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首页 【初二英语】现在完成时讲解[1](共6页)

【初二英语】现在完成时讲解[1](共6页).doc

【初二英语】现在完成时讲解[1](共6页)

王尘远
2017-09-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【初二英语】现在完成时讲解[1](共6页)doc》,可适用于初中教育领域

【初二英语】现在完成时讲解(共页)现在完成时讲解一、基本结构:主语havehas过去分词(done)肯定句:主语havehas过去分词其他否定句:主语havehasnot过去分词其他一般疑问句:HaveHas主语过去分词其他特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词一般疑问句(havehas主语过去分词其他)二、用法)现在完成时的"完成用法"现在完成时用来表示现在之前已发生过或完成的动作或状态,但其结果却和现在有联系,也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在Hehasturnedoffthelight他已把灯关了。(动作结束于过去但说明的是现在的情况灯现在不亮了。)Ihavespentallofmymoney(含义是:现在我没有钱花了)Janehaslaidthetable(含义是:现在桌子已经摆好了))现在完成时的"未完成用法"指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻一直延续到现在或可能还要继续下去。这里的动词要用持续性动词。常与for(时间段),since(时间点)连用MaryhasbeenillforthreedaysMaryhasbeenillsincethreedaysago注意:现在完成时不能单独与准确时间连用(如表示过去的时间状语)如yesterday(morning、afternoon),last(morning、afternoon)等除非与for,since连用现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用,如already(肯定),yet(否定疑问),just,before,recently,still,lately等:HehasalreadyobtainedascholarshipIhaven'tseenmuchofhimrecently(lately)WehaveseenthatfilmbeforeHavetheyfoundthemissingchildyet现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语连用,如ever,never,twice,severaltimes等:HaveyoueverbeentoBeijingIhaveneverheardBunnysayanythingagainstherIhaveusedthispenonlythreetimesItisstillgoodGeorgehasmetthatgentlemanseveraltimes现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用,如uptothesefewdaysweeksmonthsyears,just,uptopresent(now),sofar等:PeterhaswrittensixpaperssofarUptothepresenteverythinghasbeensuccessful现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作Wehavehadfourtextsthissemesterhavebeento和havegoneto的区别havebeento强调“去过”现已不在那里如:HehasbeentotheUSAthreetimes他到美国去过三次。(过去“到美国”现在已“不在美国”)havegoneto主要强调的是“去了”现在人不在说话的现场如:Where'syourmother你妈妈在哪,Shehasgonetothehospital她去医院了。hasbeenin一直在某地三、现在完成时考点例析现在完成时是较难掌握、中考考查较多的时态。涉及的考点有:一、考查其构成"助动词have(has)动词过去分词"构成现在完成时。如:Kate'sneverseenChinesefilmsAhasn'tsheBhassheCisn'tsheDisshe析:陈述句部分含否定词never,简略问句部分要用肯定式又因Kate's是Katehas的缩写故选B。Hisunclehasalreadypostedthephotostohim(改为否定句)Hisunclepostedthephotostohim析:already常用在肯定句中yet常用在否定句、疑问句中故填hasn't,yet。AnnhasgonetoShanghaiSoherparentsAhasBhadCdidDhave析:"so助系情态动词主语"结构中的动词形式应与前句结构中动词形式保持一致又后句的主语为herparents是复数,故选D。二、考查其用法与标志词(一)当句中有never,ever,just,already,yet,before等时常用现在完成时。如:Mum,mayIgooutandplaybasketballyouyourhomeworkyetADofinishBArefinishingCDidfinishDHavefinishedyouanywherebeforeYes,butIcan'trememberwhereIADidsurfsurfedBHavesurfedsurfedCDidsurfhavesurfedDHavesurfedhavesurfed析:据yet和before可知,应用现在完成时故题选D题选D。(二)当句中有"for段时间"或"since点时间"等时主句常用现在完成时谓语动词必须是延续性动词若是非延续性动词要改为延续性动词或表状态的词(短语)。如:HisbrotherhasbeentoStoneForesttwicehecametoYunnanAafterBbeforeCsinceDfor析:主句用的是现在完成时而从句用的是一般过去时故选C。TomtheCDplayerfortwoweeksAhaslentBhasborrowedChasboughtDhashad析:A、B、C均为非延续性动词在肯定句中不与表"段时间"的短语连用故选D。IaletterfromhimsinceheleftAdidn'treceiveBhaven'tgotCdidn'thaveDhaven'theard析:据since可知应排除A、C"hearfromsb=receivegethavealetterfromsb"意为"收到某人的来信"故选B。三、考查havehasbeen(to,in)havehasgone(to)的区别。如:HaveyoueverLintongtoseetheTerraCottaWarriorsYes,IhaveAwenttoBgonetoCbeeninDbeento析:据句中的have排除AB项意为"去某地了"C项意为"一直呆在某地"D项意为"去过某地"符合题意故选D。MyparentsShangdongfortenyearsAhavebeeninBhavebeentoChavegonetoDhavebeen析:本题句中有"for段时间"结构据此可排除CB项意为"去过某地"不合题意D项缺介词故选A。四、考查现在完成时与其他时态的联系和区别。如:Sun'saunthasgonetherefortenyears(改成正确的句子)析:非延续性动词与"段时间"连用时除了把非延续性动词改成延续性动词外还可把动词改为一般过去时或借助句型"It's段时间since从句"进行句子转换。故答案为:Sun'saunthasbeentherefortenyearsSun'sauntwenttheretenyearsagoIt'stenyearssinceSun'sauntwentthereSusanhasbeeninthiscityformorethantenyears(改为同义句)morethantenyearsSusantothiscity析:据上题分析且since引导的从句要用一般过去时故填Itis,since,came。Iwon'tgototheconcertbecauseImyticketAlostBdon'tloseChavelostDiscoming析:因我丢了票的动作发生在过去而且对现在造成了我不能参加音乐会的结果符合现在完成时所表示的含意故选C。英语的行为动词有持续性动词和瞬间性动词之分使用中应注意两者的区别。一、持续性动词:表示一个动作可以持续一段时间或更长时间。常见的study,play,do,read,learn,drive,write,clean,sleep,speak,talk,wait,fly,stay,sit,stand,lie,keep等。二、瞬间性动词:表示一个动作发生在一瞬间非常短暂。亦称终止性动词。常见的begin,start,finish,go,come,leave,find,getup,arrive,reach,getto,enter,hear,stop,open,close,become,buy,borrow,lend,happen,join,lose,renew,die,takeaway,putup,setout,puton,getonoff等瞬间性动词在完成时中如要与表示持续一段时间的状语连用通常有两种方法:()用意思相当的持续性动词来替换Hehasbeeninthearmyasoldierforthreeyears(他参军已有年了。)不用hasjoinedShehasbeenupforquitesometime(她起床已有好久了。)不用hasgotupHasyourbrotherbeenawayfromhomeforalongtime(离家已有好久了吗,)不用hasleft常用瞬间动词相应持续性动词关系:、gobeaway、comebehere、comebackbeback、leavebeaway(benothere)、buyhave、borrowkeep、diebedead、beginbeon、finishbeover、openbeopen、closebeclosed、losebelost、gettoknowknow、turnonbeon、getupbeup、sitdownsitbeseated、joinbein(…)或bea…member、becomebe()用itis…since…结构来替换瞬间动词例如:电影已经开映分钟了。(两种方法)()Thefilmhasbeenonforfiveminutes()It’sfiveminutessincethefilmbegan他离开上海已有天了。(两种方法)()HehasbeenawayfromShanghaiforthreedays()ItisthreedayssinceheleftShanghai这本书我还给图书馆已有两周了。(一种方法)It’stwoweekssinceIreturnedthebooktothelibrary他找到他妹妹已有多久了,(一种方法)Howlongisitsincebefoundhissister、瞬间动词的否定形式可以与表示一段时间的状语连用例如:Ihaven’tseenyouforalongtime(好久没见到你了。)现在完成时专项练习一、单项选择。、BothhisparentslooksadMaybetheywhat’shappenedtohim,knew,haveknown,mustknow,willknow、HehasbeentoShanghai,hashe,already,never,ever,still、HaveyoumetMrLi,,just,ago,before,amomentago、Thefamouswriteronenewbookinthepasttwoyear,iswriting,waswriting,wrote,haswritten、OurcountryalotsofarYesIhopeitwillbeeven,haschangedwell,changedgood,haschangedbetter,changedbetter、ZhaoLanalreadyinthisschoolfortwoyears,wasstudying,willstudy,hasstudied,arestudying、WeXiaoLisinceshewasalittlegirl,know,hadknown,haveknown,knew、HarryPotterisaverynicefilmIittwice,willsee,haveseen,saw,see、ThesefarmershavebeentotheUnitedStatesReallyWhenthere,willtheygo,didtheygo,dotheygo,havetheygone、youyourhomeworkyetYesIitamomentago,Diddofinished,Havedonefinished,Havedonehavefinished,willdofinish、HisfatherthePartysince,joined,hasjoined,wasinDhasbeenin、DoyouknowhimwellSureWefriendssincetenyearsago,were,havebeen,havebecome,havemade、HowlonghaveyouhereAbouttwomonths,been,gone,come,arrived、Hurryup!Theplayfortenminutes,hasbegun,hadbegun,hasbeenon,began、Ittenyearssinceheleftthearmy,is,has,will,was、MissGreenisn'tintheofficeshetothelibrary,hasgone,went,willgo,hasbeen、MyparentsShandongfortenyears,havebeenin,havebeento,havegoneto,havebeen、Thestudentshavecleanedtheclassroom,AsotheyBdon’ttheyChavetheyDhaven’tthey、hasMrWhitebeenamemberofGreenerChinasincehetoChinaAHowsoon,comesBHowoften,gotCHowlong,cameDHowfar,arrived、HisuncleformorethanyearsAhascomehereBhasstartedtoworkChaslivedthereDhaslefttheuniversity二、句型转换。、Hehasneversurfed,(改成反意疑问句)、Theyhavebeenheresince(对划线部分提问)havetheybeenhere、TheoldmanlastyearHeforayear(die)(动词填空)、Thisfactoryopenedtwentyyearsago(同义句转换)Thisfactoryfortwentyyears、MissGaoleftanhourago(同义句转换)MissGaoanhourago、HermotherhasbeenaPartymemberforthreeyears(同义句)HermotherthePartythreeyears、TheGreenFamilymovedtoFrancetwoyearsago(同义句转换)twoyearstheGreenfamilymovedtoFrance、ThebushasarrivedhereItarrivedtenminutesago(把两个句子合并成一个句子)三、汉译英。我刚刚丢了我的化学书。(just)我以前从来没去过那个农场。(never)你已经看过这部电影了吗,我妹妹成为一个大学生已经三年。他们已去了美国五年了。(for)在年他住在这里。(since)(按ctrl点击打开)初二英语:完形填空(A)Easter(复活节)isoneofthetwomajor(主要的)Christian(基督教的)festivals(节日)Eastercelebrates(庆祝)thedeath(死亡)andresurrection(复活)ofJesusChrist(耶酥基督)andChristmascelebrateshisbirth(出生)It'snotasbigafestivalasChristmasItstartsusuallyinlateMarchorearlyAprilandtheEasterholidayisFridaySaturdaySundayandMondayIt'squitealongholidayforeverybodyThemain(主要的)symbol(象征物)ofEasteristheEastereggChildrenlikeEastereggsbecausetheyaremadeofchocolateEggsareasymbolofnewlifeEasterisalsoatimeforfamiliestogettogetherlikeChristmasManypeopleseeEasterasanicelongholidayandtheyhaveagoodtimewiththeirfamiliesandfriendsPeopleloveEasterbecauseait'salongholidaybit'sthebirthdayofJesusChristctheycanhaverealeggsonthatdaydeverybodybelievesinJesusChristFromthepassageabovewhichsentenceiswrongaEasterisoneofthemostimportantfestivalsinwesterncountriesbEasterisadaythateverybodygetshisresurrectioncEasterisareligious(宗教)festivaldMostpeopleloveEasterPeoplebegintocelebrateEasterinamidAprilorlateAprilbmidMarchorlateMarchclateMarchorearlyAprildearlyMarchormidMarchEastereggsareacoveredbychocolate(用巧克力包着的)bchocolateeggscasymbolofdeathdnotfoodFromthepassageabovewecanknowthataJesusChristdiedonChristmasDaybJesusChristwasbornonChristmasDaycJesusChristwasbornonEasterdJesusChristdiedandgothisresurrectiononChristmasDay(B)WedrinkteaeverydayButmorethanthreehundredyearsagomostofthepeopleinEurope(欧洲)didnotknowanythingaboutteaSomepeopleheardaboutit,butveryfewofthemknowwhattodowithitThereisastoryaboutanEnglishsailor(水手)whowenttocountriesintheeast,thewestandthesouthHewenttoIndiaandChinaOnedayhecamehomeandbroughtsometeaasapresentforhismotherShetoldherfriendsaboutthepresentandaskedthemtoa"teaparty"Whenherfriendscametothe"teaparty",theoldwomanoffered(给)thembrowntealeaves(茶叶)Theoldwoman'sfriendsbegantoeatthemOfcourse,nobodylikedthetealeavesAtthattimethesailorcameinHelookedatthetableandsaid,"Motherwhathaveyoudonewiththetea""Iboiled(煮)itasyousaid""Andwhatdidyoudowiththewater""Ithrewitawayofcourse"answeredtheoldwoman"Nowyoumaythrowawaytheleavestoo"saidhersonMostofthepeopleinEuropeadrankteaeverydayyearsagobdrinkteaeverydaycknownothingaboutteadliketoeatthetealeavesOnedaytheEnglishsailorbroughthismothersometeafromacountriesinthewestbcountriesinthesouthcIndiaorChinadateashopinEnglandThesailor'smotheraskedherfriendstoherhouse,becauseathesailortoldhertobshewantedtoaskherfriendswhattodowiththeteacshelikedtoshowoff(炫耀)dshewantedtosample(品尝)theteatogetherwithherfriendsAtthe"teaparty",aallthewoman'sfriendsspokehighlyoftheteabnobodyknewwhattodowiththeteacthewomanofferedherfriendssomedried(干的)teadthewomangaveherfriendseachaglassofteawaterWhatmistakedidtheoldwomanmakeSheaboiledtheteabdidasthesailorsaidcpouredawaythewaterddidn'tthrowawaythetealeaves答案:(A)adcbb(B)bcdbc

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【初二英语】现在完成时讲解[1](共6页)

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