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首页 高考语法考点总结(Summary of college entrance examination…

高考语法考点总结(Summary of college entrance examination grammar examination sites).doc

高考语法考点总结(Summary of college ent…

zheng英慧
2018-12-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《高考语法考点总结(Summary of college entrance examination grammar examination sites)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

高考语法考点总结(Summaryofcollegeentranceexaminationgrammarexaminationsites)高考语法考点总结(Summaryofcollegeentranceexaminationgrammarexaminationsites)SummaryofcollegeentranceexaminationgrammarexaminationsitesInonpredicateverbsIinfinitive:*theusualformofinfinitive:()generalform:He,decided,to,work,harder,in,order,to,catch,,up,with,the,othersPassiveform:He,preferred,to,be,assigned,some,heavier,,work,to,doGrammaticalfunction:therepresentationoccursinconjunctionwiththepredicateverb()completeform:He,pretended,not,to,have,seen,mePassiveform:The,book,is,said,to,have,been,,translated,into,many,languagesGrammaticalfunction:therepresentationoccursbeforethepredicateverbThetestpointofaninfinitive:)aninfinitiveasanattributewillhappen)infinitiveasadverbial)infinitiveactsasnoun,functionTo,see,is,to,believe*omissionofinfinitive)sensoryverbssee,watch,observe,notice,look,at,hear,listen,to,smell,taste,feeldoindicatestheintegrityandauthenticityoftheactiondoingindicatescontinuityandprogressionofactionI,saw,him,work,in,the,garden,yesterdayIsawhimworkinginthegardenyesterday(emphasizingthefactthatIsawit)I,saw,him,working,in,the,garden,yesterdayIsawhimworkinginthegardenyesterday(emphasison"Iseehimworking")Thesensoryverbfollowedbyanadjectiveratherthananadverb:The,cake,tastes,good,It,feels,comfortablehavebidmakelet)causativeverbwordsaftertheinfinitivetoomitbutwith)aspassiveafterreductionoftoI,'d,like,to,have,John,do,itI,have,my,package,weighedPaul,doesn't,have,to,be,made,to,learn())help,help,Sb,do,help,Sb,to,do,help,,do,help,to,do*someverbsfollowonlyinfinitive,suchas:Want,wish,hope,manage,promise,refuse,pretend,plan,offer,decide,agree,expect,allow,Sb,to,do,cause,Sb,to,do,permit,Sb,to,do,enable,,do,Sb,toForce,Sb,to,do,be,likely,to,do,love,to,do,warn,Sb,more,to,do,,be,able,do,toBe,ambitious,to,do,begin,to,do,do,start,to,Weagreedherebutso,farshehasn'tturnedupyet(NMET)Ahaving,met,Bmeeting,Cto,meet,Dto,have,met(Key:C)*sometimestocomesintheformofingAccustom(oneself)tobeaccustomedtofaceuptoinadditiontolookforwardtoobjecttobereducedtoresignoneselftoberesignedtoresorttosinktobeusedtobealternativetobecloseclosenesstobededicationdedicatedtobeoppositionopposedtobesimilaritysimilartoTheingformafter*needwanthasapassivemeaningAmongthem,wantisnotverycommonHeneeds(a,lot,of)encouragingTwoNounswithmotorcharacteristics)isthenounseeingisbelieving)hastheverbcharacteristic,maytaketheobjectstarving,troops,is,necessary*intheformofgerund:Generalform:I,don't,like,you,smokingCompletionform:I,regret,not,having,taken,your,advicePassiveform:This,question,is,far,from,being,settledAgerund)thegerundisthesubjectandthepredicateverbissingular)inthegerundandinfinitive,theobjectoftheprepositionisthegerund)negativegerundialdirectlyinfrontofitwithnegativewords,theaccusativeorpossessivepronounsaregivenintheformoflogicalsubjectI,would,appreciate,back,this,afternoon(MET)Ayou,to,call,Byou,call,Cyou,calling,Dyou're,calling,calling(Key:C,your,andsoon)I,regret,not,having,taken,your,advice)somewordscanonlybefollowedbynounsAdmitappreciateavoidcelebrateconsidercontemplatedeferdelaydenydetestdiscontinuedislikedisputeenjoyitentailsescapeexcuseexplainfancyfeellikefinishforgivecan'thelphinderimagineitinvolveskeepitmeansmentionmindmissitnecessitatespardonpostponepracticepreventrecallreportresentresistrisksuggestunderstand*therearealsosomecommonlyusedexpressionsintheformofing:It'snogoodit'snolittlehardlyanyuseit'snothardlyscarcelyuseit'sworthwhilespendmoneytimethere'snothere'snopointinthere'snothingworsethanwhat'stheusepoint*somewordscanbefollowedbyinfinitiveandGerundRemember,forget,try,stop,ing,go,on,cease,mean,followedbyaninfinitiveandaform,meaningisnotallowedI,remembered,to,post,the,letters(refertofuturepast,futureactions)I,remembered,postinghaving,posting,the,letters(Irememberthisaction)TheusageofforgotrememberissimilarI,regret,to,inform,you,thatIregrettoinformyouthatIregrettedhavingleftthefirmaftertwentyyearsinorderto"leavetwentyyearsago"andregretTrytoYoureallymusttrytoyourovercomeshynessTryingtestTry,practicing,five,hours,a,dayI,mean,to,go,but,my,father,would,not,allow,me,toplan,thinkIwanttogo,butmyfatherwon'tletmegoTo,raise,wage,means,increasing,purchasing,powermeansincreasingwagesmeansincreasingpurchasingpowerTheuseofprefer:IwouldratherwaithereThree,participle:Presentparticiple,active,pastparticiple,passivestate*thepresentparticipleform:)generalexpressions:Do,you,see,the,man,talking,to,the,Dean(director)(synchronouswithpredicateverb))completeforms:Not,having,made,adequate,preparations,they,failed(beforepredicateverb))completepassiveforms:Having,been,adapted,the,script,seems,perfect(predicateverbbeforeandpassive)*pastparticiple)pastparticiplerepresentspassivity:Fight,no,battle,unprepared)theformofpastparticiple:You'll,find,the,topic,being,discussed,everywhere(emphasisisbeingdone)Thesethreekindsofnonfiniteverbscanformacompoundstructure,andtheconstituentsofthenonfiniteverbsarethelogicalsubjectsofthesenonfiniteverbsTheagreementbetweenthemactiveorpassive,isoftenthetestsiteAclause,topayattentiontothelogicalsubjectbetweenthewordandhiminfrontoftheactivepassiverelationshipTwo:subjunctivemoodandmodalverbThebasicusagesanddistinctionsofmodalverbsInrecentyears,thebasicusagesanddifferencesofmodalverbshavebeenexaminedbymeansofcontextinthecollegeentranceexaminationquestionsTherefore,itisveryimportanttounderstandandgraspthebasicusagesofmodalverbsinnormalstudyTheuseofmodalverbsiscomplexandchangeableInthecollegeentranceexaminationquestions,theparticipantsoftenusethecontextandthenuancesofthesentencetotestthestudents'understandingandmasteryofthemodalverbsFormodalverbs,inadditiontorequiringcandidatestoaccuratelygrasptheirbasicusage,theyshouldalsomakefulluseofthecontextsetbythecollegeentranceexaminationquestionstoanalyzethespecialrelationshipbetweensentencesThenextfewyearsinthecollegeentranceexaminationquestionsarisinginthemodalverbstestsiteforinductiveanalysis,sothatstudentsreviewandmasterOne,"saidHavedonemodalverb"structureofpastactionthatthecollegeentranceexaminationiscommonlyusedinthepasttenseorpasttimetosuggestTheuseofmodalverbscanbesummedupin"unityofopposites",whenthefrontandbacksentencesarecomplementarytoeachotherinactionandmeaning,andthewholesentenceisintendedtobeawholeinactionandtime,wecanusethe"unified"relationshiptosolvesuchquestionsCommonstructuresare:Musthavedone:Expressaffirmativepredictionsofpastactions,oftentranslatedas"musthavebeendone""ItcanonlybeusedinaffirmativesentencesThenegativeformofcan'tcouldn'thavedoneTheinterrogativetypeisCanCouldHavedoneCouldmighthavedone:indicatesthepossibilityofanactionthatoccurredinthepast"Suchas:())My,sister,met,him,at,the,Grand,Theater,yesterday,afternoon,so,,heLectureandYour(Shanghai)Acouldn'thaveattendedBneedn'thaveattendedCmustn'thaveattendedDshouldn'thaveattendedChooseA)Jackyet,otherwisehewouldhavetelephonedme(Shanghai'Amustn'thavearrivedBshouldn'thavearrivedCcan'thavearrivedDneed,not,have,arrived(C)whenthetestbeforeandafterthesentenceintheactionandsignificanceofadevelopment,oftenwiththehelpofbut,however,instead"andotherwordstoexpresspastactionsinconsistentwiththefacts,thenwecanuse"opposites"tosolvesuchquestionsThiskindofstructureiscommon:Shouldhavedoneoughthavedoneto:indicatesthatsomethingshouldhavebeendoneinthepast,butdidnotactuallydoitShouldnothavedoneoughttohavedone:notmeansthatitshouldn'thavedonesomethinginthepast,butitactuallydidThesentenceconjunctionsbetweensentencesbeforeandafterthebutisoppositerelationship,analyzethisproblemshouldbeCTwoCompareandanalyzethebasicusagesofmodalverbsInrecentyears,thecollegeentranceexaminationoftenrelyonspecificcontexttoexaminethecandidatesforthebasicmodalverbsofthemostcommonunderstandingandmastering,sodoingsuchquestionsshouldcarefullyanalyzetheactualsignificancecontainedinthecontextofcombiningthebasicmeaningofmodalverbsandmaketherightchoicebylawSubjunctiveThemostnaturalvirtualstate:theshouldwouldprototypetense(withnotime,onlystate)Inessence,thepastisthefuture:thatis,timeisfixedinthepast,thefutureisdifferent:thegeneral,theongoing,thecomplete,thecompletedAtthispoint,thesubjunctivearisesbecausewehavetosay,"itshouldhavebeen""(andnotyet)ItcouldhavebeenItcouldhavebeenThissubjunctivemoodoccursinsomecommonsentencepatterns,Inthesubordinateclause,shouldisoftenomittedO,suggest,advise,propose,recommend,planO,demand,order,direct,arrange,command,decideO,require,requestO,think,expect,believe,insist,suspectBecausetheirmeaningsincludetheimplicationsof"suggestion,hypothesis,andshould",theclausethatiscausedbythemwillcontainasubjunctivemoodconsistingoftheshouldarchetypaltenseTheseverbs(andtheirformsofaddress,participleforms)causeclausesandotherdeformationsSubjectclause,predicativeclauseandappositiveclauseIt'ssuggestedthatMysuggestionisthatTheonlysuggestionthatThe,only,suggestion,I,can,give,you,now,that,isSomedescribethepredicativeclausecausedbywords,willhavethesamesituationImportantnecessaryessentialIt'snaturalstrangeincrediblethatApityashamenowonderBylest,for,fear,that,in,case,shouldisusedinClausesTheexpressioniscontrarytothefactsistheoppositeofthepresent:usethepasttense:I,wish,I,were,not,here(general,present,general,past)Suppose,we,were,not,hereHe,loved,me,as,if,I,were,his,own,son(general,present,general,past)Hope,I,weren't,always,losing,things(now,yes,inthepast)If,onlyIf,I,hadn't,been,there!(nowdone,doneinthepast)What,if,I,hadn't,been,waiting,right,here(nowdone,done,doneinthepast)Regularsentencepattern:It's(high)time(that)Wouldrather(that)Thesetwoclausescanonlyexpresstheviewofthepresent,sothereisonlyasimplepasttenseintheclause,contrarytothepast:pastperfecttense,contrarytothefutureThefuturedoesn'thappen,soitcanonlybespeculatedandtheimplementationmaybeverysmallI,wish,he,could,not,smoke,any,moreHowever,becauseyoucanusebetotorepresentthefuture,thereisoftenaweretointhesubjunctivemooditisalsotheusualgrammarpointofCETSubjunctiveconditionalsentenceIntheoifsection,makeahypothesiscontrarytothefact(soonlythegeneralpastandthepastarecomplete)ThemainpartofO,itissaidthatthispresumablybasedonthegeneraluseofmodalverbswould,couldmightshoulduseafewcasesOnote:thereisalogicalrelationbetweenthetwoparts,butthereisnonecessaryconnectionbetweenthetwopartsofthepredicateverbtense"Notethattheifinthesubjunctiveconditionalscanbeomitted,causingwerehadtoadvanceandproduceinversionTheimpliednonrealcondition:thetermsaregivenbyspecialwords:with,without,in,but,for,otherwise,orHow,could,I,be,happy,you,without,In,his,shoes,I,would,kill,myselfBut,for,the,storm,we,would,have,arrivedThree,consistentrelationship()subjectpredicateagreement,subjectpredicateagreement(independentofparenthesis)thedivisionprinciplebetweensubjectandpredicate:thesubjectpredicatecanbeseparatedbyattributiveclauseoromittedattributiveclause、thesubjectpredicateagreementintheattributiveclause:agreewitheachother:NtogetherwithNAswellasIncludingAlongwithWithofAccompaniedwithby,thenearestprinciple:N,or,N,v(neighborhoodprinciple)EitherNorNcountableNandcountablenv(PL)NoncountableNandnoncountablenv(PL)例外:andpeaceis,andpeace是一个整体但是如果主语表示的是同一个概念,同一人,同一事的时候,谓语动词用单数,这种结构的特征是and连接的两个词只有一个冠词theironandsteelindustryisveryimportanttoourcountrytheheadmasterandmathematicalteacheriscomingtheheadmasterandthemathematicalteacherarecoming类似的还有:laworder,breadandbutter,blackandwhitetoloveandtobelovedisalawyerandateacherarealawyerandteacheris随后原则:notabutbnotonlyabutalsobv(与b一致)百分比结构:most,helped,rest,amajority,onepersentofnv(由n决定倒装结构的主谓一致:(a)thereben由名词决定动词(b)among,between等介词位于句首引起倒装结构:amongbetween系动词n(由名词决定动词)theadj的主谓一致:(a)当表示"一类人"(b)当表示某一抽象概念时thegoodisalwaysattractivetododoing主从vs*morethanonenmanyanadayortwo二)、倒装全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时常见的结构有:upwenttheplane=theplanwentup)here,there,now,then,thus等副词置于句首,谓语动词常用be,come,go,lie,run)表示运动方向的副词(back,down,off,up)或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词注意:)上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能倒装herehecomesawaytheywent)谓语动词是be的时候,不能倒装hereitishereyouare)形容词短语分词短语位于句首,引起倒装*typicalofcharacteristicof*coincidingwithn)表示地点范围的介词短语位于句首,谓语动词为系动词,一定引起倒装in(表语)系动词主,主同*在倒装句型答案中不能出现there*常考介词要倒装:amongbetweeninatbeneath常考的系动词:bemayexistremainremainder部分倒装否定adv位于句首,引起倒装:notonly,notuntil,hardly,scarcely,seldom,rarely,nosoonerthan)notuntil时间主谓倒装,notuntil句子主谓倒装)only状语位于句首onlyad):recentlyprep短短语ecinrecentlyyears从句ec:whenclauseonly一个词本身不倒装)在比较级结构中,than后面可以倒装,也可以不倒装部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do,does或did,并将其置于主语之前)neither,nor,as表示前面句子的共同否定或者肯定,产生倒装,一般主动词提前,Otherpartsofthepredicateverb)asthoughguidemustbepredicativeoradverbialclauseofconcessioninadvance(adjective,adverb,verbparticiple,advance)Asconcession,though,despitewordinversionToneisstrongerthanthoughSuccessfulas,he,is,he,is,not,proud,heissuccessful,butnotproudWomen,as,she,is,she's,every,braveTry,hard,as,he,will,he,never,seems,able,to,,do,the,work,satisfactorilyNote:A)thefirstnounofthesentencecannottakeanyarticleB)thefirstsentenceisaverb,otherauxiliaryverbsonthesubjectIfthenotionalverbhasanobjectandanadverbial,putitwiththenotionalverbbeforethesubject)otherpartsoftheflipA)soSointhatsentencepatternssuchThesuchinthethatsentencepatternneedstobeinvertedatthebeginningofthesentenceSo,frightened,was,he,that,he,did,not,dare,to,,move,an,inch(b)insomesentencepatternsthatexpresswishes:May,you,all,be,happy(c)insubjunctiveconditionalclauses,clauses,predicates,verbs,suchaswere,had,should,etc,canomitif,movewere,had,andshouldtothesubject,andtakepartialinversionWere,I,you,I,would,try,it,againFour,compoundsentenceClausescanbedividedinto:Nounclauses'subjectclause,objectclause,predicativeclauseandappositiveclauseAdjectiveclause'attributiveclause'Adverbialclause'adverbialclauseFrequentlyusedrelationalpronouns:thatwhichwhowhomwhosewhereaswhenwhat"Theappositiveclausetheexistingcommonwords(abstractnounsbeforethat):fact,idea,news,hope,conclusion,evidence,opinion,problem,thought,understanding"Commonguidingwords"Otimeadverbialclause:whilewhenbeforewheneverasaftertilluntilsinceonceeversinceassolongasassoonasnosoonerThanhardlyWhenscarcelybarelyWhenthemomentminuteinstanton(the,point,of)doingOplaceadverbialclause:wherewhereverOreasonadverbialclause:becausesinceasseeingthatconsideringthatnowthatinthatforfearthatlestowingtothefactthatbecauseofthefactthatthatfactduetotheOwayadverbialclause:asasifasthoughhowsavethatOcomparisonadverbialclause:asthanasAsnotsoAshardlyThanOresultadverbialclause:sothatsoThatsuchThatsoastoOconditionaladverbialclause:ifunlessincasesolongassofarasprovidedprovidingthatsupposinggrantedgrantingthatGivingthatOconcessionadverbialclause:thoughalthoughevenifeventhoughwhetherasnomatter(what,how,when)for,all,thatin,spite,of,the,fact,thathowevergrantedthatregardlessofthatthefactOpurposeadverbialclause:thatsothatinorderthatlestforthefearthatincaseFixingsolution:Theattributiveclausestructureguidedbywhich)whichisarelativepronoun,andwhichshouldbefollowedbyasentencelackingthesubjectorobject,Inthissentence,whichisusedasaconstituent,subjectorobject)inwhichcompletesentencesWhichistheobjectofinintheattributiveclause,Soyoucan'tbethesubjectofthefollowingsentence)noun,of,which,predicateverbOfwhichtomodifynouns,nounsintheattributiveclauseasthesubject,sothelatterdirectlywiththepredicateverbI,have,five,books,three,of,which,are,,borrowed,from,Mary)prepositionwhich,to,do,itsfunctionisequivalenttotheattributiveclauseThe,key,with,which,to,open,the,door,lost,is)ellipsisstructureofattributiveclause:ifthatwhichistheobjectintheset,itcanbeomittedSubvtn(whichthat)subvtSvtnsvSvtnnvt*ifyoufindtwonounstogether,butyoudon'tseemtobeabletoconnectthem,youmustomitthatWhich,theverbisVT,thepredicate)aspecialomissionfromwhichitismadeTheway(inwhich)sentenceThe,reason(why,that)sentencesarecompletesentencesThetime(thatwhen)sentenceI,do,remember,the,first,time(thatprovince),I,ever,heard,the,sweetest,voice,,in,the,worldBy,the,timeprovince,thatsentences,sentences()themainsystemisomitted(themainsystemcanbesavedatthesametime)Namely:which,be,who,be,that,becansaveatthesametimeAdverbialclauseellipsisstructureInthisway,thesubjectoftheomissionclauseneedstosatisfythefollowingtwoconditions:First,thespecificadverbialclauseGuide:Although,though,even,though,when,while,as,if,etcSecond,itmustbeconsistentwiththemainsubjectThird,thepredicateoftheclausemustbethebeverb,thesubjectandthebeverbcomeinandout,forexample,theabovetheyandareareeitheromittedorretainedatthesametime*theuseofparenthesisandparenthesisincollegeentranceexaminationInNMET,parenthesisiscommon,becausetheparenthesisisusuallynotsyntacticallyrelatedtootherelementsinthesentence,whichmakesitdifficultfortheexamineetounderstandMostoftheparenthesesareseparatedbycommastoindicatethespeaker'sattitudetowhatthesentencesaysParenthesiscanbeaword,aphrase,orasentenceAnadverbialoftenusedasaninsertedlanguageIndeedyes,surelyishoweverobviously,however,obviously,franklyfrankly,naturally,luckily(orhappily)forsbfortunatelystrangelysomeonelucky,fortunately,strange,honestlyreallybriefly,simplysaysoSurely,shewontgotoChinaTelecomwith'syouOfcourse,shewon'tgototheChinaTelecomwithyouStrangely,he,has,not,been,to,Unicom,Still,more,strangely,China,he,has,not,,called,meStrange,hewillbeinChinaUnicominthefutureEvenmorestrange,hedidn'tcallmeFortunately,IfoundthebookthatI'sdlostFortunately,IfoundthebookthatIhadlostTwoAnadjectiveorphrasethatiscommonlyusedasanparenthesisTruereally,funnyisfunny,strangetosaysaid,"strange,needlesstosay,needlesstosay,mostimportantofallisthemostimportant,worsestillworse"Strange,to,,say(orTrue),he,should,have,done,such,a,thingOddlyenough(ortrue)heshouldhavedonesuchathingMostimportantofall,youeachoverfulfilledyourowntaskWhat'smore,youhaveoverfulfilledyourtasksThreePrepositionalphrasescommonlyusedasparenthesisIn,a,few,words(orin,sum,in,short),inshort,in,other,words,inotherwords,in,a,sense,inasense,Ingeneralgeneralinmyview,inmyopinion,inhisopinion(judgment)inhisopinion(judgment),inconclusioninsummaryinanutshell,infactinthefirstplaceinfact,firstofall,theinadditionofcourseinaddition,ofcourse,toourknowledgeasfarasweknow,tomyjoy(delight,satisfaction)mademehappy(happy,satisfied),totheirsurprise(astonishmentamazement)surprisedthem,toherregret(disappointment)toherregret(disappointment),forinstance(orexample)forexample,asamatteroffactinfact

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