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首页 动词语态导引图

动词语态导引图.doc

动词语态导引图

燕飞过河
2017-09-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《动词语态导引图doc》,可适用于职业岗位领域

动词语态导引图被动语态构成被动语态由“助动词be及物动词的过去分词”构成。不及物动词没有被动语态。在不同的时态下助动词be有不同的形式。八种常见时态的被动语态形式:一般现在时isamaredone一般过去时wasweredone现在进行时isamarebeingdone过去进行时waswerebeingdone现在完成时hashavebeendone过去完成时hadbeendone一般将来时willshallbedoneisamaregoingtobedoneisamaretobedone过去将来时wouldshouldbedone注意:转换时,你注意到时态的一致性、人称代词的变化及被动中的谓语动词的单复数问题吗,被动结构中由be动词来表示其时态特点其谓语动词在人称和数应与被动中的主语保持一致。、PracticeI(ActiveVoicePassiveVoice)HeplantsmanytreeseveryyearManytreesareplantedbyhimeveryyearThenewcoupleboughtthefurnituretheotherdayThefurniturewasboughtbythenewcoupletheotherdayTheexpertsarediscussingtheproblematthemeetingTheproblemisbeingdiscussedbytheexpertsatthemeetingTheywerecleaningtheclassroomwhenIwasthereTheclassroomwascleaningbythemwhenIwasthereHehasreadmanyarticlesbyLuXunManyarticlesbyLuXunhavebeenreadbyhimHehadlefthiskeysbeforehecametomyplaceHiskeyshadbeenleftbyhimbeforehecametomyplaceShewillfinishthetaskinadayortwoThetaskwillbefinishedbyherinadayortwoShesaidthatshewouldfinishthetaskinadayortwoShesaidthatthetaskwouldbefinishedbyherinadayortwo二、被动语态的用法:不知道或无必要说出动作的执行者:egSuddenlyashoutwasheardFootballisplayedallovertheworld出于礼貌,委婉的表述:egYouarerequestednottotouchtheexhibits突出或强调行为或动作的承受者:egSuchbooksarewrittenforchildren有时主语较长或为句子的更好安排:egIthasbeenknowntohimthatmanyfriendswillcometoseehimThewellknownsingergotonthebusandwasrecognizedbypeople三、特殊的被动情形()含情态动词的被动语态<如:mustbedonehavebeendone>Yourcar(不能停放)hereLook,thereisasignreading“NoParking”mustn’tbeparkedThetestpaper(应该被完成)yesterdayshouldhavebeenfinished()少数动词常用其所接的不定式来表示被动意义<seemhappenpretendappear>Heseemed(criticize)forwhathehaddonehelookedunhappytobecriticizedTheirtalkhappened(hear)bytheteachertobeheardOnthewaywehappened(catch)intheraintobecaught()短语动词在被动中不可遗漏其介词或副词Blackpeopleusedto(看不起)belookeddownuponElderlypeopleshould(好好照顾)betakencareofTheproblemwill(给予更多关注)bepaidmoreattentiontoHeisoften(嘲笑)inpubliclaughedatTheexercisesmust(交上来)bySundayatthelatestbehandedinMrWhitecan(信赖)whenyouareintroublebereliedon()“动词名词介词”的动词短语可有两种被动形式(以payattentionto为例)egYoushouldpayspecialattentiontoyourpronunciation()带复合宾语的动词的被动句(宾补保持在原位上,变成主补)ThemanagercaughthimsmokinginthesmokefreeroomhewascaughtsmokingbythemanagerinthesmokefreeroomTheinjuredmanwasfound(lie)onthegroundlyingIwastold(wait)forherattheschoolgatebyhimtowaitThenaughtyboywasseen(beat)byhisfatherbeaten注意:一些带省to的不定式做宾补的使役和感官动词,在被动中应补上to。ThebossmadelittleTomhavetwomealsadayLittleTomwasmadetohavetwomealsadaybythebossHewasseen(enter)thehallenteringYoucouldn’tseehimatthemeetingHewasseen(play)footballatthattimeplaying※makehaveletseewatchnoticeobservelookathearlistento()其他系动词也可构成被动<getremainstaykeep等等>Ihavetogotoschoolonfoot,formybikeisgettingrepairednowYou’retoolazymuchofthework(还未做)remaintobedoneThedoor(一直未锁)afterheleftstayunlocked四、使用被动语态时应特别注意的几个问题()常见的无被动的动词或短语动词<应在平时学习中多积累!!!>ThewarinbrokeoutAnaccidentlastnighthappenedoccurredAnideatome(我想起了主意。)occurredMymoney(快用完了)isrunningoutMycar(坏了)onthewayherebrokedoneThemedicalteam(由„组成)threedoctorsandtennursesconsistsofThestone(重达),tonsweighsTheraincoat(不属于)medoesn’tbelongtoThemeeting(不会持续)verylongwon’tlast()主动表被动的若干现象不定式中的现象动名词中的现象<needwantrequiredemandbeworth>有些动词与副词连用时,表示主语的特性。<sellwashreadwriteopenlockclean等等>系动词与感官系动词没有被动<proveturnoutremainkeepstay等等looksmelltastesoundfeel>()有些介词也可表被动意义Thebuildingisunderconstruction(=isbeingconstructed)Therumorisbeyondbelief(=can’tbebelieved)Thebookisnotinprint(=isnotyetprinted)Theplanewasoutofcontrol(=can’tbecontrolled)Hetooktwodaysoffwithintheteacher’spermissionThesedayssometreasuresareonshowinthemuseumThathouseisforsale(=tobesold)Hishonestcharacterisaboveallpraise(=cannotbepraisedenough)这样考过Thetemperaturewillfallsharplythedayaftertomorrow,whenasnowstormtostrikeourareaAexpectsB(hasexpectedC(isexpectedD(willbeexpected解析:句意:届时会有暴风雪。beexpectedto“预计会做某事”。答案:CThewaytheguestsinthehotelinfluencedtheirevaluationoftheserviceA(treatedB(weretreatedC(wouldtreatD(wouldbetreated解析:句意:客人们在旅馆中被招待的方式影响到对他们服务的评价。此题考查时态语态。根据题意客人是被招待的应排除A、C两项influenced时间提示为一般过去时故选B。答案:BAfterbeingdiscoveredbyDutchexplorersin,theeasternhalfofAustraliabytheBritishinA(wasclaimedB(claimedC(wasclaimingD(hasbeenclaimed解析:由句意:自年被荷兰探险者发现之后澳大利亚东半部分在年宣布为英国所有知答案选A。答案:AisknowntousisthattheOlympicGamesinLondonA(WhatwillbeheldB(ItwillholdC(AsisheldD(Whichholds解析:由句意知空中应填一个引导主语从句的连接词并作句子的主语由句中的时年知表将来间且OlympicGames与hold之间为被动关系。综上选A。答案:AIfyourorderisready,theTshirttoyouassoonaspossibleA(hasdeliveredB(isdeliveredC(willdeliverD(willbedelivered解析:主语是Tshirt谓语动词deliver应用被动表示Tshirt被送排除A、C两项。根据语境如果你定了货Tshirt将会随时被送货。故选D项。答案:DAmeetingatpmnextTuesdayWillyougothereA(hasheldB(hasbeenheldC(willbeheldD(willhold解析:根据时间状语nextTuesday判断用将来式。主语是meeting被举行因此选C项。willbeheld为将来时的被动式。答案:CWhydon'twechoosethatroadtosavetimeThebridgetoitA(hasrepairedB(isrepairedC(isbeingrepairedD(willberepaire解析:句意:为什么我们不选择走那条路以节省时间呢,因为去那条路的桥正在修理中。题目考查了现在进行时的被动语态作谓语。桥与修理存在被动关系而且根据句子语境要求采用进行时态。答案:CWouldyoupleasekeepsilentTheweatherreportandIwanttolistenA(isbroadcastB(isbeingbroadcastC(hasbeenbroadcastDhadbeenbroadcast解析:句意:请安静一下好吗,正广播天气预报呢我想听听。根据句意该空考查的是现在进行时的被动语态。答案:BHi,Tony,canIuseyourcomputerforawhilethisafternoonSorryA(It'srepairedB(IthasbeenrepairedC(It'sbeingrepairedD(Ithadbeenrepaired解析:句意:嗨Tony今天下午我能用一会儿你的电脑吗,真抱歉电脑正在修理。该句强调的是此时电脑正被维修需用现在进行时的被动语态。答案:CDuringtheperiodofrecentterroristactivities,peoplenottotouchanyunattendedbagA(hadalwaysbeenwarnedB(werealwaysbeingwarnedC(arealwayswarningD(alwayswarned解析:句意:在最近恐怖活动期间人们总是在被警告不要碰任何无人照看的包。bealwaysdoingsth总是做某事表达某种抱怨、不满或赞许的情绪。人们是“被警告”要用被动语态。答案:BHissisterlefthomein,andsinceA(hadnotbeenheardofB(hasnotbeenheardofC(hadnotheardofD(hasnotheardof解析:句意:他妹妹在年离开家从那以后就没了音讯。根据句意指的是过去离开以后到现在一直没音讯故用现在完成时hearof与hissister在本句中为被动关系故用被动语态所以选B。答案:BItwasproventhatthestoryofonewitnessA(hasbeeninventedB(hadbeeninventedC(wouldbeinventedD(wasinvented解析:此题考查时态据证实(Itwasproventhat)用过去的时态故后面用过去完成式(已经被编造出来)。答案:BThisMondaymorningIwasinformedIasoneofthreeexchangestudentsfromourcollegeA(hadbeenchoosingB(waschosenC(hadbeenchosenD(waschoosing解析:过去的过去应用过去完成时的被动语态。答案:CInaroomabovethestore,whereaparty,someworkerswerebusilysettingthetableA(wastobeheldB(hasbeenheldC(willbeheldD(isbeingheld解析:由someworkerswerebusilysettingthetable可知会议要被召开同时时态为过去时故选A。答案:AHaveyoufinishedyouressayHalfwhenyoucomebackA(hasbeendoneB(isdoneC(bedoneD(willhavebeendone解析:考查动词时态和语态辨析。when引导的时间状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时所以主句表示将来的动作且表示“等你回来的时候一半的工作将已经完成”。答案:DAtminus,alivingcellcanforathousandyearsA(preserveB(bepreservedC(bepreservingD(havebeenpreserved解析:考查情态动词用法。can后面接动词原形同时应注意被动语态。句意为:在零下时活细胞可以存活一千年。答案:BHoney,thisisapresentforyourbirthdayAh!Apairofshoes,Nike!IthinkitcomfortableA(wearsB(iswornC(iswearingD(hasworn解析:itwearscomfortable它穿起来很舒服。答案:AI'dlikeapenwhichwellWillthisone,A(writeshelpB(writesdoC(iswrittenworkD(iswrittenhelp解析:考查动词的语态和动词辨析。第一空表示“一支好用的钢笔”用主动语态而不用被动因此空白处填writes。答语说:这支笔可以吗,表示“行可以”用动词do。答案:BOurhousehasreachedthepointwheresomanythingsneedandit'ssohardtofindthetimetofixthemA(todoupB(doingupC(toputupD(puttingup答案:BMom'sspentthedayshopping,cleaningandcookingandnowsheA(haswornoutB(iswornoutC(iswearingoutD(wearsout解析:本题的第一分句用的是现在完成时再根据时间状语now可知指现在状况所以用一般现在时bewornout意为“筋疲力尽”。答案:BDoyouknowhowmuchababysitterforanhourWellitdependsA(paysB(getspaidC(beingpaidD(paid解析:根据句意“你知道一个保姆一小时挣多少钱吗”可知答案为B。答案:BWhat'swrongwithyourlegItinacaraccidentA(hasbeenhurtB(gothurtC(hurtD(hurts解析:考查谓语动词的时态和语态。答语意为:在一次车祸中受伤了。主语It即指myleg为谓语动词动作的承受者因此需要用被动语态车祸发生在过去因此应用一般过去时。这里gothurt,washurt。答案:B(ThestudentssaidhellototheteacherandwithasmileA(wererewardedB(wasrewardedC(haverewardedD(hasrewarded答案与解析:A“学生们向老师问好老师回应给他们一个微笑。”应该是“学生们被回应”由句意可知此处为被动故C、D排除又“thestudents”做主语所以谓语动词为“were”故选A项。(HavethetrafficpolicecaughtthedriverYesHeonlytwohoursaftertheaccidentoccurredA(wascaughtB(caughtC(hascaughtD(hascaught答案与解析:A表示过去某一时间点发生的事用过去式。He和caught形成被动关系用被动语态。(ThewindowsmusthavetakenyouquitealongtimethatdayRightTheyforweeksA(haven'tbeencleanedB(didn'tcleanC(hadn'tbeencleanedD(haven'tcleaned答案与解析:C考查时态。第一句话的谓语动词是musthavetaken说明此处是对过去发生的事情的推测答语“好几个星期没有打扫了”发生在thatday之前表示过去的过去因此用过去完成时。(TheadvancedhighspeedrailwayintheyearwhentheOlympicsaretobeheldinLondonA(willbecompletedB(hascompletedC(willhavecompletedD(willcomplete答案与解析:A考查谓语动词的时态。句中的时间状语intheyear示应该用将暗‎‎来的某种时态主语“Theadvancedhighspeedrailway”是动作的承受者因此应用被动语态只有选项A为被动语态答案为A。(WhydoyoulooksoworriedMycomputerbrokedownandmyessaysinceA(hasbeenleftunfinishedB(haslefttofinishC(waslefttofinishD(hadbeenleftunfinished答案与解析:A考查动词的时态和语态。由brokedown和since可知时态用现在完成时且主语与谓语动词之间是动宾关系故用被动语态。(Whydon'tyoubuythatshirtThatkindofmaterialwellA(doesn'twashB(hasn'twashedC(isn'twashedD(can'tbewashed答案与解析:A有少数及物动词可转化为不及物动词常见的有:cutlockopenreadsellshutwashwearwrite等此时句子的主语一般是物而且这些动词常和welleasily等连用或与否定词连用构成否定句。注意:含有这类动词的句子也可用被动语态表示但含义不同。主动语态表示现状被动语态则侧重某一动作的发生。本句表示那种面料很不耐洗所以选A。(Aftersayinggoodbye,thecouplemovedoffandinthecrowdA(waslostB(werelostC(hadlostD(tolose答案与解析:B考查动词的时态和主谓一致。主语是thecouple谓语动词应用复数形式空中的时态应与movedoff一致此处应用belost表示“消失在人群里”。(WhydoyougotoworkbybusBecausemycarA(hasrepairedB(hasbeenrepairedC(wasrepairedD(isbeingrepaired答案与解析:D考查时态与语态。从本题语境可知没有开车的原因是车子正在被修理因此动词应该使用现在进行时的被动语态。(Heasachild,senttogoodschools,andgiveneverychancetobebroughtupwellA(readsB(hadtoreadC(wasreadtoD(readto答案与解析:C短语readsomethingtosomebody“给某人朗读”。语境为:小时候有人给他朗读、送他去上好学校、给他提供一切有助于他成材的机会。在他儿时应是别人给他朗读因此空白处应填wasreadto。(WhatisthatnoiseOh,IforgottotellyouthatthenewmachineA(wastestedB(willbetestedC(isbeingtestedD(hasbeentested答案与解析:C考查时态和语态。由上一句中的一般现在时知说话者询问的是目前的噪声是怎么回事故答话中应用现在进行时表示目前的情况同时机器应是被测试的故用被动语态。(ThiskindofballpenwhichsmoothlyisquitepopularwithstudentsA(iswrittenB(writingC(writtenD(writes答案与解析:Dwritevi写起来表示事物本身具有的性质用主动形式。writesmoothly写起来流畅。which引导定语从句且在从句中作主语所填部分作定语从句的谓语故选D。(TheTVseries“TheGateoftheSea”,whichisadaptedfromapopularnovel,inTaizhouintheearlysA(wassetB(issetC(hasbeensetD(hadbeenset答案与解析:B本题考查时态。句意:“海之门”这部由流行小说改编成的电视连续剧是以二十世纪八十年代早期的台州为背景。由句意可知本题是在陈述客观事实因此用一般现在时故选B。(CanyouseewhatiswrittenonthatboardYesIt“CAUTION:WETFLOOR”(A(readsB(isreadC(writesD(iswritten答案与解析:Aread表示“写着”做本题时注意与汉语习惯的差异。(BreadandbutterforbreakfastinmanyChinesehomesnowadaysA(serveB(serversC(isservedD(areserved答案与解析:C考查主谓一致与语态。breadandbutter作为一个整体谓语动词用单数。beservedfor被当作servebreakfast供应早餐。

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