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首页 细菌、真菌、病毒病区别与防治

细菌、真菌、病毒病区别与防治.doc

细菌、真菌、病毒病区别与防治

明早起飞2000
2017-08-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《细菌、真菌、病毒病区别与防治doc》,可适用于职业岗位领域

细菌、真菌、病毒病区别与防治田兆丰北京市农林科学院植物保护环境保护研究所裘季燕刘伟成刘德文通讯地址同第一作者摘自于年第期《蔬菜》病害种类。分清真菌病害、细菌病害和病毒病这三种病害对于防治特别是药剂防治来说是十分重要的。不同药剂防治不同病害能杀真菌的药剂未必能防病毒能治病毒的又管不了细菌。由于能够使庄稼生病的真菌是一些丝状体细菌是单细胞病毒是没有细胞结构的分子生物他们的新陈代谢方式以及脾气秉性也有很大区别对症的药剂也就不同了。我们遇到不少朋友反映防治无效细一询问经常是由于没有分清是什么病就乱打药。番茄上发生了细菌性叶斑病却错误地喷洒杀真菌的多菌灵和甲基托布津这样打再多的药剂也没效果。怎样区分真菌、细菌和病毒病害呢,首先是看症状类型。通常我们把生病植物变化分成大类型就是腐烂、坏死、变色、萎蔫、畸形。由于真菌的种类很多不同真菌能够造以上类病状其中最常见的是坏死和腐烂如玉米大小斑病、小麦叶枯病、大白菜黑斑病等各种形状的叶斑病坏死发生在根部或茎杆上就形成枯萎病、根腐病细菌通常破坏细胞壁让细胞内的物质外渗或阻塞水和营养物质在植物体内运输所以主要造成腐烂、萎蔫症状而病毒侵入植物一般不会立刻杀死植物主要是改变植物生长发育过程引起植株颜色或形状的改变我们叫它变色和畸形。真菌和细菌都可以造成腐烂病怎样区分它们呢,细菌造成的腐烂往往出水很多烂成一滩泥而真菌造成的腐烂有的较干有的湿润上面常常长出各种颜色的霉层或小黑点、小黑粒。另一个区别是细菌造成的腐烂发出臭味真菌病害没有臭味有衣物发霉甚或发酵的香味。同样是叶斑病如何区分呢,由于细菌破坏植物的细胞壁、细胞膜使细胞内物质渗到细胞间这样就变得透明所以细菌病害的病斑很像水浸或油浸状边缘有点透明。湿润条件下能够在发病部位看到亮黄色小珠子是细菌的菌脓。真菌病害会长一些霉层或小黑粒病毒病斑的表面什么东西都不长。由于传播方式的差异他们在田间的分布也会不同。细菌和水关系密切细菌病害的分布常与流水、淹水、雨滴飞溅有关病毒病害常和传毒昆虫的活动有关。观察病害田间分布情况也可以间接推测植物病毒对寄主的危害素有“植物癌症”之称防治上十分困难。病毒在侵染寄主后不仅与寄主争夺生长所必需的营养成分而且破坏植物的养分输导改变寄主植物的某些代谢平衡使植物的光合作用受到抑制致使植物生长困难产生畸形、黄化等症状严重的造成寄主植物死亡。为了有效地控制植物病毒病人们采用了各种措施lineofthebusthroughthelistofmadeamoredetailedprovisions,applymoreoperationalSevenisincreasedthearticle,inviolationoftherelevantprovisionsofthe,toparticipateinpublicfundstopayfordinner,highconsumptionofentertainment,fitnessactivitiesandpublicfundstobuygift,sendgiftstomaketheprovisionsofthedispositionOntheviolationofthecentralprovisionsofthespiritoftheeight,inadditionto><newregulationsinto"violationofhonestyandselfdiscipline"misconductoutside,isdifferentwiththeoriginal<Regulations>,revised<rule>clearlydefinednotonlytodispositionofthedirectlyresponsiblepersons,butalsodisposeofcollarGuideresponsibilities()increasedtradingrights,useofauthorityorpositioninfluenceasrelativesandclosetoprofitviolationofthetermsofthe<NewRegulations>absorption<cleanpoliticsseveralguidelines>therelevantprovisionsspirit,increasethe"negativelist,includingtradingrights,thefunctionsandpowersordutiesofinfluenceasrelativesandstaffaroundprofitIncreaseArticle"mutualuseofofficeorauthorityringforeachotherandtheirspouses,childrenandtheirspousesandotherrelatives,aroundpersonnelandotherspecificrelationshipbetweenthepeopletoseekbenefitsengageintradingrights,givenawarningorseriouswarningSanctionsifthecircumstancesarerelativelyserious,givingremovedfromorplacedonprobationwithinthepartypostifthecircumstancesareserious,shallbeexpelledfromthepartyIncreaseArticle"connivance,acquiescencetothespouse,childrenandspouseetcrelativesandstaffaroundtheeffectofPartymembersandcadrespersonalauthorityorpositionforpersonalgain,ifthecircumstancesarerelativelyminor,givenawarningoraseriouswarningifthecircumstancesarerelativelyserious,givingremovedfromorplacedonprobationwithinthepartypostifthecircumstancesareserious,thegivenExpelledfromthepartyPartymembersandcadresofthespouses,childrenandtheirspousesdoestheactualworkandgetsalaryoralthoughtheactualworkbuttoreceivesignificantlybeyondthesameranksalarystandard,Partymembersandcadresinformedfailstocorrect,inaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheprecedingparagraph"()aboutthegifts,giftsmisconductfromhandlingpracticesinrecentyears,engagedinofficialcadresreceivedgifts,giftsproblemsmoreprominentThishasseriouslyaffectedtheimageofPartymembersandcadres,damagedtherelationsbetweenthepartyandthemasses,andisahotbedofcorruption,isreallynecessaryforthiskindofbehaviortobedisciplined<rule>noonacceptinggifts,gifts,Cardconsumptionbehaviortoengageinsimple"onesizefitsall",butthedifferencebetweenthedifferentseparatelyOneisinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofArticle,acceptingmayaffecttheimpartialenforcementoftheofficialgifts,gifts,consumercardstodependingontheseriousnessofthecaseshallbegivendisciplinarysanctionsThatistosay,formayaffectthefairexecutionofbusinessgifts,gifts,consumercardsarenotallowedtoacceptisinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofArticle,acceptingwassignificantlyhigherthannormalceremonyisstillexchangesofgifts,gifts,consumercardtodisciplinaryactionThisisnewregulationsthatdailylifeispurelyreciprocity,acceptingthesamething,boys,fellowfriendsgifts,gifts,shoppingcards,althoughandfairexecutionofbusinesshasnothingtodo,alsowanttoasthecaseshallbedealtwith,thesituationisobviouslybeyondnormalreciprocity"Thesocalled"reciprocity",oneisemphasizesthereciprocalinprotocolInotherwordsisyoutomehow,Itoyouhow,notonlydoesnotgoThesecondistosignificantlyexceededthenormallocaleconomylevel,customsandhabits,economiccapacityofindividualgifts,giftvalueSpecificsanctionstoaccordingtotheprocessingofavarietyoffactorstoconsider,asappropriateThethirdistherootaccordingtotheprovisionsofArticle,"toEngagedinpublicservicepersonnelandtheirspousesandchildren,children'sspousesandotherrelativesandotherspecificrelationshippresentedMingXianchaonormalreciprocityofgifts,gifts,consumercard,ifthecircumstancesarerelativelyserious,givenawarninguntilprobation"Inaccordancewiththeaboveprovisions,giftgivingsignificantlybeyondthenormalreciprocity,giverconstitutethediscipline()onillegaltradingofstocksorofotherregulationsofsecuritiesinvestment<>ArticleisengagedinpunishmentregulationofcampandactivityinviolationoftherelevantprovisionsonAmongthem,will"buyingandsellingstocksorinothersecuritiesinvestment"columnasoneofdisciplinarycasesOutFirstneedtobeclear,><regulationsdidnotchangetheprovisionsoftheOrdinanceTheordinanceoftheprovisionsofthesecondparagraphofArticleprovisions"who,inviolationoftheprovisionsofthesaleofstocks"isoneoftheviolation,andatthebeginningofthefirstparagraphofthisarticle"violationofagainsttherelevantprovisionsofthe"textualrepresentationoftherepeatrevisionIn,justfromthelegislativetechniqueremovedthe"personal"inviolationoftheprovisions,contentandnottochangetheoriginalprovisionsNeedtoclearis,"buyorsellastockorofothersecuritiesinvestment"referstoviolationoftherelevantprovisionsreferstoinApril,thePartyCentralCommittee,theStateCouncilpromulgatedtheOntheworkofthepartyandgovernmentorgansstaff'spersonalinvestmentinsecuritiesifdryprovisions>AccordingtotheprovisionsofArticle,useofworktime,officefacilities,thesaleofstocksandsecuritiesinvestmentfundbelongstoillegalbehaviorThefourthquestion,abouttheviolationofthemassesofthedisciplinaryactions<newregulations>wouldviolatepublicdisciplinebehaviorofasinglesetofaclassofrestored"threerulesofdisciplineandeightnote"inthedisciplineofthemassesofexcellenttraditional<NewRegulations>Chapter"toviolatethemassesofdisciplinaryaction",mainlythedestructionoftheparty'sclosetieswiththemassesofmisconductmadeprovisionsondisciplinaryenrichandperfectthesuperstandard,beyondthescopeofXiangQun<Alltoraisefundandlabor,inforinvolvingthepublicaffairsdeliberately,chinakayao,insocialsecurity,policysupport,disasterrelieffundsandmaterialsandothermattersassignedanykindandaffectionatefriends,obviouslyunfairactsagainsttheinterestsofthemassesofthedisciplinarytermsincreasethetermsnotinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthepublicpartyprovided,government,factoryandvillage(neighborhood)providedetcviolationofthepeople'srighttoknowthebehaviorofthedisciplineThefifthissue,ontheviolationofworkdisciplineviolationofworkdisciplineadded"negativelist,includingPartyorganizationscarryoutstrictlyMainresponsibilityforpoordisciplineterms()thenewpartyorganizationcomprehensivestrictlythemainresponsibilityofthepartydoesnotfulfilltheorperformpoordisciplinaryterms<NewRegulations>hasaleadpeopletopayattentiontothenewterms,thatis,inchapterten"ontheviolationofworkdisciplinebehaviorpunishment"increaseintheonehundredandfourteenth"partyfailtoperformcomprehensivestrictlythemainresponsibilityofthepartyortoperformcomprehensivestrictlythemainresponsibilityforadministeringtheineffective,resultinginseriousdamageorseriousadverseeffects,tothepersondirectlyresponsibleandtheresponsibilityofleadershipandgiveawarningorseriouswarningThesituationisserious,givingremovedfromtheirpartypostsoronprobationPunishment"HerethechangesForthefirsttime,themainresponsibilitywrite<rule>()newshallreportdoesnotreportorfalsereportingdisciplineshallincreasethebar"inthehigherlevelunitstochecktoinspecttheworkorreporttotheparentunit,workreportofshallreportthemattersdonotreportordonotreport,causeseriousdamageorseriousadverseeffectsof,tothepersondirectlyresponsibleandtheresponsibilityofleadership,togivewarningoraseriouswarningifthecircumstancesareserious,givingremovedfromtheirpartypostsorplacedonprobation"Forexample,duringthetourvisitstotheregion,theunitMemberstheobligationtotheinspectionteamstoreflectthetruesituation,toconcealnotreportedorintentionallytotheinspectionteamstoprovidefalseinformation,causingseriousdamageorseriousadverseeffectsof,thepersondirectlyresponsibleandtheresponsibilityofleadershipshouldbeinaccordancewiththeprovisionsof<rule>Articletogivetheappropriatepunishment()thenewnotgrantedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofpunishment,notaccordingtotheprovisionsoftheimplementationofdisciplinarymeasuresviolationoftheprovisionsofArticle"Partyorganizationshaveoneofthefollowingcircumstances,thedirectleadershipresponsibilityProbation:membersweresentencedpunished,inaccordancewiththeprovisionsgivedisciplinaryactionorinviolationofstatelawRulesofbehaviorshouldbegivendisciplinarypunishmentanddisposeofdisciplinarypunishmentbydecisionorcomplaintreviewthedecisionmade,notinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheimplementationdecisionsonpunishmentoftheparty,position,rank,andthetreatmentofthemattersPartymemberssubjecttodisciplinaryaction,notinaccordancewiththecadremanagementauthorityandorganizationalrelationshipsofbydisposeofPartymemberstocarryouteducationandsupervisionofdailymanagement"Whatneedstobepointedoutis,"cliff"demotedwithcars,housing,secretaryproblem,implementationisnotadisciplineandpartypostsandrankstreatmentbytheorganizationdepartmentisresponsiblefortheimplementation,withcars,housingbythelogisticsdepartmentisresponsiblefortheimplementationof,JiCommissionresponsibleoversightresponsibilitiesThesixquestions,abouttheactsviolatingthedisciplineoflife"inviolationofdisciplineoflifebehaviorpunishment",mainlyto"fourwinds"problemsandaseriousviolationofsocialmorality,familyvirtueactsofmisconductmadeprovisionsondisciplinary,anincreaseofextravagantlife,contrarytothesocialpublicorderandgoodcustomsdisciplinarytermsWorthmentioningis,><RegulationsinArticleabout"adultery""mistress(Cardiff)formulationinthenew<rule>isremoved,toexpandthescopeofArticleprovisions"andothershairimpropersexualrelations,letfacedisciplinaryactionWidermorestrictFour,andearnestlydoagoodjobinthe<code>and<rule>implementsystemoflifeliesinexecution<code>and<Regulations>isPartyorganizationsatalllevelsofastrongconstraintandallPartymembersfollowLearningandimplementingthe<code>and<rule>ispartycommittees(party),commissionfordiscipline,disciplineinspectiongroup),themajorityofPartymembersandcadresofthecommonresponsibility,mustpartycaughttogether,thepartyoneexecution()Partycommittees(party)andplayandimplementcomprehensivestrictlythemainresponsibility,paysspecialattentiontothetwopartyregulationslearningcrosspenetrationOneistoAdheretothepartyconstitutionisfundamentaltofollow,andresolutelysafeguardtheauthorityofthePartyChapterThesecondistoadheretotheproblemoriented,tostrictlypoliticaldisciplineandpoliticalrulemomentsinthefirstplaceThethirdistoadheretothedisciplineandrulesquiteinfrontmustnotallowthebottomlinetobreakthedisciplineThefourthistoseriouslyorganizethestudyofpropagandaandeducation,inthecitypartymemberstocreateadisciplined,abouttherulesofthestrongatmosphere(II)CommissionforDisciplineInspectionatalllevels(DisciplineInspectionGroup)toanimportantbasisfortherevisedtwopartyregulationsas,adheretoeasilyblame,strengthensupervisionandenforcementAndearlymethodincombiningJi,increaseaccountabilityeffortsOneistotworegulationswithinthepartyimportantbasis,adheretothepartyconstitutionduties,withstrictdisciplinetomaintaintheconstitutionauthorityThesecondistoadheretohighstandardsandkeepthebottomline,adheretoJiYaninlawanddiscipline,thedisciplineandrulesquiteinfront,graspinggraspingsmall,easilyblame,comprehensiveuseofsupervisionanddisciplineof"fourkindsofform"inthedisciplineembodiesthestrictrequirementsandcareforthediscipline,tightenup,YanAccordingtodisciplineinaccordancewithregulationstocarryoutdisciplinaryreviewIncreasetheviolationspunishment,cluescaninitiateaninvestigationonthetrialofcasesAccordingtothedisciplineontheprovisionsoftheproportionofprocessingandcontrolmanagermaintainsdisciplineTofocusoninvestigatingnonconvergence,don'taccepthandseriousdisciplinaryviolationsatthesametime,paymoreattentiontothegeneralreviewofdisciplinebehavior,andgraduallyincreasethelighterpunishmentFouristoilluminatetwopartyregulations,combinedwiththelocaldistrictoftheDepartmentofpartyconductLianzhengtorelevantlawsandregulationssystemclean,timelyresearchproposestoestablish,change,wastereleaseopinion,avoidconflict,andthefastensystemofcage,andgraduallyformednotrot,notrot,notwanttorotsystemandworkingmechanism()theleadershipofthepartymembersandcadresshouldplayanexemplaryroleTherateofhigherconsciousnessofthefrontoftheOrdinancetoleadpracticeselfdisciplinenorms,leadingtomaintaindisciplineofseriousnessandauthorityOneistheaboverate,demonstrationandguidance,taketheleadinlearningandmasteringthe<code>and<>therequirementsandregulations,dothedeepunderstanding,learningtouseThesecondistoplayanexemplaryroleinabidingbydisciplinerate,taketheleadinpracticingselfdisciplinenorms,firmlyestablishbeforethedisciplineareequal,thesystemhasnoprivilege,disciplineisnoexception,andconsciouslydostandards,requiremorestrictmeasuresmorepracticalThirdistoconsciouslyacceptsupervision,conscientiouslyparticipateinthedemocraticlifeanddebriefinghonestyresponsibility,suchasRealtothepartyorganizationtoreportpersonalmatters,andtoacceptthesupervisionoftheworkandlifeofthenormal,habitsunderthesupervisionoftheexerciseofpower,tocarryouttheworkThefourthistosetanexampleforthestrictenforcementofdisciplineLeadingcadresshouldtaketheleadinthemaintenanceofdisciplineofseriousnessandauthority,todaretoseriously,daretostruggle,daretooffendpeople,formisconductnotlaissezfaire,butdonotindulge,nottoleratetoensurethepartyconstitutionofpartycompassespartyputinplace()themajorityofPartymembersandcadrestosethighstandardsandholdthebottomline,consciouslyabidebythe<code>and<rule>Oneistocontrolthe<standard>and<cases>,tightCloseconnectionwiththeirownthoughts,practicalworkandlife,effortstosolvetheproblems,toenhancethestudyandimplementoftheeffectivenessandpertinenceThesecondistoestablishahighstandardandholdthebottomline,consciouslyintheselfdisciplinepursuitofhighstandards,strictlyinthepartyawayfromtheredlinediscipline,discipline,abouttherulesandknowfear,distrust,theformationofthehonorsystem,complywiththesystem,safeguardsystemofgoodhabitsRegulationsanddisciplineregulationsof<<NewRevisionoftheCommunistPartyofChinacleanfingeredselfdisciplinecriterion>and<ChineseCommunistPartyDisciplinaryRegulations>isthePartyCentralCommitteeinthenewsituationtopromotethecomprehensivestrictlyrootofthelift,theregulationsofthepartyconstructionofkeepingpacewiththetimesWeshouldstudyandimplementtheStandards>and<>astheprimarypoliticaltask,adheretothepartyconstitutionduties,adheretothedisciplineof,JiYaninlaw,thefullimplementationofsupervisionanddisciplineaccountabilityresponsibilitiesforcoordinationandpromotion"fouroverall"strategiclayoutinXXDistrictvividpracticetoprovideastrongguaranteeSiJianWu,andeffectivelyenhancetheimplementationoftheimplementationofthe<code><>TheconsciousnessofGeneralSecretaryXipointedoutthatthepartyisinchargeoftheparty,tomanagethepartystrictly,itcancuregoodpartyCriterion>and<rule>keeppacewiththetimesisourpartytoformanewpotentialstrictlyrules,todeepenunderstandingoftherulinglaw,isacomprehensivestrictly,andstrengthenthesupervisionwithinthepartyimportantgrasperCriterion>closelylinkedtothethemeofselfdiscipline,selfdisciplineintensitymodulated,focusingonmorality,forthemajorityofPartymembersandcadressettosee,feelthehighstandard,showtheCommunistsnoblemoralsentimentDistrictOrdinance<<rule>theconstitutionofdisciplineintegrationintoapoliticaldiscipline,organizationanddiscipline,honestyanddiscipline,disciplineofthemasses,workdiscipline,discipline,emphasizediscipline,focusingonestablishedrules,todrawthepartyorganizationsandPartymembersdonottouchthebottomlinePartycommittees(party)toeffectivelystrengthenthestudyandpublicizetheimplementationofthe<code>and<rule>theorganizationandleadershipofcriterion>and<>afullrange,multiangle,deeppublicity,theformationofstudyandpublicizeandimplementtheboom,inordertoconsolidatethedevelopmentofgoodpoliticalenvironmenttocreateapositiveenvironmentandatmosphereThemajorityofPartymembersandcadrestostrictrequirements,the<rule>and<Ordinancecases>asaguidetoactionandbehaviorcriterion,adheretothemoralstandardsanddisciplineofthebottomline,tomaintainthedisciplineofworshipandawe,learning,compliance,andmaintainpartydisciplineandrulesofthemodelThedisciplineinspectionandsupervisionorgansandcadrestothe<code>and<>asthedeepeningofthe"three",andstrengthensupervisionanddisciplineofaccountabilityisimportanttofollowcorrectlygrasptheuseofsupervisionanddisciplineof"fourtypes",promotethecomprehensivestrictlyinnewrootsStrictdiscipline,adheretothedisciplineandrulesquiteinfrontoftheenterpriseintheimplementationofexpensivetoimplementtoexecuteThedisciplineinspectionandsupervisionorganstoimplementthe<code>and<Effortstoinvestigatecases>asanopportunity,adheretothepartyshouldmanagethepartystrictly,seriousperformanceoftheirdutiestopromotetworegulationsimplementationChangedisciplineconceptFromthesimple"investigationofillegal"toacomprehensive"stareatviolatediscipline"fromthebusinesscasetoprosecutethebigcasesandtimelysolvethesignsoftilttoFromtheorientationtothenormalsupervisionfromthetube"minority"toresistthe"most"GuidePartymembersandcadrestoseriouslyimplementthe<code>and<rule>,consciouslyabidebythepolitical,organizational,honestpeople,work,lifesixdisciplineUrgetheleadershipcadressenttoplayanexemplaryrole,taketheleadinstrictlyenforcedRelaxationandrestStrongwindisSuJi,closelylinkedtothe"fourwinds"pronetomultiple,themassesreflectthestrongimportantnodesand,gluedtothefourwinds"newform,newtrends,seriouslyinvestigateanddealwithviolationsofthecentraleightprovisionsofthespirit,toincreasethebulletinexposureintensity,theformationofChajiu"fourwinds"loudly,continuetoreleaseanddisciplinemustbestrictsignalAtthesametime,extendedsupervisiontentacles,throughthedevelopmentoftheruralandfisherypartyconductLianzhengconstructioninspection,issuedinatimelymanner,Chajiuoccurredingrassrootssideofcorruptionandunhealthy,andearnestlysafeguardtheinterestsofthemassesandsocialstabilityThecreativityanddisciplineGraspandmakegooduseofthesupervisionanddisciplineof"fourtypes",toensurethePromotingcluestolotsofdisciplineandthelawofthevacuumtube,stricttogetherNotonlytothe"less"and"veryfew"thoroughinvestigationseverelypunished,butalsothe"most"tomaintainzerotolerancetrendthroughlayersofconductivepressure,letthedisciplineabouttherulesforeachpartymembersandcadresconsciouslyfollowAtpresent,itisnecessarytoimplementthe"list"management,strictlyfollowthecluestothedisposaloffivestandards,maketheclassificationofdisposal,dynamiccleanupZadokPartycommitteesatalllevelstoimplementthemainresponsibility,comprehensiveuseofdisciplinaryactionandtissueprocessingandothermeanstoeffectivelycurbthecommonplace,usedtoseedonotblamethe"smallproblem",notbecauseof"practice"and"exception"ProminentDisciplinecharacteristics,theproblemsofviolationofdisciplineandrulesintothefocusofsupervisionanddisciplineanddisciplinaryreviewAtthesametime,increasecasedoublechecktheintensity,theseriousproblemsofdisciplineviolationsor"fourwinds"banbutnotabsolutely,notonlytobehelddirectlyresponsible,butalsoheldleadershipresponsibilitynotonlytopursuestudiesthemainresponsibilityofthePartycommittee,andtopursueCommissionforDisciplineInspectionandsupervisionresponsibilitiesandpromoteaccountabilitytobecomethenewnormTheimplementationofsupervisoryresponsibilityMaintain<code>and<rule>theseriousnessandauthorityofthedisciplineandrulesandtrulybecometheparty'srulerDisciplineassupervisionwithinthepartythespecializedagency,wemuststrengthentheresponsibilitytoact,adheretotheImpartialdisciplineaccountability,earnestlywillbestrictdiscipline,disciplinemustbepunished,andseverelypunishtheactsinviolationofrulesandregulation
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