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Mortality Salience and Metabolism Glucose Drinks Reduce Worldview Defense Caused by Mortality Salience.doc

Mortality Salience and Metaboli…

上传者: 瑾存了de依赖 2018-04-30 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Mortality Salience and Metabolism Glucose Drinks Reduce Worldview Defense Caused by Mortality Saliencedoc》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含MortalitySalienceandMetabolismGlucoseDrinksReduceWorldviewDefenseCausedbyM符等。

MortalitySalienceandMetabolismGlucoseDrinksReduceWorldviewDefenseCausedbyMortalitySaliencePsychologyVol,No,PublishedOnlineNovemberinSciRes()MortalitySalienceandMetabolism:GlucoseDrinksReduceWorldviewDefenseCausedbyMortalitySalienceMatthewTGailliotPsychologyDepartment,StephenFAustinStateUniversity,Nacogdoches,USAEmail:mgailliotgmailcomReceivedAugust,revisedSeptember,acceptedOctober,rdrdstThecurrentworktestedthehypothesisthataglucosedrinkwouldreduceworldviewdefensefollowingmortalitysalienceParticipantsconsumedeitheraglucosedrinkorplacebo,wroteabouteitherdeathordentalpain,andthencompletedameasureofworldviewdefense(viewingpositivelysomeonewithproUSviewsandviewingnegativelysomeonewithantiUSviews)MortalitysalienceincreasedworldviewdefenseamongparticipantswhoconsumedaplacebobutnotamongparticipantswhoconsumedaglucosedrinkGlucosemightreducedefensivenessaftermortalitysaliencebyincreasingtheeffectivenessoftheselfcontrolledsuppressionofdeathrelatedthought,byprovidingresourcestocopewithmortalitysafensivereactionsthereforegood,sweet,bitter,andsalty,hadgoodtextureandappearance,shouldbestrongerItispossiblethatmortalitysaliencemightwasdifficulttodrink,waspleasanttodrink,andhowmuchincreaseeating(FrieseHofmann,MandelSmeesters,theylikedthedrinkTheythencompletedtheBriefMoodIn)partlybecauseindividualsseekmetabolicresources(eg,trospectionScale(BMISMayerGaschke,)TheBMIScontainsitemsindicativeofmood(eg,happy,sad)andglucose)tocopewiththethreatofdeatharousal(eg,peppy,drowsy)ParticipantsratedeachitemtoThethirdreasonthatglucoseshouldreducedefensivereacindicatehowtheywerefeelingatthepresentmoment,usingationstodeathremindersisthatglucoseisonesubstratethatscalefrom(definitelydonotfeel)to(definitelyfeel)determinesboththephysicalandpsychologicalthreatofdeathLast,participantscompletedameasureofworldviewdefenseWhenglucoseislow,physicaldeathismorelikely(eg,fromSpecifically,participantsreadtwohandwrittenessaysaboutthestarvation,aweakenedimmunesystem,orareducedcapacityUnitedStatesthatwereostensiblywrittenbytwoforeignersforenergydemandingthoughtandbehaviorthataidsinsur(borrowedfromGreenberg,Simon,Pyszczynski,Solomon,vival)anddeathismorethreateningpsychologically,astheChatel,)TheorderofthetwoessayswascounterbalancedindividualshouldbelessabletocopeDeathremindersthereacrossparticipantsOneessaywasproUSandpraisedAmeriforeshouldbemorethreateningbothphysicallyandpsychocans,whereastheotheressaywasantiUSandcriticizedlogicallywhenglucoseislow,therebyleadingtostrongerdeAmericansParticipantsevaluatedthetruthandvalidityofthefensivereactionsessayandthelikeability,intelligence,andknowledgeabilityofThus,defensivereactionstomortalitysalienceshouldbereeachessay’sauthoronpointscalesThesummedevaluationsducedwithadditionalglucoseGlucosemightenablemoreofeachessayservedasthemeasuresoffavorabilitytowardeffectivesuppressionofdeaththoughtsandorreducetheextentworldviewconsistentandworldviewinconsistentopinions,retowhichdeathisperceivedasphysicallyorpsychologicallyspectivelyInaccordwithpastresearch(eg,Greenbergetal,threateningTotestthishypothesis,participantswroteabout),worldviewdefensewasdefinedasthedifferencebeeitherdeathoracontroltopic,consumedaglucosedrinkortweenthesetwomeasuresLargerdifferencesindicatemoreplacebo,andthencompletedameasureofworldviewdefenseCopyrightSciResMTGAILLIOTpronouncedworldviewdefenseshouldbereduced),andorisasignalthatdeathismorethreateningphysicallyandthuspsychologicallyGlucosereducesdefensivereactionstomortalitysalience,whereaslowglucoseResultspredisposesindividualstoincreaseddefensivenessaftermortalA(Drinkcondition:Glucosedrinkvsplacebo:(,ssafitysaliencecondition:Mortalitysaliencevsdentalpain)analysisofvariPastworkhasshownthatmortalitysaliencehasacognitiveance(ANOVA)onworldviewdefensescoresindicatedasigcostItactivatedcontrolledsuppressionmechanismsthatimpairnificantinteraction,F(,)=,p<SeeFigureforselfcontrolafterwards(Gailliotetal,Gailliotetal,meansTestsofsimpleeffectsindicatedthatmortalitysalience,)Thecurrentworksuggeststhatmortalitysaliencemightcomparedtodentalpainsalience,increasedworldviewdefensealsohavemetaboliccostsSuppressingthoughtsofdeathcouldintheplacebocondition,F(,)=,p<,butnotintheplausiblyreduceglucosefasterthanitisreplenishedglucosedrinkcondition,F<,nsThus,mortalitysaliencedidAnotherimplicationisthatglucosecanbeusedasanaidtonotincreaseworldviewdefenseamongparticipantswhoconhelppeoplecopewithdeathorsuppressoravoiddeathrelatedsumedaglucosedrinkthoughtRatherthanresponddefensively,whichcanoftenenAnalysesindicatedthattheseresultswerenotattributabletotailderogatingothers,aglucosedrinkmightquellatleastsomedifferencesintaste,appearance,orlikeabilitybetweenthetwoofthepotentialterrorelicitedbythoughtsofdeathMetabolicdrinksortomoodorarousalSpecifically,separate(Drinkproblemsasidefromlowglucose(eg,hunger,malnourishment)condition:Glucosedrinkvsplacebo:(,ssafcondition:mightalsomoderatedefensivereactionstodeathMortalitysaliencevsdentalpain)ANOVAsontaste,sweetDiabetesandglucosephosphatedehydrogenasedeficiency,ness,bitterness,saltiness,texture,appearance,pleasantness,andtwometabolicdisorders,havebeenlinkedwithreducedaggreslikeabilityofthedrink,aswellasonhowdifficultthedrinksiverestraint(DeWall,Gailliot,Deckman,Bushman,),wastoconsumeandonmoodindicatednosignificantinteraconeformofselfcontrol,suggestingthatthesedisordersmighttions,Fs<,ps>AANOVAonarousalindirelatetoreactionstomortalitysalienceaswellcatedamarginallysignificantinteraction,F=,p=,Theamountofmetabolicenergythatcanbeusedduringasuggestingthehighestarousalamongparticipantsintheplagivenamountoftimeislimited(Klieber,)AlargebodyceboconditionwhowroteaboutdeathThewayinteractionofevidencedemonstratesthatenergyusedbyoneprocessbetweendrinkandessayconditionsonworldviewdefenserethereforecanbedivertedawayfromothers(Gailliot,Hildemainedmarginallysignificantwhencontrollingforarousal,F=brandt,Eckel,Baumeister,)Hence,processesthatin,p=,however,indicatingthattheeffectswerenotfluenceglucose(eg,immunedefense,biologicalreproductivedrivenbyarousalactivity,stress)couldalsoinfluencedefensiverespondingtomortalitysalienceCancercells,forinstance,useadisproportionatelylargeamountofglucose(Schoenetal,WeberDiscussionetal,Younes,Lechago,Somoano,Mosharaf,Lechago,Consistentwithpastwork,thecurrentstudyfoundthatmor)SomeevidencesuggeststhattheirmetabolicenergyusetalitysalienceincreasedworldviewdefenseThiseffectocmightdivertenergyawayfromandtherebyimpairfrontallobecurredonlyamongparticipantswhoconsumedaplacebo,functioning(Cleelandetal,Meyers,Albitar,Estey,however,andnotamongparticipantswhoconsumedaglucoseMeyers,Byrne,Komaki,)IndividualswithcandrinkTherationalewasthatglucosewouldreduceworldviewcerthereforemightespeciallystruggletoavoidthinkingaboutdefensebecauseitallowsformoreeffectivesuppressionofdeathorengagingindefensiveresponsesnotonlybecauseofdeathrelatedthoughtviaselfcontrol,isaresourceusedtocopetheirpotentiallyterminalconditionbutalsobecausethecancerwithdeath(thusthethreateningnatureofmortalitysaliencecellsmightdivertmetabolicenergyawayfromthesuppressionofdeathrelatedthoughtorcontributetolowglucoselevelsthatpredisposetowardheighteneddefensivenessMetabolicactivityincreasesintheovariesduringpremenstrualsyndrome,andDentalPaintheseincreasesappeartodivertenergyfromandimpairselfcontrol(Gailliotetal,)WomenthereforemightbeespeMortalitySalienceciallylikelytoengageindefensiverespondingtomortalitysaliencewhileexperiencingpremenstrualsyndromesymptomsEvidenceindicatesthatthepsychologicalcapacityforsomeprocessesoperatesthroughtheexistenceofearlier,biologicalsystems(eg,moralityanddisgust,WheatleyHaidt,emotionalandphysicalpain,DeWallBaumeister,EisenbergerLieberman,Eisenberger,Lieberman,Williams,MacDonaldLeary,)Processesenactingselfcontrolrelyheavilyonglucoselevels(eg,GailliotBaumeister,Gailliotetal,)Ifmetabolitelevelsareindicativeofsurvivalcapacity,withlowglucoseindicatingagreaterthreatofdeath(eg,increasedweaknessandhunger),GlucosePlacebothenitispossiblethatthecapacityforselfcontroloperatesonaGlucoseDrinkConditionpreexistingmetabolicsystemthatalertsonetothethreatofdeathThus,itisthesamesystemthatalertsonetothepossibilFigureWorldviewdefenseasafunctionofessayanddrinkconditionsityofphysicaldeathandthatmanagespsychologicalthoughtsCopfrightSciResMTGAILLIOTBaumeister,RF,Heatherton,TF,Tice,DM()Losingofdeathcontrol:HowandwhypeoplefailatselfregulationSanDiego,CA:WorkfromevolutionarypsychologysuggeststhatpeopleAcademicPressthinkandbehaveinwaysfunctionaltogoalattainment,suchasBaumeister,RF,Vohs,KD,Tice,DM()StrengthmodelperceivingincreasedthreatfromotherswhenafraidorinofselfcontrolCurrentDirectionsinPsychologicalScience,,creasedsexualinterestwhensexuallyaroused(Maner,Gailliot,doi:jxDeWall,Maneretal,)ThecurrentfindingsBecker,E()ThedenialofdeathNewYork:AcademicPresssuggestafunctionalresponseconcerninglowglucoseandmorBlascovich,J,Mendes,WB()Challengeandthreatappraisals:TheroleofaffectivecuesInJPForgas(Ed),FeelingandtalityWhenglucoseislow,theindividualisinaweaker,morethinking:Theroleofaffectinsocialcognition(pp)NewYork:vulnerablestate,andthoughtsofdeathmightcometomindCambridgemorereadilyThethoughtsofdeathfunctiontoincreasetheBlascovich,J,Tomaka,J()Thebiopsychosocialmodelof,nd,v,du,l’sconnecg,ongoculguje,wh,chf,c,l,g,gessujv,v,lIgarousalregulationAdvancesinExperimentalSocialPsychology,,isfunctionalthat,inaweakenedstate,thoughtsofdeathmightdoi:S()XincreasesoastomeshtheindividualinastrongersystemthatCleeland,CS,Bennett,GJ,Dantzer,R,Dougherty,PM,Dunn,AfacilitatessurvivalJetal()ArethesymptomsofcancerandcancertreatmentduetoasharedbiologicmechanismAcytokineimmunologicmodelofEvolutionisviewedmostlyintermsofnaturalselectioncancersymptomsCancer,,basedonsurvivalandreproductionOneunderemphasizedviewdoi:cncristhatnaturalselectionoperatesintermsofenergy(Gilliland,DeWall,CN,Baumeister,RF()Alonebutfeelingnopain:Lotka,Odum,)Organismsthatacquire,use,Effectsofsocialexclusiononphysicalpaintoleranceandpainandcontrollargeramountsofenergytendtosurviveandrethreshold,affectiveforecasting,andinterpersonalempathyJournalproduce,aswillthosethataremoreefficientOrganismsthatdoofPersonal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