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首页 argument写作范例

argument写作范例.doc

argument写作范例

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2019-06-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《argument写作范例doc》,可适用于综合领域

推理错误ThefollowingappearedinanarticlewrittenbyDrKarp,ananthropologist"Twentyyearsago,DrField,anotedanthropologist,visitedtheislandofTertiaandconcludedfromhisobservationsthatchildreninTertiawererearedbyanentirevillageratherthanbytheirownbiologicalparentsHowever,myrecentinterviewswithchildrenlivinginthegroupofislandsthatincludesTertiashowthatthesechildrenspendmuchmoretimetalkingabouttheirbiologicalparentsthanaboutotheradultsinthevillageThisresearchofmineprovesthatDrField'sconclusionaboutTertianvillagecultureisinvalidandthusthattheobservationcenteredapproachtostudyingculturesisinvalidaswellTheinterviewcenteredmethodthatmyteamofgraduatestudentsiscurrentlyusinginTertiawillestablishamuchmoreaccurateunderstandingofchildrearingtraditionsthereandinotherislandcultures"“ThisresearchofmineprovesthatDrField'sconclusionaboutTertianvillagecultureisinvalid”这句话当中包含的推理结构是什么第一步:描述推理Theauthorclaimsthattheobservationcenteredapproachtostudyingculturesisinvalid,basedontheassertionthatDrField’sconclusioniswrongTheauthorclaimsthat(premise),andtheninfersthat(conclusion)第二步:构造反例Asweallknow,oneresearchisfarfromenoughtosystematicallydisproveamethodologyPerhapsDrKarpdidnotusetheobservationcenteredmethodwell,butthatdoesnotmeanthatthewholeobservationcenteredapproachiswrong第三步:讨论反例的作用Ifthisistrue,thentheauthorcannotrashlyclaimthedownfalloftheobservationcenteredmethod第四步:指出错误的影响Thisinturnprobablyrendersunfoundedtheauthor’spredictionabouthergraduatestudents’researchEvenifthechildrenareindeedareraisedbytheirparents,itdoesnotentailnecessarilymeanthatDrField’sconclusionwaswrongHavethecustomsandconventionsonTertiaIslandchangedduringthepasttwentyyearsPerhapsthecustomsandconventionsonTertiaIslandhavechangedsignificantlywithinthepasttwentyyearsIfyes,perhapschildrenwereactuallyraisedbyawholevillagetwentyyearsago,whileitwasduringthelasttwodecadesthattheconventionwasabandonedTherefore,theauthorneedstoprovidefurtherevidencetoruleoutsuchalternativepossibility,suchastheinformationregardingcustomchangesinthepastyearsontheisland,orelseshecannotlegitimatelyassumethatDrFieldwaswrongThisinturnprobablymeansthattheauthor’sclaimabouttheinvalidityoftheobservationcenteredapproachisunwarranted适合四类要求的方式其它可能性:指出假设:找出证据:提出问题:描述推理的常用句型:引导反例的常用词:讨论反例作用及错误影响的常用句型:继续阅读

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argument写作范例

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