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首页 社会语言学论文

社会语言学论文.doc

社会语言学论文

干杯天堂里的猫
2019-02-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《社会语言学论文doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

TheLinguisticSexisminEnglish(王丹,,级外国语言学及应用语言学)Abstract:Sexismisnotdeterminedbylanguageitself,it’sthereflectionofacertainculturalideologyinthelanguageSexualdiscriminationexistsinbotheastandwestsocietiesThispapermainlyintroducesthelinguisticsexisminEnglishexplainingthedefinitionsandcausesoflinguisticsexismKeywords:LinguisticsexismdefinitioncausesLanguagederivesfromanation’slongtermdevelopmentItisamirrorwhichreflectspeople’sthinkingandcultureofthewholesocialcommunityInthehistoryofhumanevolution,itexistssexisminChineseandwesterncultureallthetimeLanguageandculturearecloselyrelatedtoeachotherSexisminEnglishisoneofimportantsubjectsoflanguageresearchIntheearlys,JespersenhadnoticedthatmostnounsinEnglishonlyindicatedthemenForexample,asaresultoftheearlysocialroleassignment,"minister","bishop","lawyer","baker","day"andotherwordswereonlyusedformenAlthoughwiththedevelopmentofsocietyandwomen’sindependencemovement,manywomenenteredtheseoccupations,languageitselfwasdifficulttochangeWecancallitthe"femalelawyer"or"femaleminister",butwedon'thaveacorrespondingsimplewordstocallthesefemaleprofessionalsSinces,withtheprosperityofthefeministmovementwhicharguestheequalrightsbetweenmenandwomen,womeninwesterncountriesmakeeveryefforttostrivefortheirownlegitimaterightsandinterestsinmanyaspectsNaturally,languageisnoexceptionIn,NOW(NationalOrganizationforWomen)wentonstrikeinstruggleforequaltreatmentsThesloganwas”Don’tIronwhiletheStrikeisHot!”Underthissituation,manywomenturnedtoworkandwereengagedinpursingtheirstudiesConsequently,linguisticswasnotarelativelyclosedkingdomofmenThenafter,manynewmediaforexampleTheNewYorkTimes,WashingtonPosttriggeredthethinkingontheuseoflanguageItgoeswithoutthinkingalltheactionsimprovetherecognitionofthepublicIthasthepositivemeaningineliminatingthelinguisticsexismWhatislinguisticsexismLinguisticsexismisdefinedas“words,phrases,andexpressionsthatunnecessarilydifferentiatebetweenwomenandmenorexclude,trivialize,ordiminisheithergender”(ParksRoberton,,p)Itmainlyshowsinfouraspects:LanguagethatfavorsonesexoveranotherEg:Frailty,thynameiswoman(Shakespeare)LanguagethatbelittlesonesexEg:Marryyoursonwhenyouwill,yourdaughterwhenyoucan(杨永林:)LanguagethatmakesonesexinvisibleEg:ManisthehighestformoflifeonearthHissuperiorintelligence,combinedwithcertainphysicalcharacteristics,haveenabledmantoachievethingsthatareimpossibleforotheranimals。(BritannicaJuniorEncyclopedia)LanguagethatmaskssexualdiscriminationEg:Youknow,boysareboysButyoumustbeagoodlady!ThemanifestationoflinguisticsexisminEnglishvocabularyTheword”woman”iscomposedof“man”plus”wo”,femalesdonothaveherownvocabulariesIfweremovetheprefix,“man”stillhasitsseparatemeaningBut“wo”isnotItisthesamewiththeword“female”Manyfemalevocabulariesarederivedfrommales’LanguagehasexperiencedthousandyearsofdevelopmentandvocabulariesarevariablethroughthesedaysHowever,mostnegativewordsareassociatedwithwomenWhencomestothissensitivetopic"sex",itusuallyhavealotofderogatorytermsappearinginfrontofusManyaggressivewordsrefertowomenForexample,astreetgirl,womanofthestreet,fancygirl,paintedgirl,joygirl,workinggirlInthethcentury,“lady”hadbeenwidelyusedtocallnobleandupperclasswomenButnowinslang,itmeans“indecentwomen”Manywordslike“nurse,nun,housewife,spinster,daughter,mother”intheslangalsomeantheprostituteEvensomeanimalnamesareoftenusedtorefertowomen,somewordswhichfirstexpressthesinglemeaning,finallychangedintothewordswithsexdiscriminationSuchasHen(meddlesomeorflippantmiddleagedwomen),Bat(hussy,prostitutes),Dog(womenwithoutaccomplishment),Chick(flirtatiouswomen),Cow(fatuglywomen),Dragon(toughstubbornwoman),etcInEnglish,intermsofgender,themostcommonlyusedcallis"man"and"woman",thistwosimplewordsshowusthelinguisticsexismWhat”Man”expressesispositivemeaningOnthecontrary,“women”oftenshowsnegativemeaningInpractice,“man”isusedasageneralterm,includingthemeaningof“women”,whichequalstheEnglishword“human”WecanclearlyseeitinthefollowingfamousquotationsAnythingonemancanimagille,otherme,IcallmakereaJunesVemeTrynottobecomeamanofsuccessbutrathertrytobecomeamanofvalueAEinsteinHistoriesmakemenwisepoemswittythemathematicssubtlenaturalphilosophydeepmoralgravelogicandrhetoricabletocontendFrancisBaconLike“man”,“he”and”his”havethesameusageInEnglish,thepronoun"he"and"hisareverywidelyusedTheycanrefertobothsexes,moreoftenbeingusedasaneutralwordsAlsoletuschoosesomefamousproverbtoillustratethisphenomenon:Themanwhohasmadeuphismindtowinwillneversay“impossible”BonaparateNapoleonHewhocanhavepatiencecanhavewhathewillHelaughsbestwholaughslastBFranklinBecausewomen’straditionallowsocialstatus,inlanguageselectionwomenreflectthespecialsocialattributewhichcanbeseenindailyoralcommunicationForexample,inoralcommunicationmencanbefreetouse"Idoneit"and"Heain't",butwomenmustusestandardexpression"Ididit"and"Heisn’t”inordernottoberegardedascasualInEnglishspeakingcountries,menoftenexpresstheiropinionsstraightforwardly,evenalittleimpoliteButwomenshouldbetactfulandimplicittofollowthepolitenessprincipleLikeacoupleinthesupermarketshopping,thehusbandsay:"oneisgood"andhiswifewillgentlyexpressherview":Ithinkmaybethisoneisbetter,don'tyouthinkso"TheinterpretationofthelinguisticsexismfromthesociolinguisticperspectiveThereflectionofthemalechauvinismAuthorMichaelKordahasdefinedmalechauvinismasa"blindallegianceandsimplemindeddevotiontoone'smalenessthatismixedwithopenordisguisedbelligerencetowardwomenItisalsousuallyassociatedwithanunconsciousritualtowardoffanxietyengenderedbythesesamewomen"Inmanywesterncountries,menaretypicallyexpectedtobestoic,decisive,direct,athletic,strong,driven,andbravewomenareexpectedtobeemotional,nurturing,weak,affectionate,homeorientedandforgivingConsequently,inlanguage,women’ssayingsareoftenregardedastrivial,gossipy,andemptyThedirectproductofpowerfulwordswithdoublestandardsFirstly,aswehavesaidabove,inEnglishthenumberofderogatorytermswhichisappliedtowomenislargerthanthemen’sSuchastherearewordsdescribingthedebauchoffemaleSecondly,manyneutralwordschangedintothenegativewordswhenreferringtowomenThechangeprocessoftartwas:tartapieceofpastryatermofendearmentsexuallydesirablewomanimmoralwomenaprostituteThirdly,weperceivedifonewordisassociatedwithbothsexessimultaneously,italwayshavetwodifferentextendedmeaning“Alooseman”meansafugive,while“aloosewoman”meansafloozieTheinternalgenderroleidentityintheorganizationAgenderroleisasetofsocialandbehavioralnormsthataregenerallyconsideredappropriateforeitheramanorawomaninasocialorinterpersonalrelationshipTherearedifferencesofopinionastowhichobserveddifferencesinbehaviorandpersonalitybetweengendersareentirelyduetoinnatepersonalityofthepersonandwhichareduetoculturalorsocialfactors,andarethereforetheproductofsocialization,ortowhatextentgenderdifferencesareduetobiologicalandphysiologicaldifferencesTheconceptionofgenderroleboostedtheriseofthelinguisticsexismTheunderstandingofthisconceptiscloselyrelatedtothelabordivisiontheorywhichwaspopularinwesterncountriessincesInthistheory,man’svaluedependedonhisactualabilitywhichischaracterizedwiththeinstrumentalitywhilewoman’svaluedependedonthesocialfunctionwhichischaracterizedwithemotionalityIns,roletheorywasappliedinmanyaspectsInthisrule,inthesociety,womanwasseenasanunderstandingwifeandlovingmotherLanguage,asthecarrierofculture,itnaturallyreflectsthesayingoftheroletheoryManywordswhichconnectedwithwomeneitherexpresssocialminorroleorwithstigmatizedmeaningTheycannotgetridofdestinyofsemanticdegradationorsemanticderogationForexample,hussywasoriginatedfromhuswifmeaninghousewifeInthesemanticevolution,itmeantthefemaleheadofthehouse,andthenitmeantarustic,rudewomanwithnegativemeaningLater,itmeansanopprobriousepithetforwomeningeneralAtlast,itmeansalewd,brazenwomanoraprostituteSimilarly,inEnglishtherearesomepairstoremindpeopletopayattentiontoindividualbehaviorsToman,wesay”Actlikeagentleman!”or“Actlikeaman!”However,towoman,wecanonlysay”Actlikealady!”not“Actlikeawoman!”WhyappearsthissituationItisbecausenosemanticdegradationbetweengentlemanandmanButitdidhappentowomanandladyInthelatethcenturytherewasariseingenderneutrallanguageinthewesternworld,oftenattributedtotheriseoffeminismGenderneutrallanguageistheavoidanceofgenderspecificjobtitles,nonparallelusageandotherusageconsideredsexistForexample:FollowmearoundIdon’tcareI’mseriousIfanybodywantstoputatailonmeGoaheadThey’dbeveryboredEverynaturalisthastheirfavoriteadaptationNobodytalks,theyyellNobodywalks,theyrunEverybodyshootsOhboy,dotheyshoot!Ifapersonusespartoftheircapitaltomakemoredonationsthanusual,thecontributionsmayexceedpercentoftheiradjustedgrossincomeIntheseexamples,theyuse“they,their”toinstead“he,his”toavoidthelinguisticsexismLanguageisnotmerelyameansofreflectingsociety,itcan“affectasocietybyinfluencingorevencontrollingtheworldviewofitsspeakers”(Trudgill,,p)Therefore,besidesavoidingtheuseofsexistlanguage,themoreimportantthingistochangepeople’sworldviewOncepeoplechangetheirthinkingandtheirworldview,therewillbeachangefromsexistlanguagetononsexistlanguageHowever,theefforttochangesexistlanguageisworthwhileandmeaningfulbecause“theuseofnonsexistlanguageisitselfonesteptowardredressingsocietalinequities”(Cameron,,p)Theauthorbelieves,“ourlanguagechoicescanchallengeandpotentiallytransformdiscriminatorypractices”andmayleadustoabetterworldajust,inclusiveandharmonioussociety(Cameron,,p)BibliographyCameron,DThefeministcritiqueoflanguage:AreaderLondon:RoutledgeCameron,DFeminismandlinguistictheory(nded)London:MacmillanJespersonOLanguage:It’sNature,DevelopmentandOriginMLondon:AllenUnwin,Trudgill,PSociolinguistics:AnintroductiontolanguageandsocietyLondon:PenguinGroup尚晓华,高洋,徐瑾语言学视角下的性别歧视J郑州航空工业管理学院学报(社会科学版)J郑州:郑州教育出版社()许晓洁,鲁先进英语学习中的语言性别歧视现象探析湖北大学成人教育学院学报J湖北:湖北教育出版社():杨永林社会语言学研究M上海:上海外语教育出版社,

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