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首页 2011年全国硕士研究生入学考试2011英语二真题及参考答案

2011年全国硕士研究生入学考试2011英语二真题及参考答案.doc

2011年全国硕士研究生入学考试2011英语二真题及参考答案

周万虹
2019-06-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2011年全国硕士研究生入学考试2011英语二真题及参考答案doc》,可适用于综合领域

年硕士研究生入学考试英语二真题及参考答案SectionI UseofEnglishDirections:ReadthefollowingtextChoosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblackandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET(points)TheInternetaffordsanonymitytoitsusers,ablessingtoprivacyandfreedomofspeechButthatveryanonymityisalsobehindtheexplosionofcybercrimethathas  acrosstheWebCanprivacybepreserved  bringingsafetyandsecuritytoaworldthatseemsincreasingly  Lastmonth,HowardSchmidt,thenation’scyberczar,offeredthefederalgovernmenta  tomaketheWebasaferplacea“voluntarytrustedidentity”systemthatwouldbethehightech  ofaphysicalkey,afingerprintandaphotoIDcard,allrolled  oneThesystemmightuseasmartidentitycard,oradigitalcredential  toaspecificcomputerandwouldauthenticateusersatarangeofonlineservicesTheideaisto  afederationofprivateonlineidentitysystemsUsercould  whichsystemtojoin,andonlyregistereduserswhoseidentitieshavebeenauthenticatedcouldnavigatethosesystemsTheapproachcontrastswithonethatwouldrequireanInternetdriver’slicense    bythegovernmentGoogleandMicrosoftareamongcompaniesthatalreadyhavethese“singlesignon”systemsthatmakeitpossibleforusersto justoncebutusemanydifferentservicestheapproachwouldcreatea“walledgarden”ncyberspace,withsafe“neighborhoods”andbright“streetlights”toestablishasenseofa  communityMrSchmidtdescribeditasa“voluntaryecosystem”inwhich“individualsandorganizationscancompleteonlinetransactionswith ,trustingtheidentitiesofeachotherandtheidentitiesoftheinfrastructure whichthetransactionruns”Still,theadministration’splanhas privacyrightsactivistsSomeapplaudtheapproachothersareconcernedItseemsclearthatsuchaschemeisaninitiativepushtowardwhatwould  beacompulsoryInternet“drive’slicense”mentalityTheplanhasalsobeengreetedwithbysomecomputersecurityexperts,whoworrythatthe“voluntaryecosystem”envisionedbyMrSchmidtwouldstillleavemuchoftheInternet  TheyarguethatallInternetusersshouldbe  toregisterandidentifythemselves,inthesamewaythatdriversmustbelicensedtodriveonpublicroads.Aswept      Bskipped      Cwalked      Dridden.Afor        Bwithin        Cwhile        Dthough.Acareless      Blawless      Cpointless      Dhelpless.Areason      Breminder      Ccompromise    Dproposal.Ainformation    Binterference      Centertainment    Dequivalent.Aby        Binto        Cfrom        DOver.Alinked      Bdirected      Cchained      Dcompared.Adismiss      Bdiscover      Ccreate        Dimprove.Arecall      Bsuggest      Cselect        Drealize.Areleased    Bissued        Cdistributed      Ddelivered.Acarryon    Blingeron      Csetin        Dlogin.AInvain    BIneffect      CInreturn      DIncontrast.Atrusted      Bmodernized      Cthriving      Dcompeting.Acaution    Bdelight        Cconfidence      Dpatience.Aon      Bafter        Cbeyond      Dacross.Adivided    Bdisappointed    Cprotected      Dunited.Afrequently    Bincidentally      Coccasionally    Deventually.Askepticism    Breference      Cindifference      Denthusiasm.Amanageable    Bdefendable      Cvulnerable      Dinvisible.Ainvited      Bappointed      Callowed      Dforced完形填空参考答案~ACBDD ~BACCB ~DBACA ~ADACDSectionII ReadingComprehensionPartADirections:ReadthefollowingfourtextsAnswerthequestionsaftereachtextbychoosingA,B,CorDMarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET(points)TextRuthSimmonsjoinedGoldmanSachs’sboardasanoutsidedirectorinJanuary:ayearlatershebecamepresidentofBrownUniversityFortherestofthedecadesheapparentlymanagedbothroleswithoutattractingmucheroticismButbytheendofMsSimmonswasunderfireforhavingsatonGoldman’scompensationcommitteehowcouldshehaveletthoseenormousbonuspayoutspassunremarkedByFebruarythenextyearMsSimmonshadlefttheboardThepositionwasjusttakinguptoomuchtime,shesaidOutsidedirectorsaresupposedtoserveashelpful,yetlessbiased,advisersonafirm’sboardHavingmadetheirwealthandtheirreputationselsewhere,theypresumablyhaveenoughindependencetodisagreewiththechiefexecutive’sproposalsIfthesky,andthesharepriceisfalling,outsidedirectorsshouldbeabletogiveadvicebasedonhavingweatheredtheirowncrisesTheresearchersfromOhioUniversityusedadatabasehatcoveredmorethan,firmsandmorethan,differentdirectorsbetweenandThentheysimplycheckedwhichdirectorsstayedfromoneproxystatementtothenextThemostlikelyreasonfordepartingaboardwasage,sotheresearchersconcentratedonthose“surprise”disappearancesbydirectorsundertheageofTheyfoundthatafterasurprisedeparture,theprobabilitythatthecompanywillsubsequentlyhavetorestateearningsincreasedbynearlyThelikelihoodofbeingnamedinafederalclassactionlawsuitalsoincreases,andthestockislikelytoperformworseTheeffecttendedtobelargerforlargerfirmsAlthoughacorrelationbetweenthemleavingandsubsequentbadperformanceatthefirmissuggestive,itdoesnotmeanthatsuchdirectorsarealwaysjumpingoffasinkingshipOftenthey“tradeup”Leavingriskier,smallerfirmsforlargerandmorestablefirmsButtheresearchersbelievethatoutsidedirectorshaveaneasiertimeofavoidingablowtotheirreputationsiftheyleaveafirmbeforebadnewsbreaks,evenifareviewofhistoryshowstheywereontheboardatthetimeanywrongdoingoccurredFirmswhowanttokeeptheiroutsidedirectorsthroughtoughtimesmayhavetocreateincentivesOtherwiseoutsidedirectorswillfollowtheexampleofMsSimmons,onceagainverypopularoncampusAccordingtoParagraph,MsSimmonswascriticizedfor   AgainingexcessiveprofitsBfailingtofulfillherdutyCrefusingtomakecompromisesDleavingtheboardintoughtimesWelearnfromParagraphthatoutsidedirectorsaresupposedtobe   AgenerousinvestorsBunbiasedexecutivesCsharepriceforecastersDindependentadvisersAccordingtotheresearchersfromOhioUniversityafteranoutsidedirector’ssurprisedeparture,thefirmislikelyto   AbecomemorestableBreportincreasedearningsCdolesswellinthestockmarketDperformworseinlawsuitsItcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatoutsidedirectors   AmaystayfortheattractiveoffersfromthefirmBhaveoftenhadrecordsofwrongdoingsinthefirmCareaccustomedtostressfreeworkinthefirmDwilldeclineincentivesfromthefirmTheauthor’sattitudetowardtheroleofoutsidedirectorsis   ApermissiveBpositiveCscornfulDcriticalTextWhateverhappenedtothedeathofnewspaperAyearagotheendseemednearTherecessionthreatenedtoremovetheadvertisingandreadersthathadnotalreadyfledtotheinternetNewspapersliketheSanFranciscoChroniclewerechroniclingtheirowndoomAmerica’sFederalTradecommissionlaunchedaroundoftalksabouthowtosavenewspapersShouldtheybecomecharitablecorporationsShouldthestatesubsidizethemItwillholdanothermeetingsoonButthediscussionsnowseemoutofdateInmuchoftheworldthereisthesignofcrisisGermanandBrazilianpapershaveshruggedofftherecessionEvenAmericannewspapers,whichinhabitthemosttroubledcorneroftheglobalindustry,havenotonlysurvivedbutoftenreturnedtoprofitNottheprofitmarginsthatwereroutineafewyearsago,butprofitallthesameIthasnotbeenmuchfunManypapersstayedafloatbypushingjournalistsoverboardTheAmericanSocietyofNewsEditorsreckonsthat,newsroomjobshavegonesinceReadersarepayingmoreforslimmerproductsSomepapersevenhadthenervetorefusedeliverytodistantsuburbsYetthesedesperatemeasureshaveprovedtherightonesand,sadlyformanyjournalists,theycanbepushedfurtherNewspapersarebecomingmorebalancedbusinesses,withahealthiermixofrevenuesfromreadersandadvertisersAmericanpapershavelongbeenhighlyunusualintheirrelianceonadsFullyoftheirrevenuescamefromadvertisingin,accordingtotheOrganizationforEconomicCooperationDevelopment(OECD)InJapantheproportionisNotsurprisingly,JapanesenewspapersaremuchmorestableThewhirlwindthatsweptthroughnewsroomsharmedeverybody,butmuchofthedamagehasbeenconcentratedinareaswherenewspapersareleastdistinctiveCarandfilmreviewershavegoneSohavescienceandgeneralbusinessreportersForeignbureaushavebeensavagelycutoffNewspapersarelesscompleteasaresultButcompletenessisnolongeravirtueinthenewspaperbusinessBysaying“Newspaperslike…theirowndoom”(Lines,Para),theauthorindicatesthatnewspaper    AneglectedthesignofcrisisBfailedtogetstatesubsidiesCwerenotcharitablecorporationsDwereinadesperatesituationSomenewspapersrefuseddeliverytodistantsuburbsprobablybecause   AreadersthreatenedtopaylessBnewspaperswantedtoreducecostsCjournalistsreportedlittleabouttheseareasDsubscriberscomplainedaboutslimmerproductsComparedwiththeirAmericancounterparts,Japanesenewspapersaremuchmorestablebecausethey   AhavemoresourcesofrevenueBhavemorebalancednewsroomsCarelessdependentonadvertisingDarelessaffectedbyreadershipWhatcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphaboutthecurrentnewspaperbusinessADistinctivenessisanessentialfeatureofnewspapersBCompletenessistoblameforthefailureofnewspaperCForeignbureausplayacrucialroleinthenewspaperbusinessDReadershavelosttheirinterestincarandfilmreviewsThemostappropriatetitleforthistextwouldbe    AAmericanNewspapers:StrugglingforSurvivalBAmericanNewspapers:GonewiththeWindCAmericanNewspapers:AThrivingBusinessDAmericanNewspapers:AHopelessStoryTextWetendtothinkofthedecadesimmediatelyfollowingWorldWarIIasatimeofprosperityandgrowth,withsoldiersreturninghomebythemillions,goingofftocollegeontheGIBillandliningupatthemarriagebureausButwhenitcametotheirhouses,itwasatimeofcommonsenseandabeliefthatlesscouldtrulybemoreDuringtheDepressionandthewar,Americanshadlearnedtolivewithless,andthatrestraint,incombinationwiththepostwarconfidenceinthefuture,madesmall,efficienthousingpositivelystylishEconomicconditionwasonlyastimulusforthetrendtowardefficientlivingThephrase“lessismore”wasactuallyfirstpopularizedbyaGerman,thearchitectLudwigMiesvanderRohe,wholikeotherpeopleassociatedwiththeBauhaus,aschoolofdesign,emigratedtotheUnitedStatesbeforeWorldWarIIandtookuppostsatAmericanarchitectureschoolsThesedesignerscametoexertenormousinfluenceonthecourseofAmericanarchitecture,butnonemoresothanMiesMies’ssignaturephrasemeansthatlessdecoration,properlyorganized,hasmoreimpactthanalotElegance,hebelieved,didnotderivefromabundanceLikeothermodernarchitects,heemployedmetal,glassandlaminatedwoodmaterialsthatwetakeforgrantedtodaybutthatinthessymbolizedthefutureMies’ssophisticatedpresentationmaskedthefactthatthespaceshedesignedweresmallandefficient,ratherthanbigandoftenemptyTheapartmentsintheeleganttowersMiesbuiltonChicago’sLakeShoreDrive,forexample,weresmallertwobedroomunitsunder,squarefeetthanthoseintheirolderneighborsalongthecity’sGoldCoastButtheywerepopularbecauseoftheirairyglasswalls,theviewstheyaffordedandtheeleganceofthebuildings’detailsandproportions,thearchitecturalequivalentoftheabstractartsopopularatthetimeThetrendtoward“less”wasnotentirelyforeignInthesFrankLloydWrightstartedbuildingmoremodestandefficienthousesusuallyaround,squarefeetthanthespreadingtwostoryoneshehaddesignedinthesandtheearlythcenturyThe“CaseStudyHouses”commissionedfromtalentedmodernarchitectsbyCaliforniaArtsArchitecturemagazinebetweenandwereyetanotherhomegrowninfluenceonthe“lessismore”trendAestheticeffectcamefromthelandscape,newmaterialsandforthrightdetailingInhisCaseStudyHouse,RalphRapsonmayhavemispredictedjusthowthemechanicalrevolutionwouldimpacteverydaylifefewAmericanfamiliesacquiredhelicopters,thoughmosteventuallygotclothesdryersbuthisbeliefthatselfsufficiencywasbothdesirableandinevitablewaswidelysharedThepostwarAmericanhousingstylelargelyreflectedtheAmericans’    AprosperityandgrowthBefficiencyandpracticalityCrestraintandconfidenceDprideandfaithfulnessWhichofthefollowingcanbeinferredfromParagraphaboutBauhausAItwasfoundedbyLudwigMiesvanderRoheBItsdesigningconceptwasaffectedbyWorldWarIICMostAmericanarchitectsusedtobeassociatedwithitDIthadagreatinfluenceuponAmericanarchitectureMiesheldthateleganceofarchitecturaldesign    AwasrelatedtolargespaceBwasidentifiedwithemptinessCwasnotreliantonabundantdecorationDwasnotassociatedwithefficiencyWhatistrueabouttheapartmentsMiesbuiltonChicago’sLakeShoreDrive

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2011年全国硕士研究生入学考试2011英语二真题及参考答案

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