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首页 自考00830现代语言学串讲

自考00830现代语言学串讲.doc

自考00830现代语言学串讲

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2017-12-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《自考00830现代语言学串讲doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

自考现代语言学串讲SentencemeaningvsutterancemeaningThedevelopmentofthegrammaticalsystemfromanyanimalsystemofcommunicationSpeechacttheoryThedevelopmentofphonology笔记依据目录Explainthefollowingdefinitionoflinguistics:PrincipleofconversationThedevelopmentofsyntaxChapterIntroductionLinguisticsisthescientificstudyoflanguageStudyquestionsThedevelopmentofmorphologyWhatislinguisticsLinguisticsinvestigatesnotanyparticularlanguage,ThedevelopmentofvocabularyandsemanticsChapterHistoricalLinguisticsDefinitionThepurposeandsignificanceofthehistoricalSecondlanguageacquisitionbutlanguagesingeneralThescopeoflinguisticsstudyoflanguageAcquisitionvslearningSomeimportantdistinctionsinlinguisticsLinguisticstudyisscientificbecauseitisbasedonThenatureoflanguagechangeTransferandinterferencePrescriptivevsdescriptivethesystematicinvestigationofauthentic(可靠的真ThehistoricaldevelopmentofEnglishErrorAnalysisandthenaturalrouteofSLASynchronicvsdiachronic实的)languagedataNoseriouslinguisticMajorperiodsinthehistoryofEnglishdevelopmentSpdegenerationofOthertypesofmovementsituationlanguagefacultywithageDstructureandSstructure性)ordiachronic(历时性)Why)Language:LanguageisasystemofarbitraryLanguageandthoughtMoveαageneralmovementrule(ThedescriptionoflanguageatsomepointintimevocalsymbolsusedforhumancommunicationEarlyviewsonlanguageandthoughtTowardatheoryofuniversalgrammarisasynchronicstudythedescriptionofalanguageTheSapirWhorfhypothesisGeneralprinciplesofUniversalGrammar)Arbitrariness:ItisoneofthedesignfeaturesofArgumentsagainsttheSapirWhorfhypothesisasitchangesthroughtimeisadiachronicstudy)TheparametersofUniversalGrammarlanguageItmeansthatthereisnologicalWordsandmeaningStudyquestionsModernlinguisticsismainlysynchronic,focusingconnectionbetweenmeaningsandsoundsAgoodGrammaticalstructureChapterSemanticsonthepresentdaylanguageUnlessthevariousexampleisthefactthatdifferentsoundsareusedtoTranslationWhatissemanticsstatesofalanguagearesuccessfullystudied,itwillSecondlanguageacquisitionSomeviewsconcerningthestudyofmeaningrefertothesameobjectindifferentlanguagesLanguageandworldviewsnotbepossibletodescribelanguagefromaThenamingtheory)Productivity:LanguageisproductiveorUnderstandingtherelationoflanguageandTheconceptualistviewdiachronicpointofviewcreativeinthatitmakespossibletheconstructionthoughtContextualismWhichenjoyspriorityinmodernlinguistics,andinterpretationofnewsignalsbyitsusersMajorfunctionsoflanguageBehaviorismspeechorwritingWhyThedevelopmentandblendingoflanguageLexicalmeaning)Duality:Languageisasystem,whichconsistsThinkingwithoutlanguageModernlinguisticsgivesprioritytothespokenSenseandreferenceoftwosetsofstructure,ortwolevels,oneofsoundsLanguageasaconventionalcodingsystemtoMajorsenserelationslanguageforthefollowingreasons:atthelowerorbasiclevel,andtheotherofexpressthoughtSynonymyFirst,speechprecedeswritingThewritingsystemismeaningsatthehigherlevelThewaysinwhichlanguageaffectsthoughtPolysemyalwaysalaterinventionusedtorecordthespeechStudyquestionsHomonymy)Displacement:languagecanbeusedtorefertoChapterLanguageAcquisitionTherearestillsomelanguagesthatonlyhavetheHyponymythingswhicharepresentornotpresent,realorFirstlanguageacquisitionAntonymyspokenformimaginedmattersinthepast,present,orfuture,orinThebiologicalbasisoflanguageacquisitionSenserelationsbetweensentencesThen,alargeramountofcommunicationiscarriedfarawayplacesInotherwords,languagecanbeLanguageacquisitionastheacquisitionofAnalysisofmeaningoutinspeechthaninwritinggrammaticalrulesComponentialanalysisawaytoanalyzeusedtorefertocontextsremovedfromtheTheroleofinputandinteractionThird,speechistheforminwhichinfantsacquirelexicalmeaningimmediatesituationsofthespeakerTheroleofinstructionPredicationanalysisawaytoanalyzesentencetheirnativelanguage)Culturaltransmission:WhilewearebornTheroleofcorrectionandreinforcementmeaningSaussure是如何区分语言langue和言语parolewiththeabilitytoacquirelanguage,thedetailsofTheroleofimitationStudyquestionsStagesoffirstlanguageacquisition的,ChapterPragmaticsanylanguagearenotgeneticallytransmitted,butTheprelinguisticstageWhatispragmatics(ThedistinctionbetweenlangueandparolewasinsteadhavetobetaughtandlearnedTheonewordstageDefinitionmadebythefamousSwisslinguistFerdinandde)Designfeatures:ItreferstothedefiningThetwowordstagePragmaticsvssemanticsSaussureearlythiscenturyLangueandparolearepropertiesofhumanlanguagethatdistinguishitThemultiwordstageContextFrenchwords)Atthelowerorthebasiclevel,thereisthestructure)allophone:Thedifferentphoneswhichcan么区别,Languereferstotheabstractlinguisticsystemofindividualandmeaninglesssounds,whichcanberepresentaphonemeindifferentphoneticThebroadtranscriptionisthetranscriptionofsharedbyallthemembersofaspeechcommunity,groupedintomeaningfulunitsatthehigherlevelenvironmentsarecalledtheallophonesofthatsoundsbyusingonelettertorepresentonesoundandparolereferstotherealizationoflangueinThisdualityofstructureordoublearticulationofphonemeForexamplelandlThenarrowtranscriptionisthetranscriptionwithactualuseLangueisthesetofconventionsandlanguageenablesitsuserstotalkaboutanything)phonemiccontrast:Phonemiccontrastreferstodiacritics(变音符号)toshowdetailedarticulatoryruleswhichlanguageusersallhavetofollowwhilewithintheirknowledgetherelationbetweentwophonemesIftwofeaturesofsoundsparoleistheconcreteuseoftheconventionsandthephonemescanoccurinthesameenvironmentandDisplacement(移位性):(课本答案:noanimalInbroadtranscription,thesymbollinusedfortheapplicationoftherulesLangueisabstractitisnotdistinguishmeaning,theyareinphonemiccontrastcan“talk”aboutthingsremovedfromthesoundlinwordslikeleafli:f,feelfi:l,buildthelanguagepeopleactuallyuse,butparoleis)Complementarydistribution:referstothebild,andhealthhelθThesoundlinalltheseimmediatesituation)LanguagecanbeusedtoreferconcreteitreferstothenaturallyoccurringrelationbetweentwosimilarphoneswhicharewordsisdifferslightlyThelinli:f,occurringtothingswhicharepresentornotpresent,realorlanguageeventsLangueisrelativelystable,itdoesallophonesofthesamephoneme,andtheyoccurinbeforeavowel,iscalledaclearl,andnodiacriticimaginedmattersinthepast,present,orfuture,ornotchangefrequentlywhileparolevariesfromdifferentenvironmentsisneededtoindicateitthelinfi:landbild,farawayplacesInotherwords,languagecanbepersontoperson,andfromsituationtosituation)minimalpair:Whentwodifferentformsareoccurringbeforeanotherconsonant,iscalleddarkusedtorefertocontextsremovedfromtheidenticalineverywayexceptforonesoundsegmentChomsky的语言能力competence和语言使用l,indicatedinnarrowtranscriptionaslTheninimmediatesituationsofthespeakerwhichoccursinthesameplaceinthestrings,theperformance各指什么,helθ,thesoundlisfollowedbythedentalsoundCulturaltransmission(文化传递性):(课本答twowordsaresaidtoformaminimalpairFor(AmericanlinguistNChomskyinthelate’sθ,itisthuscalledadentall,andtranscribedas案:detailsofhumanlanguagesystemaretaughtandexample:binandpinproposedthedistinctionbetweencompetenceandhelθ(注:l下有一个向下的框无法打印)inlearnedwhileanimalsarebornwiththecapacityto)suprasegmentalfeatures:thephonemicperformance)narrowtranscriptionsendoutcertainsignalsasameansoflimitedfeaturesthatoccurabovethelevelofthesegmentsChomskydefinescompetenceastheidealuser’sHowaretheEnglishconsonantsclassified英communication)WhilewearebornwiththeabilityarecalledsuprasegmentalfeaturesThemainknowledgeoftherulesofhislanguageThis语的辅音是如何分类的,toacquirelanguage,thedetailsofanylanguagearesuprasegmentalfeaturesincludestress,toneandinternalizedsetofrulesenablesthelanguageuserto)bymannerofarticulationnotgeneticallytransmitted,butinsteadhavetobeintonationproduceandunderstandaninfinitelylargenumberastops(plosive爆破音):p,b,t,d,k,gtaughtandlearned)tone:Tonesarepitchvariations,whichareofsentencesandrecognizesentencesthatareDoyouthinkhumanlanguageisentirelybfricatives(磨擦音),causedbythedifferingratesofvibrationoftheungrammaticalandambiguousAccordingtoarbitraryWhy,hvocalcordsPitchvariationcandistinguishmeaningChomsky,performanceistheactualrealizationofLanguageisarbitraryinnature,itisnotentirelyjustlikephonemesThemeaningdistinctivecaffricates(破擦音):t,dthisknowledgeinlinguisticcommunicationarbitrary,becausetherearealimitednumberoffunctionofthetoneisespeciallyimportantintonedliquids(lateral边音流音):l,rAlthoughthespeaker’sknowledgeofhismotherwordswhoseconnectionsbetweenformsandlanguages,forexample,inChinesetongueisperfect,hisperformancesmayhaveenasals(鼻音)meaningscanbelogicallyexplainedtoacertain)intonation:Whenpitch,stressandsoundlengthmistakesbecauseofsocialandpsychologicalfactorsfglides(semivowels半元音):w,jextent,forexample,theonomatopoeia,wordswhicharetiedtothesentenceratherthanthewordinsuchasstress,embarrassment,etc„Chomsky)byplaceofarticulation:arecoinedonthebasisofimitationofsoundsbyisolation,theyarecollectivelyknownasintonationbelievesthatwhatlinguistsshouldstudyistheabilabial(双唇音):p,b,m,wsoundssuchasbang,crash,etcTakecompoundsForexample,Englishhasfourbasictypesofcompetence,whichissystematic,nottheblabiodental(唇齿音):f,vforanotherexampleThetwoelements“photo”andintonation:thefallingtone,therisingtone,theperformance,whichistoohaphazard(偶然的)“copy”in“photocopy”arenonmotivated,butthecdental(舌齿音)fallrisetoneandtherisefalltoneHowisSaussure’sdistinctionbetweenlanguecompoundisnotarbitrarydalveolar(齿龈音):t,d,s,z,n,l,rWhatarethetwomajormediaofandparolesimilartoChomsky’sdistinctioncommunicationOfthetwo,whichoneisepalatal(腭音):,,t,d,jbetweencompetenceandperformanceAndChapter:Phonologyprimaryandwhy语言交际的两大媒介是什fvelar(软腭音):k,g,whatistheirdifferenceDefinetheterms:么,哪一个是基本的交际媒介,为什么,gglottal(喉音声门单):hBothSaussureandChomskymakethedistinction)phonetics:PhoneticsisdefinedasthestudyofSpeechandwritingarethemajormediaofWhatcriteriaareusedtoclassifytheEnglishbetweentheabstractlanguagesystemandtheactualthephonicmediumoflanguageitisconcernedwithcommunicationSpeechisconsideredprimaryovervowels英语的元音是如何分类的,useoflanguageTheirpurposeistosingleoutoneallthesoundsthatoccurintheworld’slanguageswritingThereasonsare:speechispriortowritingaspectoflanguageforseriousstudy)Accordingtothepositionofthetongue,vowels)auditoryphonetics:Itstudiesthespeechsoundsinlanguageevolution,speechplaysagreaterroleinTheydifferinthatSaussuretakesasociologicalmaybedistinguishedasfrontvowelssuchasi:ifromthehearer’spointofviewItstudieshowthedailycommunications,andspeechisthewayinviewoflanguageandhisnotionoflangueisaeæa,centralvowelssuchas:,andsoundsareperceivedbythehearerwhichpeopleacquiretheirnativelanguagematterofsocialconventions,andChomskylooksatbackvowelssuchasu::ɑ:)acousticphonetics:ItstudiesthespeechsoundsWhatarethethreebranchesofphoneticsHowlanguagefromapsychologicalpointofviewandtobylookingatthesoundwavesItstudiesthe)Accordingtotheopennessofthemouth,wedotheycontributetothestudyofspeechsoundshimcompetenceisapropertyofthemindofeachphysicalmeansbywhichspeechsoundsareclassifythevowelsintofourgroups:closevowels语音学的三个分支是什么。它们是如何研究语言individualtransmittedthroughtheairfromonepersontosuchasi:iu:,semiclosevowelssuchas学的,(可参照一下课文原话可能更容易理解)Whatcharacteristicsoflanguagedoyouthinkanothere:,semiopenvowelssuchas:,andopen)Articulatoryphoneticsdescribesthewayourshouldbeincludedinagood,comprehensive)internationalphoneticalphabetIPA:Itisavowelssuchasæaandɑ:speechorgansworktoproducethespeechsoundsdefinitionoflanguagestandardizedandinternationallyacceptedsystemof)Accordingtotheshapeofthelips,vowelsareLanguageisasystemofarbitraryvocalsymbolsandhowtheydifferphonetictranscriptiondividedintoroundedvowelsandunroundedvowelsusedforhumancommunication)Auditoryphoneticsstudiesthephysicalproperties)Broadtranscription:thetranscriptionwithInEnglishallthefrontandcentralvowelsareofthespeechsounds,andreachesimportantFirstofall,languageisasystem,ieelementsoflettersymbolsonly,ieonelettersymbolforoneunroundedvowels,allthebackvowels,withlanguagearecombinedaccordingtorulesconclusionthatphoneticidentityisonlyasoundThisisthetranscriptionnormallyusedinexceptionofɑ:,areroundedSecond,languageisarbitraryinthesensethattheretheoreticalidealdictionariesandteachingtextbooks)Accordingtothelengthofthevowels,theisnointrinsicconnectionbetweenthewordandthe)Acousticphoneticsstudiesthephysicalproperties)Narrowtranscription:isthetranscriptionwithEnglishvowelscanalsobeclassifiedintolongthingitreferstoofthespeechsounds,thewaysoundstravelfromlettersymbolstogetherwiththediacriticsThisisvowelsandshortvowelsThelongvowelsincludeThird,languageisvocalbecausetheprimarythespeakertotheheareritdealswiththesoundthetranscriptionusedbythephoneticiansintheiri:::u:ɑ:whiletherestareshortmediumissoundforalllanguageswavesthroughtheuseofsuchmachinesasastudyofspeechsoundsvowelsTheterm“human”ismeanttospecifythatlanguagespectrograph(声谱仪))diacritics:isasetofsymbolswhichcanbeaddedWhatisthedifferencebetweenaishumanspecificWherearethearticulatoryapparatusofhumantothelettersymbolstomakefinerdistinctionsthanmonophthongandadiphthongWhatfeaturesofhumanlanguagehavebeenbeingcontainedthelettersalonemakepossibleAmonophthongisoneforwhichtheorgansofspecifiedbyCharlesHocketttoshowthatitisPharyngealcavity,oralcavityandnasalcavity)Voiceless(清音):whenthevocalcordsaredrawnspeechremaininagivenpositionforaperiodofessentiallydifferentfromanyanimalWhatisvoicingandhowisitcaused什么叫wideapart,lettingairgothroughwithoutcausingtimeAdiphthongisavowelsoundconsistingofacommunicationsystem人类语言的甄别性特征浊音化,它是如何形成的,vibration,thesoundsproducedinsuchaconditiondeliberateglideTheorgansofspeechstartinginthe是什么,arecalledvoicelesssoundsVoicingistheresultofthevibrationofthevocalpositionofonevowelandimmediatelymovinginArbitrariness(任意性):(课本答案:asignofcordsWhenthevocalcordsaredrawnwideapart,)Voicing(浊音):Soundsproducedwhilethethedirectionofanothervowel,forexample:i:,isophisticationonlyhumansarecapableof)Itmeanslettingairgothroughwithoutcausingvibration,thevocalcordsarevibratingarecalledvoicedsoundsaremonophthongs,anda,earediphthongsthatthereisnologicalconnectionbetweensoundsproducedinsuchawayarevoicelessWhen)Vowel:thesoundsinproductionofwhichnoHowdophoneticsandphonologydifferinmeaningsandsoundsAlthoughlanguageisvocalcordsareheldtogethertautlysothattheairarticulatorscomeveryclosetogetherandtheairtheirfocusofstudyWhodoyouthinkwillbearbitrarybynature,itisnotentirelyarbitrarystreamvibratesthem,thesoundsproducedinthisstreampassesthroughthevocaltractwithoutmoreinterestedinthedifferencebetweenlandNonarbitrarywordsmakeuponlyasmallwayarevoicedobstructionarecalledvowelsl,pandph,aphoneticianoraphonologistpercentageofthetotalnumberThearbitrarynatureWhatisthefunctionofnasalcavityHowdoes)Consonants:thesoundsintheproductionofWhyoflanguageisasignofsophisticationanditmakesitperformthisfunctionwhichthereisanobstructionoftheairstreamatPhonetics:descriptionofallspeechsoundsandtheiritpossibleforlanguagetohaveanunlimitedsourceThefunctionofnasalcavityistonasalizethesoundssomepointofthevocaltractarecalledconsonantsfinedifferencesItnotnecessarilydistinguishofexpressionsthatareproducedItdoesthisbyclosingtheair)phonology:PhonologystudiesthesystemofmeaningpassageconnectingtheoralandnasalcavitiessoProductivity(创造性):(课本答案:creativity:soundsofaparticularlanguageitaimstodiscoverPhonology:descriptionofsoundsystemsofthattheairstreamcanonlygothroughthenasalanimalsarequitelimitedinthemessagestheyarehowspeechsoundsinalanguageformpatternsandparticularlanguagesandhowsoundsfunctiontocavityhowthesesoundsareusedtoconveymeaninginabletosend)LanguageisproductiveorcreativeindistinguishmeaningItisrealizedascertainphoneDescribethevariouspartsintheoralcavitylinguisticcommunicationthatitmakespossibletheconstructionandanditdistinguishmeaningwhichareinvolvedintheproductionofspeech)phone:PhonescanbesimplydefinedastheinterpretationofaninfinitelylargenumberofAphoneticianwouldbemoreinterestedinsuchsoundsspeechsoundsweusewhenspeakingalanguageAsentences,includingthosetheyhaveneversaidordifferencesbecausesuchdifferenceswillnotcauseThevariouspatsofthetongue:thetip,thefront,thephoneisaphoneticunitorsegmentItdoesnotheardbeforedifferencesinmeaning,butcanmakefinerblade,andthebacktheuvulathesoftpalatethenecessarilydistinguishmeaningDuality(二重性):(课本答案:afeaturetotallydistinctionsofthesoundshardpalatetheteethridge(alveolar)theupperand)phoneme:acollectionofabstractphoneticlackinginanyanimalcommunication)ItmeansthatWhatisaphoneHowisitdifferentfromalowerteeththelipsfeatures,itisabasicunitinphonologyItislanguageisasystem,whichconsistsoftwosetsofphonemeHowareallophonesrelatedtoaHowbroadtranscriptionandnarrowrepresentedorrealizedasacertainphonebyastructure,ortwolevels,oneofsoundsatthelowerphonemetranscriptiondiffer宽式标音和严式标音有什certainphoneticcontextlevelandtheotherofmeaningsatthehigherlevelWhatdoessentencestressmeanPhone:aspeechsound,aphoneticunit(ItnotSentencestressreferstotherelativeforcewhichisnecessarilydistinguishmeaning)giventothewordsinasentenceSomewordsarePhoneme:acollectionofabstractsoundfeatures,amoreimportantthanothers,andthemoreimportantphonologicalunit(realizedascertainphone,wordsarepronouncedwithgreaterforceandmadedistinguishmeaning)moreprominentThemoreimportantwordsinAllophones:actualrealizationofaphonemeinEnglisharenouns,mainverbs,adjectives,adverbs,differentphoneticcontextsanddemonstrativepronouns,andtheotherWhatisaminimalpairandwhatisaminimalcategoriesofwords(articles,personalpronouns,setWhyisitimportanttoidentifytheminimalauxiliaryverbs,prepositions,andconjunctions)aresetinalanguageusuallynotstressedTogivespecialemphasistoaMinimalpair:twosoundcombinationsidenticalincertainnotion,awordinasentencethatisusuallyeverywayexceptinonesoundelementthatoccursunstressedcanbestressedForexample:HeisinthesamepositiondrivingmycarMymaybestressedtoemphasizeMinimalset:agroupofsoundcombinationswiththefactthatthecarisminetheabovefeatureByidentifyingtheminimalpairsortheminimalsetofalanguage,aphonologistcanidentifyitsphonemesWhatarephonemiccontrast,complementarydistribution,andminimalpair什么叫音位对立,什么叫互补分布,什么是最小对立对,(p)Iftwophoneticallysimilarsoundscanoccurinthesameenvironmentsandtheydistinguishmeaning,theyareinphonemiccontrastp,bIftwophoneticallysimilarsoundsaretwoallophonesofthesamephonemeandtheyoccurindifferentenvironments,theyaresaidtobeincomplementarydistributionp,phWhentwodifferentformsareidenticalineverywayexceptforonesoundsegmentwhichoccursinthesameplaceinthestrings,thetwowordsaresaidtoformaminimalpairForexample,killandbillExplainwithexamplesthesequentialrule,theassimilationruleandthedeletionrule(每条规则记一个例子)Sequentialrule:rulegoverningthecombinationofsoundsinaparticularlanguageAssimilationrule:ruleassimilatingonesoundsimilartothefollowingonebycopyingoneofitsphoneticfeaturesDeletionrule:rulegoverningthedeletionofasoundinacertainphoneticcontextalthoughitisrepresentedinspellingWhataresupresegmentalfeaturesHowdothemajorsuprasegmentalfeaturesofEnglishfunctioninconveyingmeaning什么是超音位特征,它是如何影响语义的,(p)SuprasegmentalfeaturesarephonologicalfeaturesabovethesoundsegmentlevelThemajorsuprasegmentalfeaturesinEnglisharewordstress,sentencestressandintonation)ThelocationofstressinEnglishdistinguishesmeaning,suchas`importandim`portThesimilaralternationofstressalsooccursbetweenacompoundnounandaphraseconsistingofthesameelementsAphonologicalfeatureoftheEnglishcompoundsisthatthestressofthewordalwaysfallsonthefirstelementandthesecondelementreceivessecondarystress,forexample:`blackbirdisaparticularkindofbird,whichisnotnecessarilyblack,butablack`birdisabirdthatisblack)SentencestressreferstotherelativeforcewhichisgiventothewordsinasentenceThemoreimportantwordssuchasnouns,mainverbs,adjectives,adverbs,anddemonstrativepronouns,arepronouncedwithgreaterforceandmademoreprominentAndtheothercategoriesofwords(articles,personalpronouns,auxiliaryverbs,prepositions,andconjunctions)areusuallynotstressedButtogivespecialemphasistoacertainnotion,awordinsentencethatisusuallyunstressedcanbestressedtoachievedifferenteffectTakethesentence“Heisdrivingmycar”Forexample,toemphasizethefactthatthecarheisdrivingisnothis,oryours,butmine,thespeakercanstressthepossessivepronounmy,whichundernormalcircumstancesisnotstressed)Englishhasfourbasictypesofintonation,knownasthefourtones:Whenspokenindifferenttones,thesamesequenceofwordsmayhavedifferentmeaningsGenerallyspeaking,thefallingtoneindicatesthatwhatissaidisastraightforward,matteroffactstatement,therisingtoneoftenmakesaquestionofwhatissaid,andthefallrisetoneoftenindicatesthatthereisanimpliedmessageinwhatissai
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