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首页 #高一化学必修一属金重点知识(完整)

#高一化学必修一属金重点知识(完整).ppt

#高一化学必修一属金重点知识(完整)

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2019-02-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《#高一化学必修一属金重点知识(完整)ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

金属及其化合物制作人:刘帅EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdNa、Mg、Al、Fe、CuEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd金属活动性顺序表KCaNaMgAlZnFeSnPbHCuHgAgPtAuEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd金属活动顺       序K、Ca、NaMgAl、ZnFe、Sn、Pb与非金属反应Cl都能直接化合变价金属一般生成高价金属氯化物S与硫蒸气直接化合变价金属生成低价金属化合物O常温下易氧化点燃生成过氧化物等常温下缓慢被氧化与HO反应常温下生成碱和氢气与热水反应有碱存在下与水反应与高温水蒸气反应与H+反应生成盐和氧气EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd金属活动顺       序HCu、Hg、AgPt、Au与非金属反应Cl都能直接化合变价金属一般生成高价金属氯化物不反应S与硫蒸气直接化合变价金属生成低价金属化合物不反应O加热被氧化不反应与HO反应不反应不反应与H+反应不反应不反应EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd金属活动顺       序K、Ca、NaMgAl、ZnFe、Sn、Pb与氧化性酸硝酸、浓硫酸的反应不生成氢气常温下铁、铝钝化与盐溶液的反应与水反应生成碱碱再与盐反应排在前面的金属能把排在后面的金属从其盐溶液中置换出来碱的稳定性受热不分解加热分解自然界存在的状态化合态冶炼方法电解法(熔融的盐、氧化物等)热还原法EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd金属活动顺序HCu、Hg、AgPt、Au与氧化性酸硝酸、浓硫酸的反应产生NO、NO、SO等溶于王水与盐溶液的反应排在前面的金属能把排在后面的金属从其盐溶液中置换出来不反应碱的稳定性加热分解常温分解自然界存在的状态化合态游离态冶炼方法热分解或其他方法Na及其化合物关系EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd金属钠暴露在空气中变化过程NaCO·HO(白色块状固体)              EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd氧化物NaONaO电子式氧元素化合价价价属类碱性氧化物非碱性氧化物主要性质白色固体具有碱性氧化物的通性淡黄色固体具有强氧化性NaOHO=NaOHO↑NaOCO=NaCOO用途漂白、供氧剂生成条件常温下缓慢氧化燃烧或加热EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd化学式NaCONaHCO俗名纯碱或苏打小苏打颜色状态白色粉末(NaCO·HO为晶体)白色晶体主要性质溶解性易溶于水溶液呈碱性易溶于水(相同条件下比NaCO溶解度小)溶液呈碱性热稳定性稳定受热易分解NaHCO=NaCOCO↑HOEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd化学式NaCONaHCO主要性质与酸反应COH=HOCO↑HCOH=HOCO↑与Ca(OH)等碱反应CaCO=CaCO↓CaOHHCO=CaCO↓HO(碱足量)CaHCOOH=CaCO↓HOCO(碱不足量)相互转化NaCO①COHO②适量H①固(加热)②适量碱液(OH)NaHCONaCO、NaHCO的鉴别()若为固体可利用加热法。若加热产生使澄清石灰水变浑浊的气体则固体是NaHCO。()若为溶液可采用:①沉淀法加入BaCl溶液产生白色沉淀的是NaCO②气体法滴加稀盐酸立即剧烈反应产生气泡的是NaHCO,开始无气泡产生的是NaCO。EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdMg及其化合物关系EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdAl及其化合物关系EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd铝及其重要化合物的相互转化EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd氢氧化铝具有两性氢氧化铝的两性可用电离平衡移动的原理来解释氢氧化铝电离方程式可表示如下:EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd有关氢氧化铝的图象向一定量AlCl溶液中逐滴加入NaOH溶液。离子方程式:AlOH=Al(OH)↓Al(OH)OH=AlOHOEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd向一定量NaOH溶液中逐滴加入AlCl溶液。离子方程式:OHAl=AlOHOAlOAlHO=Al(OH)↓EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd向一定量NaAlO溶液中逐滴加入HCl溶液。离子方程式:AlOHHO=Al(OH)↓Al(OH)H=AlHOEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd向一定量HCl溶液中逐滴加入NaAlO溶液。离子方程式:AlOH=AlHOAlAlOHO=Al(OH)↓EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdFe三角EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd铁的氧化物的比较EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd化学式FeOFeOFeO色态黑色粉末红棕色固体黑色晶体俗称铁红磁性氧化铁价态价价是价是价高温EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd化学式FeOFeOFeO与酸反应产生的离子HClFeFeFe、FeHNO(足量)FeFeFe与CO的反应(炼铁原理)FexOyyCO=xFeyCO铁的氢氧化物EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd氢氧化物氢氧化亚铁氢氧化铁化学式Fe(OH)Fe(OH)物理性质白色难溶固体红棕色固体不溶于水化学性质Fe(OH)H=FeHOFe(OH)OHO=Fe(OH)Fe(OH)H=FeHOFe(OH)=FeOHO制法FeOH=Fe(OH)↓FeOH=Fe(OH)↓Fe和Fe的检验EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd方法FeFe观察法溶液为浅绿色溶液为棕黄色滴加KSCN溶液现象加入KSCN溶液无现象再通入Cl后溶液变血红色溶液变血红色原因FeCl=FeClFeSCN=Fe(SCN)FeSCN=Fe(SCN)EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd方法FeFe观察法溶液为浅绿色溶液为棕黄色滴加NaOH溶液现象生成白色絮状沉淀迅速转化为灰绿色最终变为红褐色产生红褐色沉淀原因FeOH=Fe(OH)↓Fe(OH)OHO=Fe(OH)FeOH=Fe(OH)↓Cu及其化合物关系EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd常见阳离子的检验EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd物质检验方法H能使紫色石蕊试液或橙色的甲基橙试液变为红色Ba能使稀HSO或可溶性硫酸盐溶液产生白色BaSO沉淀且沉淀不溶于稀HNONa、K用焰色反应来检验时它们的火焰分别呈黄色、浅紫色(透过蓝色钴玻璃片观察钾离子焰色)Mg能与NaOH溶液反应生成白色Mg(OH)沉淀该沉淀能溶于NHCl溶液Al能与适量的NaOH溶液反应生成白色Al(OH)絮状沉淀该沉淀能溶于盐酸或过量的NaOH溶液Ag能与稀盐酸或可溶性盐酸盐反应生成白色AgCl沉淀不溶于稀HNO但溶于氨水生成Ag(NH)EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd物质检验方法铵盐(或浓溶液)与NaOH浓溶液反应并加热放出使湿润的红色石蕊试纸变蓝或有刺激性气味的NH气体Fe能与少量NaOH溶液反应开始时生成白色Fe(OH)沉淀迅速变成灰绿色最后变成红褐色Fe(OH)沉淀。或向亚铁盐的溶液里加入KSCN溶液不显红色加入少量新制的氯水后立即显红色。有关反应方程式为:FeCl===FeClFe能与KSCN溶液反应变为血红色溶液能与NaOH溶液反应生成红褐色Fe(OH)沉淀Cu能与NaOH溶液反应生成蓝色的沉淀加热后可转变为黑色的CuO沉淀。含Cu溶液能与Fe、Zn片等反应在金属片上有红色的铜生成由短周期元素组成的单质A、B、C和甲、乙、丙、丁四种化合物有如图所示的转换关系已知C为密度最小的气体甲是电解质。根据图示转化关系回答:()写出下列物质的化学式:AB乙丁。EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd()组成单质A的元素在周期表中的位置是丙的电子式是。()写出下列变化的方程式:①A与NaOH溶液反应的化学方程式:②乙与过量CO反应的离子方程式:。AlNaOHHO===NaAlOH↑第三周期 第ⅢA族EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd【解析】关键是找出解题突破口由C是密度最小的气体可知C为H单质A与NaOH溶液反应生成H则A为Al或Si若A为Al则乙为NaAlO甲为AlO丙为HO丁为Al(OH)B为O若A为Si则乙为NaSiO甲为SiO丙为HO丁为HSiOB为O似乎都符合题意但题设关键一点即甲为电解质从而排除Si的可能性确定A为金属Al。【点评】铝单质既能与酸反应又能与碱反应放出氢气氧化铝的两性、氢氧化铝的两性是解答推断题的突破口。EvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtdEvaluationonlyCreatedwithAsposeSlidesforNETClientProfileCopyrightAsposePtyLtd

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#高一化学必修一属金重点知识(完整)

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