下载
加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 贾谊的《过秦论》英译节选

贾谊的《过秦论》英译节选.doc

贾谊的《过秦论》英译节选

厚爱我的你
2019-06-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《贾谊的《过秦论》英译节选doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

贾谊的《过秦论》、刘安的《淮南子》节选、JiaYi賈誼(BCE)wasanearlyHancriticoftheQindynastyThefollowingessayishis“FaultsofQin,”afamousandoftenquotedcritiqueoftheQinempireTranslationbyBurtonWatson,inRecordsoftheGrandHistorian:TheQinDynasty(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,),ppQinannexedthelandsoftheotherfeudalrulersandcreatedoverthirtyprovinces,puttinginorderthefordsandpasses,relyingonthesteepplacesandbarrierpoints,andstationingaimedmentoguardtheregionAndyetChenSheandhisseveralhundredgarrisonsoldiers,scatteredanddisorderedastheywere,lifteduptheirarmsandgavealoudcry…QinorderedZhangHantoleadhistroopseastandrestoreorderButZhangHanusedthethreearmiesunderhiscommandtosecurelandholdingsabroadandplotagainsthisownsovereignFromthisonecanseehowuntrustworthytheQinofficialswere…Onewhosuccorstheweakandaidstheweary,astherulerofagreatkingdomiscommandedtodo,needneverworrythathewillnotgainhiswaywiththelandswithintheseasButwhenoneishonouredwiththepositionofSonofHeaven,possessesalltherichesoftheempire,andyetendsupasacaptive,itmustbebecausehehasfailedtoremedyhiserrorsTheFirstEmperortrustedhisownjudgment,neverconsultingothers,andhencehiserrorswentuncorrectedTheSecondEmperorcarriedoninthesamemanner,neverreforming,compoundinghismisfortunethroughviolenceandcrueltyZiyingstoodaloneandfriendless,weakandimperiled,withnoonetoaidhimAllthreerulersweredeluded,andtotheendfailedtoawaken–isitnotfittingthattheyperishedAtthattimetheworldwasnotwithoutmenofdeepinsightandanunderstandingofchangeThereasontheydidnotdareexerttheirloyaltyandcorrecttheerrorsoftherulerwasthatQin’scustomsforbadethementioningofinauspiciousmattersBeforetheirwordsofloyaladvicewereevenoutoftheirmouths,theywouldhavebeencondemnedtoexecutionThisinsuredthatthemenoftheempirewouldinclinetheirearstolisten,standinanattitudeofsolemnattention,butclamptheirmouthsshutandneverspeakoutThereforewhenthethreerulersstrayedfromtheWay,theloyalministersdidnotdareremonstrate,andthemenofwisdomdidnotdareoffercounselTheempirewasalreadyinrebellion,buttherulerwasneverinformedofthevillainy–howpitiful!ThekingsofformertimesknewtheharmbroughttothenationbysuppressionandconcealmentThereforetheyappointedhighministersandpalaceofficialstoputthelawsinorderandestablishpenalties,andtheempirewaswellgovernedWhiletheythemselveswerestillpowerful,theywereabletooutlawviolenceandpunishtheunruly,andtheempiresubmittedtothemAndlater,whentheybecameweak,theFiveHegemonscarriedoutpunitiveexpeditionsandforcedtheotherfeudalrulerstocomplyHence,thoughtheywerestrippedofterritory,theycouldguardtheirinnerrealm,thesurroundingstatessupportedthem,andtheywereabletopreservetheiraltarsofthesoilandgrainInthecaseoftheQin,however,whileitwasinaflourishingstates,itsmanifoldlawsandsternpunishmentscausedtheempiretotrembleButwhenitspowerdeclined,thenthepeopleeyeditwithhatredandthewholeareawithintheseasroseupinrevoltHence,becausetheZhoudynastysetupthefivenobleranksandruledaccordingtotheWay,itwasabletoendureforoveryearswithoutbreakButtheQinwasinerrorfromthefirsttolast,andthereforeitdidnotcontinueforlongFromthiswecanseethatthecourseofactionleadingtosafety,andthatleadingtoperil,arefarapartindeedThehomelyproverbsays,“Formeraffairs,notforgot,teachthosewhocomeafter”Thatiswhy,whenthegentlemanisgivenachargeofastate,heobserveshowthingsweredoneinancienttimes,teststhemintermsofthepresentday,seeshowtheytallywithhumanconcerns,examinesintothecauseofflourishinganddecay,perceiveswhatisfittinginthecircumstances,initiatesactionsintheproperorder,andchangeswiththetimesAsaresult,hisdaysasrulerarelongandmany,andhisaltarsofthesoilandgrainrestsecureDukeXiaoofQin,relyinguponthestrengthofMtYaoandtheHanguPassandbasinghimselfintheareaofYongzhou,withhisministersheldfasttohislandandeyedthehouseofZhou,forhecherishedadesiretorolluptheempirelikeamat,tobindintoonethewholeworld,tobagallthelandwithinthefourseashehaditinhishearttoswallowupeverythingintheeightdirectionsAtthistimehewasaidedbyLordShang,whoathomesetuplawsforhim,encouragedagricultureandweaving,andbuiltuptheinstrumentsofwar,andabroadcontractedmilitaryalliancesandattackedtheotherfeudallordsThusthemenofQinwereablewitheasetoacquireterritoryeastoftheupperreachesoftheYellowRiver…AfterthiscametheFirstEmperorwho,carryingonthegloriousspiritofhissixpredecessors,crackedhislongwhipanddrovetheuniversebeforehim,swalloweduptheeasternandwesternZhou,andoverthrewthefeudallordsHeascendedthethroneofhonourandruledthesixdirections,scourgingtheworldwithhislash,andhismightshookthefourseasInthesouthheseizedthelandofthehundredtribesofYueandmadeofitGuilinandXiangprovinces,andthelordsofthehundredYuebowedtheirheads,hunghaltersfromtheirnecks,andpleadedfortheirliveswiththelowestofficialsofQinThenhesentMengTiannorthtobuildtheGreatWallanddefendtheborders,drivingbacktheXiongnuoverli,sothatthebarbariansnolongerventuredtocomesouthtopasturetheirhorsesandtheirmendarednottakeuptheirbowstoventtheirhatredThereuponhediscardedthewaysoftheformerkingsand,burnedthebooksofthehundredschoolsofphilosophyinordertomaketheblackheadedpeopleignorantHedestroyedthewallsofthegreatcities,puttodeaththepowerfulleaders,andcollectedallthearmsoftheempire,whichhehadbroughttohiscapitalatXianyang,wherethespearsandarrowheadsweremelteddownandcasttomaketwelvehumanstatuesAllthishedidinordertoweakentheblackheadedpeopleAfterthisheascendedandfortifiedMtHua,setupfordsalongtheYellowRiver,andstrengthenedtheheightsandprecipicesoverlookingthefathomlessvalleys,inordertosecurehispositionHegarrisonedthestrategicpointswithskilledgeneralsandstrongcrossbowmenandstationedtrustedministersandwelltrainedsoldierstoguardthelandwitharmsandquestionallwhopassedbackandforthWhenhehadthuspacifiedtheempire,theFirstEmperorbelievedinhisheartthat,withthestrengthofhiscapitalwithinthepassesandhiswallsofmetalextending,miles,hehadestablishedarulethatwouldbeenjoyedbyhissonsandgrandsonsfor,generationsForawhileafterthedeathoftheFirstEmperorthememoryofhismightcontinuedtoawethecommonpeopleYetChenShe,borninahumblehutwithtinywindowsandawattledoor,adaylabourerinthefieldsandagarrisonconscript,whoseabilitiescouldnotmatcheventheaverage,whohadneithertheworthofConfuciusandMoDinorthewealthofTaoZhuorYiDun,steppedfromtheranksofthecommonsoldiers,roseupfromthepathsofthefields,andledabandofsomehundredpoor,wearysoldiersinrevoltagainstQinTheycutdowntreestomaketheirweaponsandraisedtheirflagsongardenpoles,andthewholeworldgatheredlikeacloud,answeredlikeanechotoasound,broughtthemprovisions,andfollowedafterthemasshadowsfollowaformIntheendtheleaderseastofthemountainsroseuptogetheranddestroyedthehouseofQinTheempireofQinatthistimewasbynomeanssmallorfeebleItsbaseinYongzhou,itsstrongholdwithinMtYaoandthePass,werethesameasbeforeThepositionofChenShecouldnotcompareindignitywiththelordsofQi,Chu,Yan,Zhao,Wei,Song,Wey,andZhongshanTheweaponswhichheimprovisedfromhoehandlesandtreebranchescouldnotmatchthesharpnessofspearsandbattlepikeshislittlebandofgarrisonconscriptswasnothingbesidethearmiesoftheNineStatesIndeepplottingandfarreachingstratagems,inmethodsofwarfare,hewasfarinferiortothemenofearliertimesAndyetChenShesucceededinhisundertakingwheretheyhadfailed,thoughinability,size,power,andstrengthhisforcescouldinnowaycomparetothoseofthestateseastofthemountainsthathadformerlyopposedQinQin,beginningwithaninsignificantamountofterritory,reachedthepowerofagreatkingdomandforyearsmadetheancienteightprovincespayhomageatitscourtYet,afterithadbecomemasterofthesixdirectionsandestablisheditspalaceswithinthepasses,asinglecommoneropposeditanditssevenancestraltemplestoppled,itsrulerdiedbythehandsofmen,anditbecamethelaughingstockoftheworldWhyBecauseitfailedtorulewithhumanityandrighteousness,anddidnotrealizethatthepowertoattack,andthepowertoretainwhatonehastherebywon,arenotthesameTheQinruler,havingannexedthelandsofalltheotherfeudallords,facedsouthandcalledhimselfanemperor,proprietorofallwithinthefourseas,andthegentlemenoftheempiredocilelybowedbeforethewindofhisinfluenceWhywasthisIwouldreplythattheworldinrecenttimeshadforalongtimebeenwithoutatruekingTheroyalhouseofZhouhadsunkintoinsignificance,theFiveHegemonshadpassedfromthescene,andtherewasnoonewhosecommandswereobeyedthroughouttheempireHencethefeudalrulersingoverningreliedonstrengthalone,thepowerfulimpingingontheweak,themanylordingitoverthefewWeaponswereneversetasideandthepeoplegrewexhaustedandimpoverishedThenQinfacedsouthtocallitselfruleroftheempire,whichmeantthattheworldnowhadaSonofHeaventoheaditThemasseshopedthattheywouldbegrantedthepeaceandsecuritytoliveouttheirlives,andtherewasnotoneofthemwhodidnotsetasideselfishthoughtsandlookuptothesovereigninreverenceThiswasthemomentfordemonstratingauthorityandprovingone'smeritasaruler,layingthefoundationforlastingpeaceintheempireButtheFirstEmperorwasgreedyandshortsighted,confidentinhisownwisdom,nevertrustinghismeritoriousofficials,nevergettingtoknowhispeopleHecastasidethekinglyWayandreliedonprivateprocedures,outlawingbooksandwritings,makingthelawsandpenaltiesmuchharsher,puttingdeceitandforceforemostandhumanityandrighteousnesslastleadingthewholeworldinviolenceandcrueltyInannexingthelandsofothers,onemayplacepriorityondeceitandforce,butinsuringpeaceandstabilityinthelandsonehasannexedcallsforarespectforauthorityHenceIsaythatseizing,andguardingwhatyouhaveseized,donotdependuponthesametechniquesQinputanendtotheWarringStatesperiodandmadeitselfruleroftheempire,butitdidnotchangeitswaysorreformitssystemofgovernment,whichshowsthatthemeansemployedtoseizeanempiredifferfromthoseneededtoguarditQintriedtoguarditaloneandsinglehanded,andthereforeitsdownfallwasmerelyamatteroftimeIftheFirstEmperorhadreflecteduponthepracticesofantiquityandnotedtheaccountsoftheYinandZhoudynastiesinformulatingtheinstitutionsforhisgovernment,thenalthoughwilfulanddissoluterulersmightappearinlatertimes,therewouldhavebeennodangerthattherulinghousewouldbeimperiledoroverthrownThefoundersoftheThreeDynasties,whentheyruledtheempire,wererenownedfortheirgoodnames,andtheregimestheyinitiatedenduredforalongtime…IIISelectionsfromChapteroftheHuainanzi淮南子,compiledbyLiuAn劉安TheHuainanzi淮南子isaworkcompiledbyLiuAn劉安(BCE),thePrinceofHuainanHuainanwasoneofthelargestandmostpowerfulenfeoffedareasintheHanempireLiuAnhimselfwasthegrandsonofthefounderoftheHandynastyandtheuncleofEmperorWuSoonafterEmperorWuaccededtothethrone,LiuAntraveledtotheimperialcourttopresentthenewemperorwiththeHuainanzi,aworkintendedtoguidetheyoungrulerinhowtogovernThetextinpartcallsupontherulernottofollowtheextremeformsofcentralizationandmilitarizationoftheQinIntheend,LiuAn’srecommendationswerenotfollowedEmperorWunotonlylaunchedseveralwarsofexpansionbutalsodramaticallyincreasedthecentralpowerofthestateandradicallyreducedthepoweroftheenfeoffedprincesThesinglemostimportantactofthislatterpolicyoccurredwhenEmperorWudestroyedthekingdomofHuainanitselfLiuAnwasaccusedoftreason,and,inBCE,tookhisownlifeThekingdomofHuainanwasoccupiedbyimperialtroops,andthereafterincorporatedasanimperialcommandery(ExcerptsarefromchapteroftheHuainanziTranslationsbyMichaelPuett)InthetimeofQin,theybuilttogreatheighttowersandpavilions,madeextensivegardensandenclosures,builtfarreachingimperialroads,andcastbronzefiguresTheysentouttroops,theybroughtingrassesandgrainsTaxes,levies,anddutiesweretransportedtothetreasuriesYoungmenandstrongmenweresentwesttoLinchaoandDidao,easttoHuijiandFushi,southtoYuzhangandGuilin,northtoFeihuandYangyuanOntheroads,thedeadfilledtheditchesAtthistime,thosewholoyallyremonstratedwerecalledinauspicious,andthosewhotookhumanenessandproprietyastheirwaywerecalledmadWhenwecomedowntothetimeofEmperorGaothefounderoftheHan,hepreservedwhathadbeenextinguished,hecontinuedwhathadbeencutoffHeraisedthegreatproprietyofallunderHeaven,hepersonallyworkedandgraspedaswordsoastobeseechaugustHeavenonbehalfofhispeopleAtthistime,thoseunderHeavenwhowerecourageous,brave,valiant,andtalentedenduredsunandraininthefieldsandmarshesthevanguardwereexposedtoarrowsandstones,therearguardfellintoravinesandditchesForeveryhundredsentout,onewouldsurviveinthestruggleforthebalanceofallunderHeavenWithadeterminedmartiality,witharigoroussincerity,theytherebycutshorttheirallottedlifeforasingledayAtthistime,thosewhoworesumptuousclothingandwidesashes,andwhotookConfucianismandMohismastheirway,weretakenasunworthyThiscontinueduntilthetyrannyanddisorderwasendedandovercomeWhen,throughouttheland,thingsweregreatlysettled,hecontinuedtheundertakingsofcivility(wen)andestablishedthemeritsofmartiality(wu)HecarriedouttheregistryofallunderHeaven,hecreatedacapforthehouseofLiuHeunifiedtheConfuciansandMohistsofZouandLu,andpenetratedthetransmittedteachingsoftheformersagesHedisplayedthebannersoftheSonofHeaven,traveledthegreatroads,establishedtheninepennants,rangthegreatbell,struckthedrum,playedthe“Xianche”music,raisedtheshieldandbattleaxeAtthistime,thosewho继续阅读

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/10

贾谊的《过秦论》英译节选

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利