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首页 托福阅读材料:母亲怀孕体重影响孩子肥胖

托福阅读材料:母亲怀孕体重影响孩子肥胖.doc

托福阅读材料:母亲怀孕体重影响孩子肥胖

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2019-06-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《托福阅读材料:母亲怀孕体重影响孩子肥胖doc》,可适用于活动策划领域

托福阅读材料:母亲怀孕体重影响孩子肥胖之前的研究都会把儿童肥胖与基因以及环境因素联系起来但是有越来越多的研究结果显示:孩子的肥胖和母亲在怀孕期间的增重是有关的一起来看托福阅读材料:母亲怀孕体重影响孩子肥胖Mother’sPregnancyWeightLinkedtoChild’sObesity。前程百利小编希望对大家备考有所帮助。Mother’sPregnancyWeightLinkedtoChild’sObesityMorethanpercentofAmericanadultswereobeseasofcomparedwithlessthanpercentin,accordingtoanewreportfromtheUSCentersforDiseaseControlandPreventionAndthenumberofUSstateswithmorethanpercentoftheirpopulationtoppingabodymassindex(BMI)oftripledbetweenandWiththisacceleratingepidemic,researchersarelookingforcluesbeyonddailydietandexercisetoexplainourpropensityforextrapoundageandmanyarefindingevidenceintheveryfirststagesoflifeAgrowingnumberofanalyseshavefoundaconvincinglinkamongaheaviermothertobe,increasesinherbaby’sbirthweight,andthechild’slaterriskofobesityInmanypastobservationalstudies,however,basicgeneticsorenvironmentalfactorscouldbeblamedforthisassociationAnewstudyof,mothersand,,oftheirchildrenbornacrossyearsaimedtotakegeneticsoutoftheequationbyassessingmaternalandinfantweightonlyforthosewomenwhohadmorethanonechild"Bymakingcomparisonsoftwoormoreinfantsborntothesamemother,wewereabletofactorouttheroleofgenetics,"saysDavidLudwig,anassociateprofessorofpediatrics,directoroftheObesityProgramatChildren’sHospitalBostonandcoauthorofthenewstudyWomenwhogainedmorethankilogramsduringapregnancy(whichoccurredinaboutpercentofpregnancies)addedanaverageofadditionalgramstotheirbaby’sbirthweightthanthosewhogainedabouttokilogramsInotherterms,pregnantwomenwhogainedkilogramshaddoubletheriskofhavinganinfantwithahighbirthweightcomparedwiththosewhoonlygainedaboutninekilogramsAndeverykilogramgainedduringpregnancyincreasedababy’sweightbyaboutgrams,accordingtotheanalysis,whichpublishedonlineAugustinTheLancetBeingheavieratbirthincreasestheoddsthatanindividualwillbeoverweightorobeseasachildaswellasanadultAndtheexcessweighthasbeenlinkedtoarangeofchronicconditions,includingasthma,diabetesandmetabolicsyndrome(agroupofmetabolicriskfactors)AlthoughpreviousstudieshadcorrelatedhighBMImomswithheavierbabies,"thedirecteffectsofexcessiveweightgainonthefetushaveneverbeenconclusivelydemonstrated,"notesLudwig,whoworkedonthestudywithcollaboratorJanetCurrie,aprofessorofeconomicsatColumbiaUniversityTheimportanceofgramsTheilleffectsofundernourishmentonfetaldevelopmenthavebeenwelldocumentedApregnantwomanwhodoesnotgetamplecaloriesforherandherfetusincreasestheriskthebabywillhavestuntedphysicalgrowth,poorcognitivedevelopment,andbemoresusceptibletodiseasesThehealthrisksoftoomanycalories,however,arejustbeginningtocometolightTobesure,aheavierfetuswilltiltthepregnantmother’sscaleslightly,andtheamountofweighttypicallyputonmymomsgainingtoomuchduringpregnancyfarexceedstheadditionalouncestheirbabiestypicallytakeonNevertheless,althoughkilogramofadditionalbabyfatmightnotsoundlikemuch,inthecontextofathreetokilograminfant,everykilogramchangestheoddsratio,accordingtoLudwigOtherresearchindicatesthatinfantbirthweightisalsoheavilydeterminedbyawoman’sweightevenbeforeshebecomespregnantAstudypublishedinJuneintheEuropeanJournalofPediatricsreportedthatbeingoverweightorobesebeforegettingpregnantmeantthatamother’sfuturechildwastimesmorelikelytobeoverweightorobesebyagefour"Itmeanspreconceptionhealthscreeningandinterventionforoverweightandobesewomenisextremelyimportant,"saysPanagiotaKitsantas,anassistantprofessorofbiostatisticsandepidemiologyatGeorgeMasonUniversity’sDepartmentofHealthAdministrationandPolicyandleadauthoroftheJunepaperAlthoughherinvestigationdidnotspecificallylookatwomenwithmorethanonechildandthuscouldhavebeencoloredbyothergeneticandenvironmentalfactors,KitsantassaysthattheresultsfromherworkandTheLancetreportarecomplementary"Bothstudiespointedtoonedirection:mothers’bodyweightaffectedtheiroffspring’sweight"UnderlyingchangesExtrabirthweightmightnotbetheonlychangemanyoftheseinfantsfaceExcessivematernalweightduringpregnancyisalsolikelychangingthemetabolicandhormonalenvironmentofthedevelopingfetus,LudwigsaysEvenifaninfanthasafewextraouncesduetoamother’sexcessivegestationalweightgain,"theinfantdevelopedinametabolicallyabnormalintrauterineenvironment,"LudwigexplainsExcessivecaloricintakebyapregnantwomancanstimulatetheovergrowthoffetaltissues,changehormonalbalances,altermetabolicpathways,"andperhapsevenstructuresinthebrainthatregulateappetiteandmetabolism,"hesaysAndthosechangesmightstaywithanindividualforlife

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托福阅读材料:母亲怀孕体重影响孩子肥胖

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