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首页 宇宙图鉴(修订版)_Atlas of the Universe.pdf

宇宙图鉴(修订版)_Atlas of the Universe.pdf

宇宙图鉴(修订版)_Atlas of the Universe…

上传者: flybear99 2018-01-11 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《宇宙图鉴(修订版)_Atlas of the Universepdf》,可适用于自然科学领域,主题内容包含AtlofUnivPhil#stp:amPageFOREWORDBYPROFESSORSIRARNOLDWOLFENDALE,FRSASTRONOM符等。

AtlofUnivPhil#stp:amPageFOREWORDBYPROFESSORSIRARNOLDWOLFENDALE,FRSASTRONOMERROYALATLASOFTHEUNIVERSEREVISEDEDITIONSIRPATRICKMOOREContentsMarsMissionstoMarsSatellitesofMarsMapofMarsHubbleViewsofMarsMarsfromGlobalSurveyorTheSearchforLifeonMarsThePathfinderMissionSpiritandOpportunityAsteroidsExceptionalAsteroidsJupiterTheChangingFaceofJupiterMissionstoJupiterImpactsonJupiterSatellitesofJupiterTheGalileanSatellitesndashfromGalileoMapsofJupiterrsquosSatellitesSaturnRingsofSaturnDetailsofSaturnrsquosRingsMissionstoSaturnSatellitesofSaturnMapsofSaturnrsquosIcySatellitesTitanUranusMissionstoUranusSatellitesofUranusMapsoftheSatellitesofUranusNeptuneSatellitesofNeptunePlutoTheSurfaceofPlutoBoundariesoftheSolarSystemCometsShortperiodCometsHalleyrsquosCometGreatCometsMillenniumCometsMeteorsMeteoritesMeteoriteCratersFirstpublishedinbyPhiliprsquos,adivisionofOctopusPublishingGroupLtd,ndashHeronQuays,LondonEJPcopy,,PhiliprsquosThisneweditionACIPcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNISBNAllrightsreservedApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposeofprivatestudy,research,criticismorreview,aspermittedundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrical,chemical,mechanical,optical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionAllenquiriesshouldbeaddressedtothePublisherPrintedinSpainDetailsofotherPhiliprsquostitlesandservicescanbefoundonourwebsiteat:wwwphilipsmapscoukHALFTITLEPAGE:StarformationistakingplaceinthespiralgalaxyNGC,alsoknownasthelsquoFireworksGalaxyrsquoOPPOSITETITLEPAGE:ThecentreofthemassivegalaxyclusterAbell,photographedbytheHubbleSpaceTelescopeForewordbyProfessorSirArnoldWolfendale,FRSIntroductionbySirPatrickMooreEXPLORINGTHEUNIVERSEAstronomythroughtheAgesTelescopesandtheStarsObservatoriesoftheWorldGreatTelescopesInvisibleAstronomyRocketsintoSpaceSatellitesandSpaceProbesManinSpaceSpaceStationsTheHubbleSpaceTelescopeTHESOLARSYSTEMTheSunrsquosFamilyTheEarthintheSolarSystemTheEarthasaPlanetTheEarthrsquosAtmosphereandMagnetosphereTheEarthndashMoonSystemFeaturesoftheMoonLunarLandscapesTheFarSideoftheMoonMissionstotheMoonClementineandProspectorTheMoon:FirstQuadrantTheMoon:SecondQuadrantTheMoon:ThirdQuadrantTheMoon:FourthQuadrantMovementsofthePlanetsMercuryFeaturesofMercuryMapofMercuryVenusMappingVenusTheMagellanMissionTHESUNOurStar:theSunTheSurfaceoftheSunTheSolarSpectrumEclipsesoftheSunTheSuninActionTHESTARSIntroductiontotheStarsTheCelestialSphereDistancesandMovementoftheStarsDifferentTypesofStarsTheLivesoftheStarsDoubleStarsVariableStarsNovaeSupernovaeBlackHolesStellarClustersNebulaeViewsfromtheVeryLargeTelescopeTHEUNIVERSETheStructureoftheUniverseOurGalaxyTheLocalGroupofGalaxiesTheOuterGalaxiesQuasarsTheExpandingUniverseTheEarlyUniverseLifeintheUniverseSTARMAPSWholeSkyMapsSeasonalCharts:NorthSeasonalCharts:SouthUrsaMajor,CanesVenatici,LeoMinorUrsaMinor,DracoCassiopeia,Cepheus,Camelopardalis,LacertaBooumltes,CoronaBorealis,ComaBerenicesLeo,Cancer,SextansVirgo,LibraHydra,Corvus,CraterLyra,Cygnus,Aquila,Scutum,Sagitta,Vulpecula,Delphinus,EquuleusHerculesOphiuchus,SerpensScorpius,Sagittarius,CoronaAustralisAndromeda,Triangulum,Aries,PerseusPegasus,PiscesCapricornus,Aquarius,PiscisAustralisCetus,Eridanus(northern),FornaxOrion,CanisMajor,CanisMinor,Monoceros,Lepus,ColumbaTaurus,GeminiAuriga,LynxCarina,Vela,Pyxis,Antlia,Pictor,Volans,PuppisCentaurus,CruxAustralis,TriangulumAustrale,Circinus,Ara,Telescopium,Norma,LupusGrus,Phoenix,Tucana,Pavo,Indus,Microscopium,SculptorEridanus(southern),Horologium,Caelum,Dorado,Reticulum,Hydrus,Mensa,Chamaeleon,Musca,Apus,OctansTHEPRACTICALASTRONOMERTheBeginnerrsquosGuidetotheSkyChoosingaTelescopeHomeObservatoriesGlossaryIndexAcknowledgementsPISCESAQUARIUSCAPRICORNUSPISCISAUSTRALISAQUILAMICROSCOPIUMAcircmiddotpermilAacutesbquoUgraveIgraveEgravepermilAacuteEgraveıAcirccircbdquosbquomiddotmiddotEumlAacutemiddotsbquoıIumlEcircmacrbdquobdquoUgraveEgravepermilcirccircFomalhautRMMMSCULPTORNGCAacuteIcircIumlsbquoAacuteıEgraveEumlEgraveAtlofUnivPhil#stp:amPageBAtlofUnivPhil#stp:pmPageExploringtheUniverseSpacewalk:MichaelGernhardtduringhisextravehicularactivityonSeptemberSpaceShuttleEndeavourcanbeseenreflectedinhisvisorGernhardtisattachedtotheShuttlersquosremotemanipulatorsystemThecubethatcanbeseentowardstherightmonitorsthetemperatureBAtlofUnivPhil#stp:pmPageATLASOFTHEUNIVERSEAstronomythroughtheAgesAstronomyiscertainlytheoldestofallthesciencesOurremotecavedwellingancestorsmusthavelookedupintotheskyandmarvelledatwhattheysawthere,buttheycanhavehadnoideawhattheuniverseisreallylike,orhowvastitisItwasnaturalforthemtobelievethattheEarthisflat,withtheskyrevolvingrounditonceadaycarryingtheSun,theMoonandthestarsEarlycivilizationsinChina,EgyptandtheMiddleEastdividedthestarsupintogroupsorconstellations,andrecordedspectacularphenomenasuchascometsandeclipsesaChineseobservationofaconjunctionoffivebrightplanetsmaydatebackasfarasBCProbablytheearliestreasonablygoodcalendarsweredrawnupbytheEgyptiansTheypaidgreatattentiontothestarSirius(whichtheycalledSothis),becauseitslsquoheliacalrisingrsquo,ordatewhenitcouldfirstbeseeninthedawnsky,gaveareliableclueastotheannualfloodingoftheNile,uponwhichthewholeEgyptianeconomydependedAnd,ofcourse,thereisnodoubtthatthePyramidsareastronomicallyalignedThefirstreallymajoradvancescamewiththeGreeksThefirstofthegreatphilosophers,ThalesofMiletus,wasbornaroundBCAcleardistinctionwasdrawnbetweenthestars,whichseemtostayinthesamepositionsrelativetoeachother,andthelsquowanderersrsquoorplanets,whichshiftslowlyaboromoneconstellationtoanotherAristotle,wholivedfromaroundtoBC,gavethefirstpracticalproofsthattheEarthisaglobe,andinBCEratosthenesofCyrenemeasuredthesizeoftheglobewithremarkableaccuracyThevaluehegavewasmuchbetterthanthatusedbyChristopherColumbusonhisvoyageofdiscoverysomanycenturieslaterThenextstepwouldhavebeentorelegatetheEarthtothestatusofamereplanet,movingroundtheSuninaperiodofoneyearAroundBConephilosopher,AristarchusofSamos,wasboldenoughtochampionthisidea,buthecouldgivenofirmproof,andfoundfewsupportersThelaterGreekswentbacktothetheoryofacentralEarthPtolemyofAlexandria,lastofthegreatastronomersofClassicaltimes,broughttheEarthcentredtheorytoitshigheststateofperfectionHemaintainedthatallpathsororbitsmustbecircular,becausethecircleisthelsquoperfectrsquoform,buttoaccountfortheobservedmovementsoftheplanetshewasforcedtodevelopaverycumbersomesystemaplanetmovedinasmallcircleorepicycle,thecentreofwhichndashthedeferentndashitselfmovedroundtheEarthinaperfectcircleFortunately,Ptolemyrsquosgreatwork,theAlmagest,hascomedowntousbywayofitsArabtranslationPtolemydiedinorabouttheyearADTherefollowedalongperiodofstagnation,thoughtherewasoneimportantdevelopmentinADIsidorus,BishopofSeville,wasthefirsttodistinguishbetweentrueastronomyandthepseudoscienceofastrology(whichstillsurvives,eventhoughnointelligentpersoncantakeitseriously)TherevivalofastronomyattheendoftheDarkAgeswasduetotheArabsInAlMarsquomunfoundedtheBaghdadschool,andduringthenextfewcenturiesexcellentstarcataloguesweredrawnupInUlughBeigh,grandsonoftheOrientalconquerorTamerlane,setupanelaborateobservatoryatSamarkand,butwithhismurder,in,theBaghdadschoolofastronomycametoanendThefirstseriouschallengetothePtolemaictheorycameinwiththepublicationofabookbythePolishchurchmanMikolajKopernik,betterknownbyhisLatinizednameCopernicusHerealizedtheclumsinessandartificialnatureoftheoldtheorycouldberemovedsimplybytakingtheEarthawayfromitsproudcentralpositionandputtingtheSunthereHealsoknewtherewouldbeviolentoppositionfromtheChurch,andhewaswiseenoughtowithholdpublicationofhisbookuntiltheendofhislifeHisfearswerewellfoundedCopernicantheorywascondemnedasheresy,andCopernicusrsquobook,DeRevolutionibusOrbiumCoelestium(ConcerningtheRevolutionsoftheCelestialOrbs)wasplacedonthePapalIndexItremainedthereuntilCopernicusndashtheLatinizednameofMikolajKopernik,thePolishchurchmanwhosebook,DeRevolutionibusOrbiumCoelestium,publishedin,revivedthetheorythattheEarthisaplanetmovingroundtheSunGalileoGalilei,thepioneertelescopicobserver,wasalsotherealfounderofthescienceofexperimentalmechanicsHelivedfromtoinhewasbroughttotrial,andcondemnedfordaringtoteachtheCopernicantheoryTheChurchfinallypardonedhimndashin!IsaacNewton(ndash),whosebookthePrincipia,publishedin,hasbeendescribedasthelsquogreatestmentaleffortevermadebyonemanrsquo,andmarkedthetruebeginningofthemodernphaseofastronomyAnorrery,madeinthenamecommemoratestheEarlofCorkandOrrery,forwhomthefirstorrerywasmadeTheSunisrepresentedbyabrassballinthecentreArounditmovethethreeinnermostplanets,Mercury,VenusandtheEarthaningenioussystemofgearsmakestheplanetsmoveroundtheSuninthecorrectrelativeperiods,thoughnotatthecorrectrelativedistancesTheMoonrsquosorbitroundtheEarthisinclinedatthecorrectangleWhenthemechanismismoved,byturningahandle,theplanetsrevolveroundtheSunandtheMoonrevolvesroundtheEarthTheZodiacalsignsareshownaroundtheedgeofthediskBAtlofUnivPhil#stp:pmPageEXPLORINGTHEUNIVERSEIronically,thenextcharacterinthestory,theDanishastronomerTychoBrahe,wasnoCopernicanHebelievedinacentralEarth,buthewasasuperblyaccurateobserverwhoproducedastarcataloguewhichwasmuchbetterthananythingcompiledbeforeHealsomeasuredthepositionsoftheplanets,particularlyMarsWhenhedied,in,hisworkcameintothepossessionofhislastassistant,theGermanmathematicianJohannesKeplerKeplerhadimplicitfaithinTychorsquosobservations,andusedthemtoshowthattheEarthandtheplanetsdoindeedmoveroundtheSunndashnotincircles,butinellipsesKeplerrsquosLawsofPlanetaryMotionmaybesaidtomarkthebeginningofmoderntypeastronomyThefirsttwoLawswerepublishedin,thoughthechangeinoutlookwasnotreallycompleteuntilthepublicationofIsaacNewtonrsquosPrincipiaalmostyearslaterMeanwhile,thefirsttelescopeshadbeenturnedtowardstheskyStonehengeisprobablythemostfamousofalllsquostonecirclesrsquoItstandsonSalisburyPlain,andisawellknowntouristattraction!Contrarytopopularbelief,ithasnothingtodowiththeDruidsitsprecisefunctionisstillamatterfordebate,butitiscertainlyalignedastronomicallyIthas,ofcourse,beenpartiallyruined,butenoughremainstoshowwhatitmustoriginallyhavelookedlikeThePtolemaictheoryndashtheEarthliesinthecentreoftheuniverse,withtheSun,Moon,planetsandstarsmovingrounditincircularorbitsPtolemyassumedthateachplanetmovedinasmallcircleorepicycle,thecentreofwhichndashthedeferentndashitselfmovedroundtheEarthinaperfectcircleTheCopernicantheoryndashplacingtheSuninthecentreremovedmanyofthedifficultiesofthePtolemaictheory,butCopernicuskepttheideaofcircularorbits,andwasevenreducedtobringingbackepicyclesTheTychonictheoryndashTychoBraheretainedtheEarthinthecentralposition,butassumedthattheotherplanetsmovedroundtheSunIneffectthiswasaratheruneasycompromise,whichconvincedcomparativelyfewpeopleTychoadopteditbecausealthoughherealizedthatthePtolemaictheorywasunsatisfactory,hecouldnotbringhimselftobelievethattheEarthwasanythingbutofsupremeimportanceKeplerrsquosLaws:LawAplanetmovesinanellipsetheSunisonefocus,whiletheotherisemptyLawTheradiusvectorndashthelinejoiningthecentreoftheplanettothatoftheSunndashsweepsoutequalareasinequaltimes(aplanetmovesfastestwhenclosestin)LawForanyplanet,thesquareoftherevolutionperiod(p)isproportionaltothecubeoftheplanetrsquosmeandistancefromtheSun(a)Oncethedistanceofanyplanetisknown,itsperiodcanbecalculated,orviceversaKeplerlsquosLawsmakeitpossibletodrawupascalemodeloftheSolarSystemonlyoneabsolutedistancehastobeknown,andtherestcanthenbecalculatedBAtlofUnivPhil#stp:pmPageTelescopesandtheStarsNobodycanbesurejustwhentelescopeswereinvented,butthereisstrongevidencethatLeonardDigges,inEngland,builtaworkabletelescopeinoraroundtheyearApparentlyitusedbothalensandamirrorwedonotknowexactlywhatitlookedlike,andthereisnofirmevidencethatitwaseverturnedskywardsThefirsttelescopesofwhichwehavedefiniteknowledgedatebackto,andcamefromHollandDuringThomasHarriot,onetimetutortoSirWalterRaleigh,drewatelescopicmapoftheMoonwhichshowsrecognizablefeatures,butthefirstsystematicobservationsweremadefrombyGalileoGalilei,inItalyGalileomadehisowntelescopes,themostpowerfulofwhichmagnifiedtimes,andusedthemtomakespectaculardiscoverieshesawthemountainsandcratersoftheMoon,thephasesofVenus,thesatellitesofJupiter,spotsontheSunandthecountlessstarsoftheMilkyWayEverythinghefoundconfirmedhisbeliefthatCopernicushadbeenabsolutelyrightinpositioningtheSuninthecentreoftheplanetarysystemndashforwhichhewasaccusedofheresy,broughttotrialinRome,andforcedintoahollowandcompletelymeaninglessrecantationoftheCopernicantheoryTheseearlythcenturytelescopeswererefractorsThelightiscollectedbyaglasslensknownasanobjectiveorobjectglasstheraysoflightarebroughttogether,andanimageisformedatthefocus,whereitcanbemagnifiedbyasecondlenstermedaneyepieceLightisawavemotion,andabeamofwhitelightisamixtureofallthecoloursoftherainbowAlensbendsthedifferentwavelengthsunequally,andthisresultsinfalsecolouranobjectsuchasastarissurroundedbygaudyringswhichmaylookpretty,butarecertainlyunwantedToreducethisfalsecolour,earlyrefractorsweremadewithverylongfocallength,sothatitwassometimesnecessarytofixtheobjectglasstoamastInstrumentsofthiskindwereextremelyawkwardtouse,anditissurprisingthatsomanydiscoveriesweremadewiththemAmodernobjectiveismadeupofseverallenses,fittedtogetherandmadeupofdifferenttypesofglass,thefaultsofwhichtendtocanceleachotheroutIsaacNewtonadoptedadifferentsystem,andinhepresentedthefirstreflectortotheRoyalSocietyofLondonHerethereisnoobjectglassthelightpassesdownanopentubeandfallsuponacurvedmirror,whichreflectsthelightbackupthetubeontoasmaller,flatmirrorinclinedatdegreesTheinclinedmirrorreflectsATLASOFTHEUNIVERSEPrincipleoftheNewtonianreflectorThelightpassesdownanopentubeandfallsuponacurvedmirrorThelightisthensentbackupthetubeontoasmaller,flatmirrorplacedatanangleofdegtheflatdirectstheraysontothesideofthetube,wheretheyarebroughttofocusandtheimageismagnifiedbyaneyepiecePrincipleoftherefractorThelightfromtheobjectunderobservationpassesthroughaglasslens(orcombinationoflenses),knownasanobjectglassorobjectiveTheraysarebroughttoafocus,wheretheimageisenlargedbyasecondlens,knownastheeyepieceorocularTheequatorialmountingThetelescopeismounteduponanaxisdirectedtowardsthecelestialpole,sothatwhenthetelescopeismovedinazimuththeupordownmotionlooksafteritselfUntilrecentlyalllargetelescopeswereequatoriallymountedThealtazimuthmountingThetelescopecanmovefreelyineitheraltitude(upanddown)orazimuth(easttowest)Thisinvolvesmakingconstantadjustmentsinbothsenses,thoughtodaymoderncomputersmakealtazimuthmountingspracticableforverylargetelescopesEyepieceEyepieceEyepieceEyepieceObjectglassCurvedmirrorMirrorVerticalaxisPolaraxisDeclinationaxisHorizontalaxisGermanmountAtlofUnivPhil#:pmPageEXPLORINGTHEUNIVERSEthelighttothesideofthetube,whereanimageisformedandenlargedbyaneyepieceasbeforeAmirrorreflectsallwavelengthsequally,sothatthereisnofalsecolourproblemNewtonianreflectorsarestillverypopular,particularlywithamateurastronomers,butthereareotheropticalsystemssuchastheCassegrainandtheGregorian,wherethelightisreflectedbacktotheeyepiecethroughaholeinthecentreofthemainmirrorNewtonrsquosfirstreflectorusedamirroronlycentimetres(inch)indiameter,butbeforelonglargertelescopesweremadeInWilliamHerschel,aHanoverianbornmusicianwholivedinEngland,builtareflectorwithacentimetre(inch)mirror,thoughmostofhisworkwascarriedoutwithmuchsmallerinstrumentsThen,in,camethegiantcentimetre(inch)reflectormadeinIrelandbythethirdEarlofRosse,whodiscoveredthespiralformsofthestarsystemswenowcallgalaxiesTheRossereflectorremainedtheworldrsquoslargestuntilthecompletionoftheMountWilsonmetre(inch)reflectorinAdmittedlytheRossetelescopewasclumsytouse,becauseitwasslungbetweentwomassivestonewallsandcouldreachonlyalimitedportionoftheskyMoreover,acelestialobjectmovesacrossthesky,byvirtueoftheEarthrsquosrotation,andthetelescopehastofollowit,whichisnoteasywhenhighmagnificationisbeingusedIntheGermanopticianJosefFraunhoferbuiltacentimetre(inch)refractorwhichwasmechanicallydrivenandwassetuponanequatorialmount,sothatthetelescoperidestheaxispointingtothepoleoftheskyonlytheeasttowestmotionhastobeconsidered,becausetheupordownmovementwilllookafteritselfUntilthedevelopmentofmoderntypecomputers,alllargetelescopeswereequatoriallymountedThelatethcenturywastheageofthegreatrefractors,ofwhichthelargest,attheYerkesObservatoryinWisconsin,USAwascompletedinThetelescopehasametre(inch)objectglass,andisstillinregularuseItisnotlikelytobesurpassed,becausealenshastobesupportedrounditsedge,andifitistooheavyitwillstarttodistortunderitsownweight,makingituselessTodayalmostalllargeopticaltelescopesareofthereflectingtype,andareusedwithphotographicorelectronicequipmentItisnotoftenthataprofessionalastronomeractuallylooksthroughaneyepiecethesedaysThemodernastronomerobservestheskiesonacomputerorTVscreenTheRossereflectorThistelescopewasbuiltbythethirdEarlofRosse,andcompletedinIthadacm(inch)metalmirrorthetubewasmountedbetweentwomassivestonewalls,sothatitcouldbeswungforonlyalimiteddistancetoeithersideofthemeridianThisimposedobviouslimitationsnevertheless,LordRosseusedittomakesomespectaculardiscoveries,suchasthespiralformsofthegalaxiesThetelescopehasnowbeenfullyrestored,andbywasagainfullyoperationalThisphotographwastakeninHerschelrsquoslsquofortyfootrsquoreflectorwascompletedinThemirrorwascm(inches)indiameter,andwasmadeofmetaltherewasofcoursenodrive,andthemountingwasdecidedlycumbersomeTheopticalsystemusedwastheHerschelianthereisnoflat,andthemainmirroristiltedsoastobringtheraysoflightdirectlytofocusattheupperedgeofthetubendashasystemwhichisbasicallyunsatisfactoryTheYerkesrefractorThishasacm(inch)objectglassItwascompletedin,duetotheworkofGeorgeElleryHale,andremainsthelargestrefractorintheworlditisnotlikelythatitwilleverbesurpassed,becausealenshastobesupportedrounditsedge,andiftooheavywilldistort,makingituselessBAtlofUnivPhil#stp:pmPageObservatoriesoftheWorldATLASOFTHEUNIVERSEItistheEarthrsquosatmospherewhichisthemainenemyoftheastronomerNotonlyisitdirtyandunsteady,butitalsoblocksoutsomeofthemostimportantradiationscomingfromspaceThisiswhymostmodernobservatoriesaresitedathighaltitude,oftenonthetopsofmountains,wheretheairisthinanddryOfcourse,thisisnotalwayspossibleForexampletherearenohighpeaksinAustralia,andtheobservatoryatSidingSpring,nearCoonabarabraninNewSouthWales,liesatanaltitudeoflessthanmetres(feet),thoughthisdoesatleastmeanthatitiseasilyaccessible(providedthatoneavoidsdrivingintothekangarooswhichroamtheWarrumbunglerangetheanimalshaveabsolutelynoroadsense!)Anothermodernhazardislightpollution,whichisincreasingallthetimeTheHookerreflectoratMountWilsoninCaliforniawasactuallymothballedforsomeyearsduringthesbecauseofthelightsofLosAngeles,andeventhegreatPalomarreflector,alsoinCalifornia,isthreatenedtosomeextentAnotherindifferentsiteisMountPastukhov,wheretheRussianshaveerectedametre(inch)reflectorThealtitudeisjustover

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