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首页 AP Chemistry Syllabus

AP Chemistry Syllabus.doc

AP Chemistry Syllabus

wang安乐
2019-06-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《AP Chemistry Syllabusdoc》,可适用于医药卫生领域

APChemistrySyllabusAPChemistrySyllabusCourseOverview:APChemistryisthebasicprofessionalknowledgeingeneralChemistryItisequivalenttothatoftheyearlongcollegepreuniversitylevellearningofChemistryconceptsChemistrycontainsallnecessaryteachingmaterialaboutStructureofMatter,StatesofMatter,Reactions,DescriptiveChemistry,LaboratoryThecoursedeliverytargettimeisscheduledasweeksofclassroomstudyEachweekhasminimumlessonsofminuteperiodAtthebeginningofeachchapter,studentsaregivenaReadingGuidethatlistsreadingassignmentstobecompletedpriortoclassandincludesspecificreadinggoalsforeacheveningAttheendofeachunitthestudentsaregivenastudyguidethatincorporatesallthemajorconcepts,applicationsandcalculationsforthatunitSolutionsarepostedandstudentsareresponsibleforcheckingtheirownworkandcorrectingmistakesCourseObjectives:DevelopstrongproblemsolvingandcriticalthinkingskillsDevelopandreinforceacollaborative,teamworkproblemsolvingapproachesDeveloplaboratoryskillsincluding:questioning,developinganexperimentalprocedure,observing,datacollection,anddataanalysis,includinggraphicalanalysisDevelopanunderstandingofhowweexperiencechemistryinoureverydaylivesandofhowchemistryisappliedintherealworldMediumofInstruction:ENGLISHQuizzesTests:AcoupleofquizzesaregivenattheendofeachunitPeriodictestcontainsmultiplechoicequestions,openended,structureandskilltestquestionsbasedonAPexamstyleAPExamReviewFourweekswillbedevotedtoageneralreviewandexampreparationGrading:PeriodicTestQuizzesLaboratoryreportsMidtermExamClassroomactivitiesAttendanceTextBook:CrackingtheAPChemistryExam,Edition(Revised)(CollegeTestPreparation)LaboratoryStudentsarerequiredtoworkingroupsoftwotofourstudents,dependingonclasssizeEachindividualstudentisrequiredtowritealabreportforeachlabperformedandkeptinasectionoftheirnotebookLabgroupsareencouragedtoworkonthereportstogetherbuttheymustbeturnedinandstoredindividuallyEachlabreportincludesthefollowingsections:Introduction(astatementoftheproblemorinvestigation,includingnecessarybackgroundinformationandhypotheses),Materials,Procedures,QuantitativeData,QualitativeData,Results,AnalysisandConclusionsGroupsaregivenonetotwoperiodstocompletealabandiftheyhavenotfinishedbythattimetheyarerequiredtocompletethelabafterschoolbeforethewriteupisdueHomeworkHomeworkisgivenfrequentlyandemphasizesconceptsandcalculationstaughtinclasseachdayAllhomeworkisgradedandlatehomeworkisnotacceptedEachproblemisselectedtonotonlyreiterateimportantmaterialbutalsotocompelthestudentstousetheirknowledgeinwaysnotdiscussedinclassHomeworkisworkedoutandgradedbythestudentsinclassonthedayitisdueproblemsandconcernsareaddressedatthistimeaswellIfthestudentscometosomethingtheycannotcomplete,IwillstepinandexplainPreparingFortheAPExamThroughouttheyearproblemsfromreleasedtestsaregivenasextracreditordiscussionquestionstoenrichlearningofaparticulartopicTheclassisdesignedtofinishinmidAprilandthreeweeksaregiventoexampreparationStudentstakeatleastthreebutnomorethansixreleasedtests,scorethemandthenacoupleofperiodsaregiventoclassdiscussiononquestionsthatweretroublesomebeforethenexttestistakenInsomecases,contentreviewhandoutsaregivenifnecessarytorefreshstudentknowledgeofparticulartopicsStudentsareencouragedtotakeotherpracticetestsoutsideofclassandpresentinterestingorespeciallydifficultproblemstotheclassCoursetopicsandtimeline:Thecourseisarrangedbychapter,majorinformationandlabshowever,itdoesnotfollowthesequenceofthetextbookChapter:Introduction:MatterandMeasurement(weeks)StatesofMatterMixturesandmeansofseparationElementsandCompoundsPhysicalandChemicalchangespropertiesSIUnits(includeshethreetemperaturescalesandnecessaryconversions)PrecisionandAccuracywithapplicationtoscientificdataSignificantFiguresCalculationsDimensionalAnalysis:includessimplecalculationsandmorecomplicatedcalculationsinvolvingtemperature,length,speed,densityandtimeLabs()EvidenceforaChemicalChange:studentswillbeperformingandobservingseveralprecipitatereactionsTheymustthenhypothesizewaystorecovervariousproductsfromthesolutionsandprovidewordequationsforthereactionsStudentsmustalsodescribetheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofmetalrecyclingdoneintheexperiment()DensityofSolidsandLiquids:MeasurementsSignificantFigures:StudentsmustcalibrateavolumetricpipetteandgraduatedcylinderusingtemperatureanddensityofwaterdataTheymustthenfindthedensityofanunknownliquid,regularlyshapedsolidandanirregularlyshapedsolid()SeparationoftheComponentsofaMixtureBasedonPhysicalProperties:Afterseparatingamixturebasedonsolubility,meltingpointsandboilingpoints,studentsmustdeterminethemasspercentofeachcomponentofthemixtureChapter:Atoms,MoleculesandIons(week)HistoryofAtomicTheoryDiscoveryofAtomicStructureIsotopesFormulasandNomenclatureofMolecules,IonicCompoundsandAcidsChapter:ElectronicStructureofAtoms(weeks)NatureofLightandElectromagneticRadiationPhotonsandthePhotoelectricEffectBohr’sModeloftheHydrogenAtomCalculationsinvolvingtherelationshipsbetweenelectronenergy,orbit,theRydbergconstant,andenergychangesduetochangeinprincipalquantumnumberDeBroglie’sequationTheHeisenbergUncertaintyPrincipleThePauliExclusionPrincipleandHund’sRuleOrbitalDiagramsElectronConfigurationsQuantumNumbersLabs()FlameTests:ThestudentswilltesttheflameproducedbyvariousmetalnitratesandsodiumchlorideStudentswillhavetotakeintoaccounttheprobablecontaminationofsodiuminothermetalsandtheuseofcobaltglassChapter:PeriodicProperties(weeks)HistoryandDevelopmentofPeriodicTablePeriodicityconcerningthefollowingtopicswithrequiredexplanationofreasonforobservedtrend:atomicsize,bondingatomicradii,ionizationenergyandelectronaffinityComparisonofPropertiesofmetals,nonmetalsandmetalloidsTrendswiththeActiveMetalsTrendswithNonmetals,includinghydrogen,theoxygengroup,thehalogensandthenoblegasesLabs()AnActivitySeries:StudentswillhavetotestthereactionsofseveralmetalsandthehalidesandarrangethemintoanactivityseriesbasedontheresultsThislabalsointroducesthemtotheconceptsofoxidationreductionstandardreductionpotentialsChapter:BasicConceptsofChemicalBonding(weeks)LewisStructuresandtheOctetRulewithrelationshiptoionizationEnergeticsofIonicBondFormation,withcalculationsoflatticeenergyInvestigationoftheBornHaberCycleFormationandsizeofIons(bothmonatomicandpolyatomic)IsoelectronicSeriesLewisStructuresofCovalentMolecules(includesexceptionstooctetrule)Electronegativity,PolarityandDipoleMomentsCalculationofFormalChargeUsingLewisStructuresResonanceStructuresCalculationofBondReactionEnthalpywithrelationshiptobondlengthLab()EnergyEntropy:PhaseChanges:StudentswilldeterminethefreezingandmeltingpointofsodiumthiosulfatepentahydrateAfterthedatahasbeengathered,studentsmustplottheirresultsandusethegraphtocomparetheirquantitativeresultswiththeentropyofthesubstanceChapter:MolecularGeometryandBondingTheories(weeks)MolecularShapeandVSEPRTheoryEffectsofLonePairsandMultipleBondsonBondAnglesExpandedValenceShellsSigmaandPiBondsHybridizationMultipleBondsandDelocalizedPiBondingwithemphasisonbenzeneBondOrderParamagnetismandDiamagnetismLab()MolecularModels:LewisDotFormulas,VSEPRTheoryandValenceBondTheory:StudentswillusethechemicalformulaofacompoundtodeterminetheLewisdotstructure,electronicgeometry,model,moleculargeometry,symmetryandpolarity()WaterofCrystallizationandFormulaofaHydrate:StudentswilldeterminetheamountofwaterinabariumchloridehydrateafterthewaterhasbeendrivenoffUsingthemassoftheanhydrouscompound,studentsmustcalculatethenumberofmolesofwaterlostinthereactionOncethenumberofmolesofwaterhasbeendetermined,theempiricalformulaofthehydratecanbedeterminedChapter:Stoichiometry:CalculationswithChemicalFormulasandEquations(weeks)LawofConservationofMassChemicalEquationsTypesofChemicalReactionsReactionPredictionAverageAtomicMassPercentageCompositioncalculationsMolarMassandAvogadro’sNumberwithinterconversioncalculationsCalculationofEmpiricalandMolecularFormulasgivenpercentcompositionReactionStoichiometryLimitingReactantswithcalculationstodetermineamountofproductcreatedandexcessreactantremainingTheoreticalYieldLabs()FindingtheRatioofMolesofReactantsinaChemicalReaction:ThestudentswillmixasodiumhypochloritesolutionwithaSolutionB(therearedifferentchoices)andmeasurethetemperaturechangesduringthereactionTheymustrepeattheexperimentatleasttimeswithdifferentratiosofreactantsStudentsmustthenplotthetemperaturechangestodeterminethestoichiometricmoleratioofreactants()AnalysisofSilverAlloy:StudentsmustanalyzeasilveralloytodeterminethepercentageofsilverinthealloybyprecipitatingthesilverwithsodiumchlorideandfilteringitwithMnitricacid()SynthesisofAlum:Studentswillsynthesizealumusingasolutionthatcontainspotassium,aluminumandsulfateionsTheymustsetupavacuumfiltrationapparatustoacidifythesolutionduringtheexperimentThen,afterdryingthecrystals,thestudentsmustcalculatethetheoreticalyieldofcrystalsandtheirpercentyield()AnalysisofAlum:StudentswillusethealumproducedinthepreviouslabandwillanalyzeittoensuretheyactuallyproducedalumcrystalsFirsttheywillcomparethemeltingpointoftheircompoundtotheactualmeltingpointofalumThen,theywillheatthealumtodriveoffthewaterandusethecooledmasstodeterminetheempiricalformulaoftheircompoundLastly,theywilldeterminethepercentofsulfatepresentintheircompoundbyprecipitatingitoutwithbariumUsingthemassofbariumsulfateandthemassofthealum,thepercentofthesulfatecanbecalculatedChapter:GeneralPropertiesofAqueousSolutions(weeks)ElectrolyticPropertiesPrecipitationReactionsSolubilityGuidelinesNetIonicEquationsAcidBaseReactionsOxidationReductionReactionsIdentificationofOxidationNumbersTheActivitySeriesMolaritywithconversioncalculationsinvolvingvolume,density,massandmolesDilutioncalculationsTitrationsLabs()AcidBaseTitrations:AnalysisofAcidSolutionsofUnknownConcentrations:Themolarityofanacidsolutionwillbedeterminedafterthevolumeofbasenecessarytotitrateitisfound()TestforIronIIandIronIIIIons:StudentswillusethecomplexferrocyanideferricyanideionstoqualitativelytestforthepresenceofironIIandironIIIions()AnalysisofaCommercialBleach:Studentswilldeterminetheamountofhypochloriteionpresentinacommercialbleachsampleusingtheoxidationreductiontitrationofiodinethiosulfateusingstarchtoprovideamoresensitiveendpoint(addedtowardtheendofthetitration)StudentswillusetheinformationgatheredinthetitrationtodeterminethemolarityofthebleachandthenusethemolaritytodeterminethepercentofsodiumhypochloriteinthebleachThepercentofsodiumhypochloritedeterminedwillbecomparedtothepercentreportedonthebleachtodeterminepercenterrorandaveragedeviation()Conductivity:StudentswilluseaconductivitytestertoqualitativelytesttheconductivityofvarioussolidsandliquidsChapter:Thermochemistry(week)TypesofEnergy,WorkandHeatTheFirstLawofThermodynamicswithcalculationsinvolvingenergy,heatandworkrelatedtoendothermicandexothermicpropertiesTheStateFunctionsEnthalpyandassociatedcalculations:enthalpyofreaction,calorimetry,specificheat,bombcalorimetry,andHess’sLawEnthalpyofFormationFoods,FuelAlternativeEnergySourcesincludingdiscussionofrenewableenergysourcesLabs()ThermochemistryandHess’sLaw:StudentsmustfirstcalculatetheheatcapacityofthecalorimeterThen,studentswillmeasurethetemperaturechangeforthreereactions:theadditionofsodiumhydroxidetohydrochloricacid,ammoniumchloridetosodiumhydroxideandammoniatohydrochloricacidTheywillthencalculateqrxnusingdensityvaluesandspecificheatOncetheyhaveqrxn,theycandetermineΔHforeachreactionUsingHess’sLaw,theycanusethethreereactionstodeterminetheexperimentalΔHforthereactionofsodiumhydroxideandhydrochloricacidandthepercenterrorbetweencalculatedmeasuredvaluesChapter:ChemicalThermodynamics(weeks)SpontaneityEntropywithcalculationofSecondLawofThermodynamicswithemphasisonreversibleandirreversibleprocessesMolecularMotion,EntropyandtheThirdLawofThermodynamicsCalculationofEntropyChangesgivenStandardMolarEntropiesGibbsFreeEnergyanditsrelationshiptodirectionalityofareactionCalculationofStandardFreeEnergyChangeRelationshipbetweenGibbsFreeEnergy,Enthalpy,EntropyandTemperatureChapter:Gases(weeks)CharacteristicsofGasesPressure(withbasiccalculations)andComparisonofUnitsofPressureBarometersandManometersBoyle’sLaw,Charles’sLawandAvogadro’sLawwithcalculationsandemphasisonrelatingthelikelihoodofnumericalanswerswithexpectedanswersbasedonqualitativerelationshipsTheIdealGasEquationStandardTemperatureandPressureCalculationsusingIdealGasEquationwithconversionsinvolvingpressureandtemperature,usageofgasdensityandmolarmassDalton’sLawofPartialPressurewithpressureconversionsandcalculationsofmolefractionKineticMolecularTheoryEffusionandDiffusionDeviationsfromIdealBehaviorwithcalculationsusingthevanderWaalsEquationLabs()MolecularMassofaVolatileLiquid:StudentsmustdeterminethemolecularmassofavolatileliquidbyrearrangingtheidealgaslawtosolveformolecularmassThepressurewillbeequaltoatmosphericpressure,temperatureequaltothetemperatureoftheroom,volumeequaltothatofthetesttubeandthemassofthesamplewillbefoundaftercoolingthetesttubeChapter:IntermolecularForces(week)LiquidsvssolidsvsGasesIondipole,Diopledipole,andLondonDispersionForcesHydrogenBondingViscositySurfaceTensionPhaseChangesAnalysisandProductionofHeatingCurvesCriticalTemperatureandPressureVaporPressurePhaseDiagramsStructureofSolidsLabs()VaporpressureandEnthalpyofVaporizationofWater:Studentsmustdeterminethetemperatureandvolumeofasampleofwaterfrom°Cto°C,in°CincrementsStudentsmustthenusetheClausiusClapeyronequationtodeterminethelnPandplotitversusTFromthatgraph,theheatofvaporizationcanbedeterminedChapter:PropertiesofSolutions(weeks)TheSolutionProcessEnergyChangesSolutions,SpontaneityDisorderSaturationFactorsAffectingSolubility:Entropy,AttractiveForces,Polarity,Pressure,TemperatureCalculationswithHenry’sLawMolarityandMolalitywithconversionsbetweenthetwoinvolvingmolefractionColligativePropertieswithcalculationofosmoticpressuredeterminationofmolarmassusingcolligativepropertydataColloidsLabs()MolecularMassbyFreezingPointDepression:StudentswillhavetodeterminethemolecularmassofBHTbyexperimentusingfreezingpointdepressiondatagatheredduringthelabThefreezingpointwillbedeterminedbygraphicalanalysisChapter:ChemicalKinetics(weeks)FactorsthatAffectRateofReactionReactionRates:averagevsinstantaneousandcalculationsinvolvingstoichiometryEffectofConcentrationandcalculationofk(numericalvalueandunits)ReactionOrderDeterminationofRateLawsusingInitialRatedataGraphicalAnalysisofstOrderandndOrderReactionswithHalflifecalculationsTheCollisionModelActivationEnergywithcalculationoffractionofmoleculeswithsufficientenergyTheOrientationFactorTheArrheniusEquationwithassociatedcalculationsCalculationsusinggraphicalanalysisandcomparisonofkvaluesatdifferenttemperaturesReactionMechanisms:molecularity,ratelawsCatalysisEnzymesLab()StudyoftheKineticsofaReaction:Studentswilldeterminetherateofa“clock”reactionbyfindingtherateconstant,theorderofthereactionforeachreactant,theactivationenergyofthereactionandtheeffectofacatalystFirst,theywillcarryoutthereactionatdifferentconcentrationsofeachreactantandmeasuringthereactionrateOncetheordersareknown,therateconstantcanbecalculatedBychangingthetemperature,theactivationenergycanbecalculatedusingtheequationlnk=EaRTlnAAplotofthisequationwillgivetheslopeofthelineequalto–EaR,whichthestudentswillusetocalculatetheactivationenergyLastly,acatalystwillbeaddedandstudentswillobservethechangeinthereactionrateChapter:ChemicalEquilibrium(weeks)ConceptualEquilibriumTheEquilibriumExpressionConstantwithassociatedcalculationsEquilibriumConstantsandPressurewithcalculationsofKpDirectionalityofReactionwithEquilibriumConstantValuesHeterogeneousequilibriumCalculationofEquilibriumConstantsgivenmolarity,molesandLitersLeChatelier’sPrinciple:Concentration,VolumeandPressureLabs()DeterminationofEquilibriumConstantfortheFormationofFeSCN:Theproductofthisreaction,thethiocyanatoiron(III)complex,isbloodredsoit’sproductioncanbemeasuredusingaspectrophotometerFirst,studentsmustprepareaseriesofsolutionsinwhichtheFeSCNisknownandmeasuretheabsorptionofthesesolutionsStudentsmustthenconstructagraphofFeSCNvsabsorptionThiscurvewillbeusedtodeterminetheFeSCNofunknownsolutionsThen,studentswillmakeasecondseriesofsolutionsinwhichtheconcentrationsofthereactantsisvariedTheabsorptionofeachofthesesolutionsismeasuredusingthespectrophotometerFromherethestudentscancalculatetheequilibriumconstantforthereaction()EquilibriumandLeChatelier’sPrinciple:StudentswillcarryoutaseriesofreactionsinwhichtheywillplaceastressonthereactionBeforestudentsactuallyperformtheexperiments,theymustuseLeChatelier’sPrincipletopredicttheresultsofeachstressChapter:AcidBaseequilibrium(weeks)BronstedLowryAcidsandBasesTheHydroniumIonConjugateAcidBasePairspHScaleStrengthofAcidsBasesCalculationoftheIonProductConstantofWaterMeasuringpHCalculatingtheAcidDissociationConstantpHCalculatingtheBaseDissociationConstantpHRelationshipsandCalculationsofKa,KbandKwRelationshipsandCalculationsofpKa,pKbandpKwLewisAcidsandBasesLabs()DeterminationoftheDissociationConstantsofWeakAcids:Studentswillprepareadilutesolutionoftheirweakacid,addphenolphthaleinandaddNaOHdropwiseuntilapinkcolorpersistsforatleastsecondsAtthispoint,thebeakercontainshalfundissociatedacidandhalfoftheacidicanionStudentswilluseapHmetertodeterminethepHofthesolution,which,inthissetup,isequaltopKaFromthepKavalue,studentswillcalculatetheKaoftheacid()DeterminationoftheEquivalentMassandpKaofanUnknownAcid:StudentswillweighoutamassofanunknowncrystallinesolidandthenwilltitrateitwithsodiumhydroxideOncestudentsfindthemolesofbaseandmassofacidused,studentscandeterminetheequivalentmassoftheacidThen,theywillplotthetitrationcurveoftheacid,withpHontheverticalaxisandthevolumeofsodiumhydroxideonthehorizontalaxisThestudentswillusethegraphtodeterminetheequilibriumconstantforthedissociationoftheacidChapter:AdditionalAspectsofAqueousequilibrium(week)TheCommonIonEffectBuffersCalculationsinvolvingtheHendersonHasselbalchEquationTitrationsofStrongAcidsStrongBases,WeakAcidsStrongBasesPolyproticAcidsSolubilityandKspFactorsThatAffectSolubility:CommonionEffect,pH,Solubility,FormationofComplexIons,AmphoterismPrecipitationandSeparationofIonswithKspcalculationQualitativeAnalysisofMetallicElementsChapter:Electrochemistry(weeks)OxidationReductionReactionsBalancingRedoxReactions(inacidicandbasicsolutions)VoltaicCellsCellEMFwithcalculationofstandardcellpotentialStandardReductionPotentialsTheNernstEquationBatteriesElectrolysisLab()OxidationReductionTitrations:PotassiumPermanganateasanOxidizingAgent:Studentswillprepareandstandardizeasolutionofpotassiumpermanganatebytitratingitwithastandardsolutionofareducingagent(COOH)Then,theywillusethestandardizedpotassiumpermanganatetodetermineasampleof(COOH)ofunknownconcentrationChapter:NuclearChemistry(week)Radioisotopes,alphaparticles,betaparticlesandgammaraysPositronsandelectroncaptureParticleAcceleratorsCalculationsBasedonHalfLifeDetectionCalculationsofEnergyChangesinNuclearReactionsFissionvsFusionBiologicalEffectsofRadiationChapter:OrganicChemistry(weeks)IntroductiontoAlkanes,Alkenes,AlkynesandAromaticCarbonsNomenclatureofAlkanes,AlkenesandAlkynesIsomersFunctionalGroups:alcohols,ether,haloalkane,amine,aldehyde,ketone,carboxylicacid,esterandamideTheCarbonylGroupChiralityBiochemistry:Proteins,Carbohydrates,NucleicAcidsThereareseverallabsdoneinadditiontothoselisted,astimepermitsTheselabsaresometimesperformedaftertheclassistechnicallyfinished,beforetheAPExamorduringweekswhenwehavetwoorthreedaysleftbeforeabreakTheseadditionallabsinclude:()DeterminationoftheHardnessofWater()ElectrochemicalCells()QualitativeAnalysisofCations()QualitativeAnalysisofAnions

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