnologypestologypsychologytestaceologyteleologytheologyzoology以otomy结尾读音为tmi的词汇:neurotomytenotomytracheotomytrichotomy以ular结尾读音为jul的词汇:biangularbinocularconsularinsularintercelluarocularorbicularpopularparticularsecularregulartriangular(词汇加了前缀后的重读位置重读落在第一音节的词汇加前缀后重读位置不变:'dazzlebe'dazzle'operateco'operate'forceen'force'logicalil'logical'literateil'literate'constantin'constant重读落在第二音节的词汇加前缀后原重读位置不受影响但前缀的字母组合作为一个音节可重读或次重读:pro'duce'repro'duce'graduate'post'graduate'national'inter'nationalim'pressionism'neoimp'ressionism(theonlyexception:'finite'infinie)二、简析部分从语言学的角度来分析英语的词重音(wordstress)的位置是不固定的。英语与某些别的语言不同例如:法语词汇的重音总是在词的末音节上与法语相反的是捷克语它的重音总是落在词的首音节上而波兰语却独特一些重音位置总是落在词汇的倒数第二个音节上因此这些语言的重音称为固定重音(fixedstress)而英语和俄语的重音则是自由重音(freestress)。英语本身吸收并借用了大量的外来语(loanwords)以历史语言学或词源学(etymology)的观点来剖析就不难解释为什么英语重音属于自由重音这一现象。例如:以ion和ic结尾的英语词汇重音往往落在倒数第二个音节上而ion和ic结尾的字母组合则源于拉丁语。以ee结尾的英语词汇重音总是落在末音节上若追溯它的同源词(cognate)我们可以看到ee这一后缀源于MiddleEnglish的e而e又来源于MiddleFrench的é若再追本溯源乃是来自于OldFrench的é。再考察以ette后缀结尾的词汇,ette后缀也是经历了从OldFrench到MiddleFrench再到MiddleEnglish这一相似的演变过程直至现在仍然保留了法语的重音特征与现代法语的词重音总是落在末音节这一规律完全吻合。以词源学的分析作为探索基点我们认识到英语的词重音既属于自由重音且并非无规律可循这一语言现象从而对这一现象进行总结和分析以求达到既能方便学习又能对所学语言深化理解的学习目的。

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