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首页 专四辅导-定语从句

专四辅导-定语从句.ppt

专四辅导-定语从句

中小学精品课件
2019-05-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《专四辅导-定语从句ppt》,可适用于综合领域

专四辅导二定语从句定语从句(AttributiveClauses)定语从句(AttributiveClauses)在句中做定语修饰一个名词或代词被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。关系代词有:who,whom,whose,that,which,as,but,than等。关系副词有:when,where,why等。判断关系代词与关系副词方法一:用关系代词还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。不及物动词后面无宾语就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词而及物动词后接宾语则要求用关系代词。例如:ThisisthemountainvillageIstayedlastyearThisisthemountainvillageIvisitedlastyearThisisthemountainvillageIstayedinlastyearI'llneverforgetthedaysIworkedtogetherwithyouIwillneverforgetthedaysIspentinthecountrysideI'llneverforgetthedaysduringIworkedtogetherwithyou方法二:准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状)也能正确选择出关系代词关系副词。例Isthismuseumyouvisitedafewdaysago Awhere Bthat Conwhich Dtheone例IsthisthemuseumtheexhibitionwasheldAwhere Bthat Conwhich Dtheone例变:Thismuseumisyouvisitedafewdaysago例变:Thisisthemuseumtheexhibitionwasheld  as,which引导的非限定性定语从句由as,which引导的非限定性定语从句as和which可代整个主句相当于andthis或andthat。As一般放在句首which在句中。Asweknow,smokingisharmfultoone‘shealthThesunheatstheearth,whichisveryimportanttous典型例题)Alicereceivedaninvitationfromherboss,cameasasurpriseAit Bthat Cwhich  Dhe)Theweatherturnedouttobeverygood,wasmorethanwecouldexpectAwhat Bwhich Cthat Dit )Itrainedhardyesterday,preventedmefromgoingtotheparkAthat Bwhich  Cas Dit as和which在引导非限制性定语从句时这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: ()as引导的定语从句可置于句首而which不可。 ()as代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时从句中的谓语必须是系动词若为行为动词则从句中的关系代词只能用which。as和which引导非限制性定语从句有相同之处也有不同之处.As和which都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语代表前面整个句子。()Hemarriedher,aswhichwasnatural()Hewashonest,aswhichwecanseeas引导非限制性定语从句可放在主句之前或者主句之后甚至可以切割一个主句which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外as有“正如……正像……”的意思()Asisknowntoall,Chinaisadevelopingcountry()Heisfromthesouth,aswecanseefromhisaccent()John,asyouknow,isafamouswriter()HehasbeentoParismorethanseveraltimes,whichIdon’tbelieve注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时常用which()Tomwasalwayslateforschool,whichmadehisteacherangry当先行词受such,thesame修饰时常用as()Ihaveneverheardsuchastoryashetells()Heisnotsuchafoolashelooks()ThisisthesamebookasIlostlastweek注意:“such...that...”表“如此……以致……”的意思用来引导一个结果状语从句而“such...as...”表“像……这(那)样”的意思用来引导定语从句as在定语从句中充当主、宾、表语等。试比较下列两个句子:①Heissuchanhonestmanthatwerespecthim.他是一个如此诚实的人以致我们都尊敬他。②Heissuchanhonestmanaswerespect.他像我们所尊敬的那种诚实的人。当先行词由thesame修饰时偶尔也用that引导定语从句但是和由as所引导的定语从句意思不同“thesame...that...”表同一人或物而“thesame...as...”表同种类的东西。()SheworethesamedressthatsheworeatMary’swedding她穿着她在MARY婚礼上穿过的一条裙子。()Sheworethesamedressasheryoungsisterwore她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。but有时也可以做关系词引导定语从句but既可指人也可指物常在定语从句中充当主语。but本身含“否定”的意思其作用相当于“that/which/who...not”。它前面的主句通常有“否定”的词(如:nonotlittlefewhardly等)。but引导的肯定定语从句和否定的主句连用达到强烈肯定的修饰效果。例如:Thereisnomotherbutlovesherownchildren.(=Thereisnomotherthat/whodoesnotloveherownchildren.)没有不爱自己孩子的母亲。Thereareveryfewbutunderstandhisidea(but=whodon’t)than有时也可以做关系词引导定语从句than既可指人也可指物在从句中可以充当主语、宾语、表语但仍以充当主语为多。它与关系代词that所起的语法作用是差不多的只是than前通常有表比较的词。例如:Fewerfriendsthanwehadexpectedcametooureveningparty.(宾语)来参加晚会的朋友比我们预料的还要少。Youmakemoremoneythanisintendedtomake(主语)你挣得的钱比预计的要多。Therewasmorecasualtiesthanwasreported(主语)伤亡人数比报道的要多。Duringthewinterholidays,ImademuchmoremoneythanLiMingdid(宾语)在寒假期间我挣的钱比李明多得多。Hegottoknowafamouswriterwhoknewmuchmoreknowledgethanhisown(knowledgewas)(表语)他认识了一位比自己有更多知识的优秀作家。注:前面有关than的用法只是一个大体的趋势有些句子根据上面的观点是解释不了的。例如:than之前没有中心词Wedonotthinkthatisanybetterthanwasbooked(我们认为它并不比预定的好。)对于这个问题一些语法家们把than看成是一个连词其后省略了主语it,这种说法就该问题是可以勉强接受的那么与之矛盾的新问题又产生了。例如:如何解释than从句中谓语动词使用复数的句子呢?Hesmokedfewercigarettesthanwerenormallyavailable解释该句的理论基础又回到了开头所述的内容即把than理解为关系代词。不用that的情况(a)在引导非限定性定语从句时。(错)Thetree,thatisfourhundredyearsold,isveryfamoushere(b)介词后不能用。    Wedependonthelandfromwhichwegetourfood    Wedependonthelandthatwhichwegetourfoodfrom只能用that的情况(a)在therebe句型中只用that不用which。(b)先行词为anything,nothing,everything(something除外),none,theone,或先行词由much,few,all,any,little,some,no,every,each等修饰时只用that不用which。(c)先行词有theonly,thevery,thesame,thelast,just修饰时只用that。 (d)先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时只用that。(e)先行词既有人又有物时。(f)先行词指物在主句中作表语时.(g)整个句中前面已有whichwho,that,为了避免重复时.(h)先行词是theway时举例ThereseemstobenothingthatseemsimpossibleforhimintheworldThereislittlethatIcandoforyouIsthisthebookthatyouborrowedinthelibrary这是你在图书馆借的那本书吗?Allthatisneededisasupplyofoil所需的只是供油问题。Finally,thetheirhandedeverythingthathehadstolentothepolice那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。注意:当先行词指人时偶尔也可以用whoAnymanthatwhohasasenseofdutywon’tdosuchathingThisistheverygooddictionarythatIwanttobuyAfterthefireinhishouse,theoldcaristheonlythingthatheowned注意:当先行词指人时偶尔也可以用whoWangHuaistheonlypersoninourschoolwhowillattendthemeeting?WhoisthemanthatisstandingthereWhichistheTshirtthatfitsmemostCanyourememberthescientistandhistheorythatwehavelearned以theway为先行词的定语从句通常由inwhich,that引导而且通常可以省略。ThewayinwhichthatheansweredthequestionwassurprisingIdon'tlikeyouspeaktoherAthewayBthewayinthatCthewaywhichDthewayofwhich区分定语从句和同位语从句.定语从句修饰先行词它和先行词是修饰关系同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容是补充说明的关系()TheplanethathasjusttakenoffisforLondon定语从句()Thefactthathehasbeendeadisclear同位语从句.定语从句由关系代词或者关系副词引导关系词在句中充当成分有时可以省略同位语从句主要由that引导在句中一般不做成分句子也可以由when,where,how,why,whether,what等词引导充当成分()Thenewshetoldmeistrue定语()Thenewsthathehasjustdiedistrue()Theproblemthatwearefacingnowishowwecancollectsomuchmoney定语()Theproblemhowwecancollectsomuchmoneyisdifficulttosolve同位语从句和先行词一般可以用be动词发展成一个完整的句子而定语从句不可以()Theideathatwecouldasktheteacherforadviceiswonderful同位语Theideawasthatwecouldasktheteacherforadvice()Thefactthattheearthmovesaroundtheearthisknowntoall同位语Thefactisthattheearthmovesaroundtheearth

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