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首页 地理信息系统小论文——GPS与物理的关系

地理信息系统小论文——GPS与物理的关系.doc

地理信息系统小论文——GPS与物理的关系

冷残影凌紫瑶
2017-10-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《地理信息系统小论文——GPS与物理的关系doc》,可适用于工程科技领域

地理信息系统小论文GPS与物理的关系地理信息系统小论文GPS与物理的关系TherelationshipbetweenGPSandphysicsWhatisGPS,thefullnameoftheGPSGPSisalsoknownastheNavigationSatelliteTimeandradarGlobalPositioningSystemItisobviousthatGPSisdependontheearthsatellitesonthesurfaceofavarietyofscanning,datacollection,andthenfeedbacktotheground,andtoprovideuswithavarietyofinformationtohelp,thecomponentsoftheGPSPartaandspaceGPSspacepartiscomposedofworksatellite,itislocatedinover,kmfromthesurface,uniformdistributiononthesixorbiteachorbitplane(),orbitaltiltAngleisInaddition,therearefouractivebackupsatellitesinorbitThesatellite'sdistributionmakesitpossibletoobservemorethanfoursatellitesinanypartoftheworld,atanytime,andtomaintainageometricimageoftheaccuracyofthesolutionThisprovidesacontinuousglobalnavigationcapabilityintimeB,thegroundcontrolsectionThegroundcontrolconsistsofamaincontrolstation,fiveglobalmonitoringstationsandthreegroundcontrolstationsThestationsareequippedwithsophisticatedcesiumclocksandtheabilitytocontinuouslymeasureallvisiblesatellitesThemonitoringstationwillobtainsatelliteGPSdata,includingtheionosphereandmeteorologicaldata,and,afterinitialprocessing,transfertothemaincontrolstationThemaincontrolstationcollectstrackingdatafromthemonitoringstations,calculatesthesatellite'sorbitandclockparameters,andthensendstheresultstothreegroundcontrolstationsThegroundcontrolstationwillinjectthesenavigationdataandmasterstationinstructionsintothesatellitewheneachsatelliteisrunningoverheadThisinjectionisafinalinjectionofeveryGPSsatelliteonceaday,beforethesatelliteleavestheinjectionsiteIfagroundstationfails,theprestorednavigationinformationinthesatelliteisavailableforawhile,butthenavigationaccuracydecreasesC,theuserdevicesectionTheuserdevicepartistheGPSreceiverItsmainfunctionistobeabletocapturethesatellitesthatareselectedbythesatellite'scutoffpointandtrackthesatellitesAfterthecapturetotrackthesatellitesignalreceiver,canmeasurethepseudodistancetothesatellitereceivingantennasandtherateofchangeofdistance,demodulationofsatelliteorbitparameterssuchasdataBasedonthesedata,thereceiverofthemicroprocessorcomputercancalculatebypositioningsolutionmethodtolocate,calculatetheuser'slocationinformationsuchaslongitudeandlatitude,altitude,speedandtimeThereceiverhardwareandthesoftwareinsidethemachineandthebackprocessingpackageoftheGPSdatamakeupthecompleteGPSuserdeviceThestructureoftheGPSreceiverisdividedintotheantennaunitandthereceivingunitThereceivernormallyUSEStwokindsofdcpowersourcesbothinsideandoutsidethemachineThepurposeofsettingupthepowersourceinthemachineistonotinterruptcontinuousobservationwithoutinterruptionThebatteryisautomaticallychargedinthetimeofthepowersupplyWhenitisturnedoff,thebatteryispoweredbyRAMmemorytopreventdatalossAtpresentvariouskindsofreceivingmachinesaresmallerandlighterandlighterandeasiertoobserveinthefieldGroundcontrolsystembymonitoringstations(MonitorStation),maincontrolStation(MasterMonitorStation),GroundAntenna(GroundcanAntenna)beused,themaincontrolStationislocatedinspringfield,Colorado(ColoradoSpring)Thegroundcontrolstationisresponsibleforcollectingdatafromthesatelliteandcalculatingthesatellite'sstarcalendar,relativedistance,andatmosphericcorrectionThesecondistheuserreceiver,theexistingsinglefrequencyandthedoublefrequencytwo,butbecauseofthepricefactor,theaverageconsumerbuysmorethanthesinglefrequencyreceiver,theprincipleofGPSThebasicprincipleofGPSnavigationsystemistomeasuretheknownpositionofsatellitetothedistancebetweentheuserreceiver,andthenintegratedsatellitedatacanknowthelocationofthereceiverTodothis,thesatellite'slocationcanbedetectedinsatellitecalendarsbasedonthetimerecordedbythestarboardclockWhiletheuseristhedistancetothesatellitebyrecordtimeexperiencedbythesatellitesignaltransmissiontotheuser,thenitsmultipliedbythespeedoflightis(becauseoftheatmosphere,theionospheredisturbance,thedistanceisnottherealdistancebetweentheuserandsatellite,butthepseudorange(PR):whenthenormalworkoftheGPSsatellites,willcontinuetousethebinarysandselementofpseudorandomcode(pncode)launchnavigationmessageGPSsystemusingthepseudocodeofAtotaloftwokinds,respectivelyiscivilCAcodeandmilitaryP(Y)codeTheCAcodefrequencyMHz,repeatthecycleAmillisecond,codespacingmillisecond,equivalenttomPcodefrequencyMHz,days,repeatcyclecodespacingmicroseconds,equivalenttomAndYcodeisformedonthebasisofPcode,secrecyperformanceisbetterNavigationmessageincludingsatelliteephemeris,workingconditions,clockcorrection,ionosphericdelaycorrection,theinformationsuchasatmosphericrefractioncorrectionItcamefromAsatellitesignaldemodulation,WithbsmodulationoncarrierfrequencyThenavigationcablescontainfiveframesperframeforeachframeThefirstthreeframeseachtenwordsRepeateverysecondsandupdateeveryhourTwoframesafterbThecontentsofthenavigationcablesincludetelemetry,conversioncode,,,andblocks,andthemostimportantisthestarcalendardataWhenusersreceivethenavigationmessage,extractthesatellitetimeandcomparewiththeirownclockcanbelearnedthatthedistancebetweenthesatelliteandtheuser,usingthenavigationmessageinthesatellitelaunchsatelliteephemerisdatacalculatedthelocationwhenthecable,thepositionoftheuserintheWGSgeodeticcoordinatesysteminformationsuchasspeedcanbelearnedThesatellitepartoftheGPSnavigationsystemisusedtoconstantlylaunchnavigationmessagesHowever,duetotheuserreceiverusingtheclockwithsatellitespaceborneclockcan'talwaysbesynchronized,soinadditiontotheuser'sthreedimensionalcoordinatesx,y,z,willalsointroduceaΔtisthetimedifferencebetweenthesatelliteandreceiverasunknowns,andthenusefourequationstosolvethefourunknownnumberSoifyouwanttoknowwherethereceiveris,you'regoingtohaveatleastfoursatellitesTheGPSreceivercanreceiveinformationthatisaccuratetonanosecondwhenitisusedforauthorizationTopredictthepredictionofthesatelliteinthenextfewmonthsThesatellitecoordinatesofthesatellitecoordinatesusedtocalculatethelocationofthesatellite,theaccuracyofseveralmeterstoseveraltensofmeters(differentfromeachsatellite,atanytime)AndGPSinformation,suchassatelliteconditionsGPSreceivertocodethedistancemeasurementcangetsatellitetoreceiver,containingasatellitereceiverclockerrorandatmosphericpropagationoferror,socalledpseudorangeThepseudodistanceoftheAcodeiscalledtheUAcodepseudodistance,theaccuracyisaboutmeters,thepseudodistanceofthePcodeiscalledthePcodepseudodistance,andtheaccuracyisabouttwometersTheGPSreceiverdecodestheincomingsatellitesignals,decodesorUSESothertechnologiestoremovetheinformationfromthecarrierandthenrestoresthecarrierStrictlyspeaking,beatfrequencycarrierphaseshouldbereferredtoascarrierphase,itisaffectedbydopplershiftreceivedsatellitesignalcarrierphaseandthereceiverlocaloscillationsignalphasedifferenceisproducedGenerallyestablishedinthereceiverclockepochtimemeasurement,keeptrackofthesatellitesignal,canrecordthephasechangesinthevalue,butstartthereceiverandsatelliteoscillatorphaseoftheinitialvalueisdon'tknow,alsodon'tknowtheinitialepochphaseinteger,namelyfuzzydegreeofthewholeweek,onlyasaparametercalculatingindataprocessingPhaseobservationsofthehighprecisiontomm,butthepremiseistoworkoutthewholeweekambiguity,soonlyinrelativepositioning,andcanbeusedwhenthereisacontinuousobservationphaseobservationvalue,andtoachievethepositioningprecisionissuperiortothelevelmeterscanonlyusephaseobservationsGPSisdefinedassinglepointlocationandrelativepositioning(differencelocation)Singlepointpositioningisbasedontheobservationdataofareceivertodeterminethelocationofthereceiver,itcanonlybeusingpseudorangeobservationquantity,canbeusedinthecompendiumoftransportandothernavigationandpositioningRelativepositioning(differentialpositioning)isbasedontheabovetworeceiverobservationdatatodeterminetherelativepositionbetweentheobservationpointmethod,itcanbeusedbothpseudorangeobservationphaseobservationquantitymaybeadopted,geodeticphaseobservationsorengineeringsurveyshouldbeadoptedtorelativepositioningContainsintheGPSobservationsatelliteandreceiverclockdifference,theatmosphericpropagationdelay,multipatheffect,suchaserror,thepositioningcalculationalsoaffectedbythesatellitebroadcastephemeriserror,mostofthepublicinrelativepositioningerrorisoffsetorweakened,thuswillgreatlyimprovethepositioningaccuracy,dualfrequencyreceivercanaccordingtothetwofrequencyoffsetobservationerroristhemainpartoftheatmospheretheionosphere,theaccuracyishigh,whenthedistancebetweenthereceiver(atmospherehaveobviousdifference),shouldchoosedoublefrequencysplicer,theGPSfunctionGlobalpositioningsystem(GPS)applications:()themainpurposeofland,includingvehiclenavigation,emergencyresponse,atmosphericphysicsobservation,geophysicalexploration,engineeringsurveyinganddeformationmonitoring,crustalmovementmonitoring,municipalplanningcontrol,etc()theMarineapplications,includingoceancarrierbestdeterminationofflightroutes,shiprealtimeschedulingandnavigation,Marinerescue,Marinetreasure,hydrogeologysurveyandMarineplatformpositioning,sealevelchangemonitoring()theaerospaceapplications,includingaircraftnavigation,aviationremotesenseofattitudecontrol,Leosatelliteorbitdetermination,missileguidance,aviationrescueandmannedspacecraftprotectiondetection,etcWhatisphysics,physicsisthestudyofthestructureofthematerialworldisthemostbasic,themostcommonformofinteraction,themovementruleofthemostgeneralandtheuseofexperimentalmethodsandthinkingmethodsofnaturalscienceInmoderntimes,PhysicshasbecomeoneofthemostbasicsubjectsinnaturalscienceInthefieldofphysics,itisthefundamentalcomponentsoftheuniverse:matter,energy,space,time,andtheirinteractionsPhysicsislinkedtomanyothernaturalsciences,suchasmathematics,chemistry,biologyandgeographyThebranchofphysicsClassicalMechanicsandtheoreticalMechanicsstudythelawsofthebasiclawsofmechanicalmotionofobjectsElectromagnetismandElectrodynamicsarestudiedtostudyelectromagneticphenomena,thelawsofelectromagneticmotionofmatterandelectromagneticradiationThermodynamicsandStatisticalPhysics,ThermodynamicsandStatisticalPhysics,theStatisticallawofmatterofthermalmotionandthemacroperformanceRelativistic(Relativity)studiesthehighspeedmotioneffectsofobjectsandtherelativedynamicsandthelawsofRelativityQuantummechanicsstudiesthephenomenonofmicrophysicalactivityandthelawsofbasicmotionInaddition,thereare:Particlephysics,nuclearphysics,atomicandmolecularphysics,solidstatephysics,condensedmatterphysics,laserphysics,plasmaphysics,geophysics,biophysics,astrophysics,acoustics,electromagnetics,optical,radiophysics,thermal,quantumfieldtheory,lowtemperaturephysics,semiconductorphysics,magnetism,nonlinearphysics,computationalphysicsandsoonTheoreticalmechanics,electrodynamics,thermodynamicsandstatisticalphysics,andquantummechanicsaregenerallyreferredtoasfourmajormechanicsTherelationshipbetweenGPSandphysicsTherelationshipbetweenGPSsatellitesandastrophysicsItiswellknownthatastrophysicsisbasedonthephysicalpropertiesofobjectssuchasstars,planets,moons,andsoonAndsatellitesorbittheearthinthesamewayNewton'slawofgravityinclassicalphysics,thethreelawsofthecape,arethemostbasictheoriesofsatelliteoperationsAndofcoursethetrajectoryequationofthesatellitedependsonalotofphysicalequationsTherelationshipbetweenGPSsatelliteequipmentandgeophysicsWhenthesatellitespinsaround,itisnotonlythegravitationalforceoftheearth,butalsotheearth'smagneticfieldHowtopreventsatellitesfromescapingorfallingdownbecauseoftheseexternalconditionsFirst,weneedtounderstandhowearthaffectssatellitesThemagnitudeofthegravitationalforceandthedirectionofthemagneticforcearealldeterminedtobeintheshapeanddensityoftheearthandthepositionofthegeomagneticpoleTheconclusion,however,isgeophysics,therelationshipbetweenGPSandopticsGPSsatellitecameras,photostakeadvantageoflightreflectedintothelensIt'snothardtoseehowthephysicsworksFirst,thebasicprincipleofoptics:lightreflectionandrefractionprincipleThenthereisthelensimageprincipleAlthoughtheseprinciplesseemsimpleandbasic,theyarethemostpracticalandscientificbasisAndintheUSmilitary'sGPS,thenightisalsovisibleMainlyusingtheinfraredcameratechnology,thesearethenakedeyecan'tobservethelightalsoisonlyinthestudyofopticalcanreallyunderstandit,sotheGPStousethetechnologyaregoingtohavetodependonopticalTherelationshipbetweenGPSandheatWhenwelookatsatelliteimaging,wehavetosaythatacameratechniqueisthermalimagingOnimagingwiththeperceptionofdifferenttemperature,theprincipleofconcreteisthermalradiation,differenttemperature,thermalradiationintensityalsohasdifference,byreceivingradiationraythenrestoreimageOntheotherhand,thethermalpropertiesofthevarioussubstancesstudiedinthermalstudiesarewidelyusedinvariousmechanicalandelectronicdevicesTiredofequipmentsuchastemperaturecontrolprinciple,whentheequipmentwithmaterialreachesacertaintemperaturewhenacertainrelevantfeatures,andthenusethischangemakesthecorrespondingstatechangesThissocalledpropertyisthemacroscopicexpressionofthemicrothermalmotionofthestudyinthermodynamicsSimilarly,lightsensorandsoundcontrolelementsarealsonecessarycomponentsinvariousdevicesTherelationshipbetweenGPSandmathematicalphysicsMathematicaltheoriesandmathematicalmethodsforstudyingphysicalproblemsItdiscussesthemathematicalmodelofphysicalphenomena,andresearchofphysicalproblemsinviewofthemodelestablisheditsmathematicalmethod,theexplanationandforeseeaphysicalphenomenon,ormodifytheoriginalmodelaccordingtothephysicalrealityThus,especiallyintheaspectofsatellitemotion,thenumberofmathematicalphysicsresearchanditsimportantforsatelliteorbit,selectedcoordinatepositioning,orbitrevisedplaysavitalroleSuchas:GPScoordinatescalculationofcommonthreedimensionalcoordinatescannotbecalculated,becauseofthejetlagΔtSoyouhavetousethefourdimensionsofmathematicalphysics,whichisdeeperandmorespecificthanthegeneralhighermathematicsEvenmorecomplexmultidimensionalcomputingBecauseofthemathematicalphysicsthatissuperiortoadvancedmathematics,thecontributionofGPSismoreprominentThereisaphysicalresearchmethod,andthenthereisaGPSreceiverthatreceivesdata,andnaturally,thelocationofthesatelliteandthetimeofthespecificlocationisclearThishastosaythatGPScan'tbewithoutmathematicalphysicsThelinkbetweenGPSandelectromagnetismElectromagnetism,asitsnameimplies,isaphysicssubjectthatstudiestheinterrelationshipbetweenelectricityandmagnetismTheelectromagneticwavesthatwearefamiliarwitharetheelectricandmagneticfieldsTheelectricfieldandthemagneticfieldmustbemagneticallyorelectrically,withthecurrentmotorandgeneratorGPSoperatesentirelyonmotors,generatorsandelectromagneticwavesGPSwirelesssignalsaretransmittedbyelectromagneticwavesAllkindsofmechanicaldevicesarepoweredbyenginesAllkindsofelectronicdevicesrelyongeneratorsElectromagnetismalsoincludeselectricityandmagnetismThecircuitprinciplestudiedinelectricityisthemanufacturingbaseofallelectroniccomponentsThereisalsoanelectromagneticresonancethatfullyknowsthetransmissionandreceptionoftheelectromagneticsignalsoftheGPSThevariousmagneticinductionprinciplesstudiedinmagnetismguidethemanufactureofvariousmagneticmaterialsThesimplestislikeamagnetSothereisalinkbetweenelectromagnetismandGPSInfact,theconnectionbetweenGPSandphysicsisvery,veryclosetoallthebranchesofphysicsTheabovepointsarewhatIconsidertobethemainlinkTrue,becauseoftheclosenessofthephysicaldisciplines,theysometimesworktogether,andinmostcasestheydoForexample,atomicphysicsandchemicalphysicstogetherdeterminethecompositionofthematerial'sspacestructure,orevensomecompositionSoGPSisnotjustaboutphysics,it'saboutphysicsRelativityprovidesthenecessaryfixesforGPSGPSsatellitetimingsignalsprovidelatitude,longitude,andaltitudeinformationAccuratemeasurementsoftheclockareneededSopreciseGPSreceiversaregoingtousetherelativisticeffectTheGPSreceiverwithinmetersofaccuracymeansthatithastakenadvantageoftherelativisticeffect"Ifyoudon'tthinkabouttherelativisticeffect,theclockonthesatelliteisoutofsyncwiththeearth'sclock,"explainsphysicistCliffordmWilloftheuniversityofWashingtonThetheoryofrelativitysaysthatfastmovingobjectsmovemoreslowlyovertimethanatrestWillcalculatesthateachGPSsatellitecrossesabout,kilometersperhour,meaningitsstaratomicclockissevenmicrosecondsslowerthantheclockonearthGravityexertsagreaterrelativisticeffectontimeAtabout,km,thegravitationalpullofaGPSsatelliteisaboutaquarterofwhatitisonthegroundTheresultisthatthestarclockisaboutmicrosecondsperday,andtheGPSiscountinguptomicrosecondsAshbyexplained:"ifthereisnofrequencycompensationonthesatellite,itwillincreasetheerrorbykilometersperday"(theeffectismorecomplicatedbecausethesatelliteisinaneccentricorbit,sometimesclosertotheearth,andsometimesfartheraway)GPSishelpingphysicsItsaysthelinkbetweenGPSandphysics,butit'samatterofphysics'scontributiontoGPSHere'salookatthehelpofGPSinphysicsFromtheapplicationandfunctionoftheaboveGPS,itcanbeseenthattheapplicationfaceisverywide,andthereisadeepconcerninthelandandseaAlthoughitappearsthatitsextensiveuseiscivilianandmilitary,itdoesnotinvolveteachingscientificresearchandsoonIt'snotThegroundengineeringmeasureisalsopartofgeophysicsThereisalsogroundreconnaissance,andthemappingoftopographyisalsothestudyofgeophysicsThisisalsoaphysicalapplicationofGPSGPSisalsoessentialtoearth'sastralresearchFromtheearthIt'salsoacontributiontoastrophysicsInthecaseofGPSsatellites,theinformationtheyreceiveisimportantforthedevelopmentofthewholeofphysicsItcanhelppeopleunderstandtheuniversefurtherandmake"geophysics"goto"cosmicphysics"ThisisobviouslyamajorcontributortothedevelopmentofphysicsAsfarasGPSisconcerned,itcomestophysics,andphysicshelpsGPSBut,inturn,GPSisthebestuseofphysics,aswellasexperimentalevidenceItisatheoreticalpracticeinitselfSowecanliterallysaythatGPSisthelargestphysicalexperimentPhysicsandGPSarelinkedWecangetalotoflinksbetweenGPSandphysicsTobespecific,don'tlookathowcomplexGPSis,it'sallsimpleequationsofphysicsNomatterhowmanyphysicsdisciplinesandhowcomplexphysicalknowledgecanbeincludedinaGPScomponentIngeneral,therearetwowordstodescribe:"connectingwithoneanother"

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地理信息系统小论文——GPS与物理的关系

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