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首页 06无非热工过程实验指导书

06无非热工过程实验指导书.doc

06无非热工过程实验指导书

Lambert隆军
2017-10-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《06无非热工过程实验指导书doc》,可适用于综合领域

无非热工过程实验指导书实验报告书姓名:余辉华班级:无非()班学号:practicesThedevelopmentofvariousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresoluteworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompleteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theability目录实验要求实验一球体法粒状材料的导热系数的测定实验二套管换热器液液换热实验实验三燃料发热量的测定(综合)附录铜,康铜热电偶分度表附录精密数字温度温差仪使用方法leteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar实验要求(实验前应预习与实验有关的教材内容和实验指导书了解实验目的、实验原理和实验要求做到心中有数。(在实验室要首先熟悉实验装置的构造特点、性能和使用方法使用贵重仪器时需得到指导教师的许可方可动用。(实验时应严肃认真、一丝不苟细致地观察实验中的各种现象并作好记录通过实验训练基本操作技能和培养科学的工作作风。(实验结束时学生先自行检查全部实验记录再经指导教师审阅后方可结束实验。(学生实验时如出现实验仪器损坏情况应及时向指导教师报告。(按规定格式认真填写实验报告并按期交出。teworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariou实验一球体法粒状材料的导热系数的测定一、实验目的巩固稳定导热的基本理论学习球体法测定物质的导热系数的实验方法实验测定被测材料的导热系数λ绘制出材料导热系数λ与温度t的关系曲线。二、实验原理加热圆球(见图)由两个壁厚毫米的大小同心圆球()组成。小球内装有电加热器()用来产生热量。大球内壁与小球外壁各设有三对铜康铜热电偶()。当温度达到稳定状态后电加热器产生的热量全部通过中间的测试材料()传到外球再由外球传给空气。大小同心球电加热器颗粒状试材铜康铜热电偶专用稳压电源专用测试仪底盘UJa电位差计图加热圆球示意图测取小球的温度ttt,取其平均温度:T=(ttt)测取大球的温度tt,t取其平均温度:T=(ttt)leteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar根据圆球导热公式:λ=UI(DD)π(TT)()式中:U加热电压I加热电流D小球直径D大球直径三、实验装置及主要技术指标实验装置YQF型导热系数测定仪的面板图见图专用电源的面板图见图图YQF型导热系数测定仪的面板图图专用电源的面板图(电源开关(电源指示灯(位数(电源开关(电源指示灯(电压表显毫伏表(毫伏表调零电位器(补偿电(电流表(过载指示灯(电源输出端压调节电位器(补偿按键(热电偶测量(电源输出粗调(电源输出细调。电压输出端(热电偶输入选择开关。(加热圆球测量材料:颗粒状材料例如黄沙珍珠岩等测量温度范围:,加热电压:,V加热电流:,A(因不同的材料而不同)圆球尺寸:小球直径D=mm大球直径D=mm稳定时间:约,小时teworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariou导热系数测定仪数显毫伏表:位显示量程,mV测量精度:个字温度补偿范围:,补偿精度专用电源输出电压:,V输出电流:,A连续工作时间:>小时四、实验方法和步骤使用前先在加热圆球的顶部用漏斗装入测试材料如果已加好试材则可进行实验。按图所示进行仪器的连接。稳压电源的输出通过电流表专用插头接到加热圆球底盘上的插座。电源输出“”端串接电流表。电流表“”与电源输出“”端并接电压表。)专用插座另一端插到导热系将芯信号线的一端插入加热圆球底座(数测定仪后面板上的芯插座上。将稳压电源的输出调到最小位置即粗调和细调均逆时针打到底。开启电源开关指示灯亮。调节粗调和细调开关改变输出电压根据电压表和电流表的指示调节加热功率至所需的电流和电压值。打开导热系数测定仪的电源开关。先进行数显毫伏表的调零。将面板右下方的输出端短接用小一字螺丝刀调节右上角的调零电位器使毫伏表显示为零。若已为零则无须调节。去掉短接线就可进行测量。若想检测仪器内部的温度补偿是否正常只须按下“补偿”键则数显毫负表显示的值即位补偿电压。对照环境温度通过查看附录即可知道补偿电压是否准确。若不准确可用小一字螺丝刀微调“补偿”按键上方的补偿电位器至准确的补偿值即可。再按“补偿”按键使它弹起即回到测量状态。观察加热圆球的温度变化情况。当数显毫伏表或电位差计(UJa型)的读leteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar数不再变化则表示温度已达到稳定。这时用精密电压表和电流表测得U和I的值即可计算得到加热功率。转动导热系数测定仪上的输入选择旋钮()。这样就能选择个热电偶进行分别测量。(输入选择旋钮测得的mA值加上补偿mA值即为热电偶测量值对照附录“铜康铜热电偶分度表”即可查得对应的测量温度。五、实验数据记录和处理、实验完后记录实验数据记录并整理填写下表:小球温度大球温度加热加热导热系数tttttt序号电流电压WmTTAVmVmVmVmVmVmV导热系数λ根据式()计算、绘制材料导热系数λ与温度t的关系曲线。teworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariou六、思考题、为什么大球内壁与小球外壁要设三对热电偶,、实验室内的空气流通对实验有何影响,leteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar实验二套管换热器液液换热实验一、实验目的(通过实验测定在套管换热器中进行的液液热交换的传热总系数流体在圆管内作强制湍流时的传热系数。(对在强制对流下进行液液热交换过程验证求算传热膜系数的关联式。通过实验取得新物系的传热系数的数据及其计算式。(通过本实验了解传热过程的实验方法在实验技能上受到一定的训练并加深对传热过程基本原理的理解。二、实验设备本实验装置主要由套管热交换器(Ф×mm的黄铜管为内管Ф×mm的有机玻璃管为套管所构成)、恒温循环水槽(控制恒温)、高位稳压水槽(保持水压恒定)以及一系列测量和控制仪表所组成装置流程如图所示。热流体冷流体温度器两端测试点的图套管热交换三、实验的方法与步骤、向恒温循环水槽灌入蒸馏水或软水直至溢流管有水溢出为止。teworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariou、开启并调节通往高位稳压水槽的自来水阀门使槽内充满水并溢流管有水流出。、将冰碎成细粒放入冷阱中并掺入少许蒸馏水使之浊状。将热电偶冷接点插入冰水中盖严盖子、循环水槽的温度自控装置的温度定为。启动恒温水槽的电热器。等恒温水槽的水达到预定温度后即可开始实验。、开启冷水截止球阀测定冷水流量实验过程中保持恒定。、启动循环水泵开启并调节热水调节阀。热水流量在,Lh范围内选取若干流量值(一般要求不少于,组测试数据)进行实验测定。、每调节一次热水流量待流量和温度都恒定后再通过琴键开关依次测定个点温度。四、实验结果整理、记录实验设备基本参数。实验设备型式和装置方式:水平装置套管式热交换器内管基本参数:材料:黄铜测试段长度L=外径d=壁厚δ=套管基本参数:材料:有机玻璃外径d`=壁厚δ=mm流体流通的横截面积:内管横截面积:S=mm环隙横截面积:S`=mm热交换面积:内管内壁表面积:Aw=mm内管外壁表面积:Aw`=mm平均热交换面积A=mmleteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar(实验数据记录:温度冷水热水实验流量流量测试截面I测试截面,序号VVTTtTTtWWKgsKgsCCCCCC实验数据整理:()求取总传热系数K管内传热总传热系流体间温度差数流速速率实验序号uTTTQKmmsKKKWWmK平均()由圆管内壁的对流换热表面传热系数h管内传热管内表面流体与壁面温差流速速率传热系数实验序号UTTTTT'mQhWMSKKKWmkWmk平均teworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariou实验三燃料发热量的测定(综合)一实验目的单位燃料完全燃烧后所放出的热量称为热值它是衡量燃料质量优劣的重要指标之一。燃料热值可用氧弹量热计直接测定。(了解氧弹量热计的构造和使用掌握固体燃料热值测定原理和方法。(测定量热计的热容量K值。(测定燃料的热值。二实验原理将已知量的燃料置于密封容器(氧弹)中通入氧气点火使之完全燃烧燃料所放出的热量传给周围的水根据水温升高度数计算出燃料热值。测定时除燃料外点火丝燃烧HSO和HNO的生成和溶解也放出热量量热计本身(包括氧弹温度计搅拌器和外壳等)也吸收热量此外量热计还向周围散失部分热量这些计算时都应考虑加以修正。量热计系统在实验在条件下温度升高所需要的热量称为量热计的热容量。测定之前先使已知发热量的苯甲酸(量热计标准物质、热值为卡克)在氧弹内燃烧标定量热计的热容量K。设标定时总热效应为Q测得温度升高为Δt测得热容量为K=QΔt量热计的热容量如果已由实验室测定同学可不必再测。测定时再将已知量的被测燃料置于氧弹中燃烧如测得温度高为Δt则燃x烧总效应为:Q=K×Δtxx再经进一步修正计算出燃料的热值(具体计算方法见后面计算部分)。leteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar三实验装置量热计的构造(见图),氧弹的构造(见图)。进出气孔负电正极电极电阻坩丝锅图氧弹的构造图图量热计的构造图(搅动棒(外筒(内筒(垫脚(氧弹(传感器(点火按键(电源开关(搅拌开关(点火输出负极(点火输出正极(搅拌指示灯(电源指示灯(点火指示灯。四实验方法和步骤(煤样准备为保证完全燃烧测定热值的煤样,应粉碎至粒度小于毫米,每次测定称煤样,克准备至克点火丝点火丝有镍丝和铁丝,量出点火丝长度,计算点火丝重量(单位长度,点火丝重量实验室已测好)量热计用水量热计外筒中需注满与室温相差不超过的水(一般已注好)量热计内筒用蒸馏水,为减少散热误差,内筒水温应比外筒水温低内筒注入的水量,以保证水面没至氧弹进气阀的高度为宜,约克,需精确至克teworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariou装样料把氧弹的弹头放在弹头架上,将样品放入坩埚内,把坩埚放在燃烧架上测量燃烧丝长度,然后将燃烧丝两端分别固定在弹头中的两根电极上,中部贴紧样品(燃烧丝与坩埚壁不能相碰)在弹筒中注入毫升的水,把弹头放入杯中(样品为苯甲酸则不用注水),用手拧紧。充氧使用高压氧气瓶充氧必须严格遵守操作规程开始先充入少量氧气(约MPa),然后开启出口,借以赶出弹中空气再充入约,MPa的氧气装置安装将氧弹小心放入量热计内筒接好点火电线盖上量热计盖,插入测温传感器探头调好精密数字温度温差仪打开搅拌开关和电源开关实验开始读数,实验读数实验读数分为三期:初期,主期和末期,三个期互相衔接初期:由读数开始至点火为初期,用以记录和观察周围环境与量热计在实验开始温度下热交换的关系,以求得散热校正值初期内半分钟记录温度一次,直至得到个第个读数作为燃烧前水的温度读数为止th主期:从第个读数开始,在此阶段燃烧试样所放出的热量传给水和量热计,并使量热计设备的各部分温度达到平衡读取初期的第个读数之后,立即接通点火开关,点火指示灯亮,随之在,秒内熄灭表示点火完毕,继续观察温度计读数,在主期内仍半分钟读取一次读数,并逐一记录下来点火后最初几次温度读数,因上升很快不易读准,可只读到,但不少漏读,待温度上升减缓以后,而恢复读到,一般在第一个半分钟内温度变化不大,然后就开始迅速上升,达到最高值后,就开始降温,开始下降的第一个温度读数为止为主期,第一个下降的温度读数作为水的最终温度t。KleteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar温度在迅速升高后,也可能不再降低而继续上升,但上升愈来愈慢,这发生在室温较量热计温度为高的情况下这种情况下,仍需每半分钟读一次温度读数,当这一温度变化每分钟不超过时,即认为主期结束,主持最后一个温度读数为水的最终温度tK末期:这一阶段的目的与初期相同,是为了观察实验终了温度下热交换的关系主期的最后一个温度读数t作为末期的第一个读数,此后仍每半分钟读取一次温度读数,K至第次读数,末期结束,读数也结束(装置拆卸实验完毕,关闭搅拌开关和电源开关拔出测温传感器探头打开量热计盖,取出氧弹擦干。小心打开氧弹排气阀(切不可先拧开氧弹盖),放出废气,响声停止后再拧开盖,检查弹内及弹盖如有薄层烟渣或未燃尽的细粒,则实验失败,必须重做将内筒的水倒掉擦干量热计所有设备将弹头置于弹头架上。五(实验数据记录和计算、原始数据记录:)试样重量G)点火丝燃烧的净重量b)温度读数:初期、主期、末期、计算量热计的热容量K值:K=(QGɡ×b)(ttΔt)b×Kh式中:Q苯甲酸(量热计标准物质)的热值为KJKgb、计算燃料燃烧的氧弹热值:Q=K(ttΔt)ɡ×bGKJKgxKh式中:Q分析基试样的氧弹热值KJKgxΔt热交换校正值Δt=(VV)×(m)V×rteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariouV初期内每半分钟间隔内温度变化的平均值即第个读数减去第个读数被除。V末期内每半分钟间隔内温度变化的平均值即末期第一个读数被减去第个读数除。m主期快速升温后每隔半分钟大于的半分钟温度间隔数r主期温度变化小于的半分钟温度间隔数。k量热计的热容量KJ。ɡ点火丝燃烧热KJKgb点火丝实际燃烧掉的净重量KgG试样重量Kg煤的高位发热值按下式计算:Q=Q(×Sa×Q)gxx式中:Q分析基样品高位热值KJKggQ分析基样品氧弹热值KJKgxS由洗弹液测得的燃料含硫量a硝酸生成热校正系数贫煤、无烟煤取,其他煤取。、实验结果分析讨论leteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar六、思考题、实验完毕装置拆卸氧弹必须排先放出废气后拧开氧弹盖,为什么,、温度读数应精确到多少,点火后最初几次温度读数可只读到多少为什么,、实验读数分几期主期结束的标志是什么,teworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariou附录铜,康铜热电偶分度表温度温度。。热电动势(mV)CCDEGDEGCCleteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar附录精密数字温度温差仪使用方法一(面板示意图:。。温差()温度()定时SWCIICCD测量保持精密数字温度温差仪镇定镇定镇定测量保持通断(电源开关。(温度显示窗口显示温度值。(温度显示窗口显示所测的温度值。(定时窗口显示设定的读数时间间隔。测量指示灯灯亮表示系统处于测量工作状态。保持指示灯灯亮表示系统处于读数保持状态。锁定指示灯灯亮表明系统处于基温锁定状态。锁定键按下此键基温自动选择和采零键都不起作用直至重新开机。测量、保持功能转换键此键为开关式按键在测量功能和保持之间转换。(采零键用以消除仪表当时的温度值使温差显示窗口显示“”。、(数字调节键键和键分别调节数字的大小。二(操作步骤:(将传感器探头插入后盖板上的传感器接口(槽口对准)。teworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityrkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompletewoexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandresolusundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardandpracticesThedevelopmentofvariou为了安全起见请在接通电源前进行上述操作~(将,V电源接入后盖板上的电源插座。(将传感器插入被测物中(插入深度应大于mm)。(按下电源开关此时显示屏显示仪表初始状态(实时温度)。(当温度显示值稳定后按一下采零键温度显示窗口显示“”。稍后的变化值为采零后温差的相对变化量。(在一个实验过程中仪器采零后当介质温度变化过大时仪表会自动更换适当的基温。这样温差的显示值将不能正确反映温度的变化量故在实验时按下采零键后应再按一下锁定键。这样仪器将不会改变基温采零键也不起作用直至重新开机。(需要记录读数时可按一下测量保持键使仪器处于保持状态(此时“保持”指示灯亮)。读数完毕再按一下测量保持键即可转换到“测量”状态进行跟踪测量。(定时读数()按下或键设定所需的报时间隔(应大于秒钟定时读数才会起作用)。()设定完后定时显示将进行倒计时当一个计数周期完毕时蜂鸣器鸣叫且读数保持约秒钟“保持”指示灯亮此时可观察和记录数据。()若不想报警只需将定时读数置于即可。leteworkassignedbythesuperiorpartyThird,focusonimprovingservice,theabilityworkingstyle,goodatpolicyadvocacy,andtoperformgooddecisionsofpartycommitteesandGovernments,determinedtocompsoluteandexemplaryroleofpartymembersisunworthypartymembersBothstaffmembersandnostaffmembers,bothvigorousandreiousundertakings,requireseachpartytopayandhardworkNofreeridethingundertheSun,ifyoucannotplayavanguardpracticesThedevelopmentofvar

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