购买

¥25.0

加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 曼昆经济学第四版 Chap_07供给与需求:市场与福利(PPT51)

曼昆经济学第四版 Chap_07供给与需求:市场与福利(PPT51).ppt

曼昆经济学第四版 Chap_07供给与需求:市场与福利(PPT…

中小学精品课件
2019-04-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《曼昆经济学第四版 Chap_07供给与需求:市场与福利(PPT51)ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncConsumers,Producers,andtheEfficiencyofMarkets消费者、生产者与市场效率ChapterHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncRevisitingtheMarketEquilibriumDotheequilibriumpriceandquantitymaximizethetotalwelfareofbuyersandsellersMarketequilibriumreflectsthewaymarketsallocatescarceresourcesWhetherthemarketallocationisdesirableisdeterminedbywelfareeconomicsHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc回顾市场均衡市场均衡价格和数量能否使买者和卖者的总利益最大化?市场均衡反映了市场配置稀缺资源的方式。市场配置资源是否合意可以根据福利经济学理论判定。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncWelfareEconomicsWelfareeconomicsisthestudyofhowtheallocationofresourcesaffectseconomicwellbeing福利经济学研究资源配置如何影响经济福利。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncWelfareEconomics福利经济学Equilibriuminthemarketresultsinmaximumbenefits,andthereforemaximumtotalwelfareforboththeconsumersandtheproducersoftheproduct市场均衡使利益最大化即使产品的消费者和生产者的总利益最大化。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncWelfareEconomics福利经济学Consumersurplusmeasureseconomicwelfarefromthebuyer’sside消费者剩余从消费者角度衡量经济福利。Producersurplusmeasureseconomicwelfarefromtheseller’sside生产者剩余从生产者角度衡量经济福利。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncConsumerSurplus消费者剩余Willingnesstopayisthemaximumpricethatabuyeriswillingandabletopayforagood支付意愿买者为某种物品愿意和能够支付的最高价格。Itmeasureshowmuchthebuyervaluesthegoodorservice它衡量买者对物品的评价是多少。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncConsumerSurplus消费者剩余Consumersurplusistheamountabuyeriswillingtopayforagoodminustheamountthebuyeractuallypaysforit消费者剩余买者支付意愿减去买者的实际支付量。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncFourPossibleBuyers’WillingnesstoPay四个可能买者的支付意愿…Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncConsumerSurplus消费者剩余Themarketdemandcurvedepictsthevariousquantitiesthatbuyerswouldbewillingandabletopurchaseatdifferentprices市场需求曲线表示在不同价格水平下买者愿意和能够购买的数量。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncTheDemandScheduleandtheDemandCurveHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc需求表与需求曲线Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncFigureTheDemandScheduleandtheDemandCurvePriceofAlbum$QuantityofAlbumsHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc图需求表与需求曲线专辑的价格$专辑的数量Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncMeasuringConsumerSurpluswiththeDemandCurvePriceofAlbum$QuantityofAlbumsDemandPrice=$Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc用需求曲线衡量消费者剩余专辑的价格$专辑的数量需求价格=美元Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncFigureMeasuringConsumerSurpluswiththeDemandCurve(b)Price=$PriceofAlbum$QuantityofAlbumsHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc图用需求曲线衡量消费者剩余(b)价格=美元专辑的价格$专辑的数量Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncFigureHowthePriceAffectsConsumerSurplusQuantity(a)ConsumerSurplusatPricePPriceHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc图价格如何影响消费者剩余数量(a)价格在P价格时的消费者剩余Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncFigureHowthePriceAffectsConsumerSurplusQuantity(b)ConsumerSurplusatPricePPriceHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc图价格如何影响消费者剩余数量价格需求原来的消费者剩余(b)价格在P时的消费者剩余Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncMeasuringConsumerSurpluswiththeDemandCurve用需求曲线衡量消费者剩余Theareabelowthedemandcurveandabovethepricemeasurestheconsumersurplusinthemarket需求曲线以下和价格以上的面积衡量市场的消费者剩余。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncWhatDoesConsumerSurplusMeasureConsumersurplus,theamountthatbuyersarewillingtopayforagoodminustheamounttheyactuallypayforit,measuresthebenefitthatbuyersreceivefromagoodasthebuyersthemselvesperceiveitHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc消费者剩余衡量了什么?消费者剩余即买者愿意为一种物品支付的量减他们实际支付的量衡量了消费者从一种物品中得到的买者自己感觉到的利益。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncProducerSurplus生产者剩余Producersurplusistheamountasellerispaidminustheseller’scost生产者剩余卖者得到的量减去卖者的成本。Itmeasuresthebenefittosellersparticipatinginamarket它衡量了卖者从参与市场中得到的利益。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncTheCostsofFourPossibleSellers四个可能卖者的成本…Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncUsingtheSupplyCurvetoMeasureProducerSurplus利用供给曲线衡量生产者剩余Justasconsumersurplusisrelatedtothedemandcurve,producersurplusiscloselyrelatedtothesupplycurve正如消费者剩余与需求曲线密切相关一样生产者剩余也与供给曲线紧密相关。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncTheSupplyScheduleandtheSupplyCurveHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc供给表和供给曲线Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncTheSupplyScheduleandtheSupplyCurve供给表和供给曲线QuantityofHousesPainted要油漆的房子数量PriceofHousePainting油漆房子的价格$Supply供给Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncFigureHowthePriceAffectsProducerSurplusCopyright©SouthwesternThomsonLearningQuantity(a)ProducerSurplusatPricePPriceHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc图价格如何影响生产者剩余Copyright©SouthwesternThomsonLearning数量(a)价格在P价格时的生产者剩余Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncUsingtheSupplyCurvetoMeasureProducerSurplus用供给曲线衡量生产者剩余Theareabelowthepriceandabovethesupplycurvemeasurestheproducersurplusinamarket价格以下和供给曲线以上的面积衡量市场的生产者剩余。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncMARKETEFFICIENCYandHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc市场效率和Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncMARKETEFFICIENCYorHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc市场效率或Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncMarketEfficiency市场效率Marketefficiencyisthepropertyofaresourceallocationofmaximizingthetotalsurplusreceivedbyallmembersofsociety市场效率资源配置使社会所有成员得到的总剩余最大化的性质。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncMarketEfficiency市场效率Inadditiontomarketefficiency,asocialplannermightalsocareaboutequity–thefairnessofthedistributionofwellbeingamongthevariousbuyersandsellers除了效率之外社会计划者还应关心平等福利在各种买者与卖者之间分配的公平性。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncConsumerandProducerSurplusintheMarketEquilibriumPriceEquilibriumpriceQuantityEquilibriumquantityASupplyCBDemandDEProducersurplusConsumersurplusHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc市场均衡时的消费者与生产者剩余价格均衡价格数量均衡数量A供给CB需求DE生产者剩余消费者剩余Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncSummaryConsumersurplusequalsbuyers’willingnesstopayforagoodminustheamounttheyactuallypayforitConsumersurplusmeasuresthebenefitbuyersgetfromparticipatinginamarketConsumersurpluscanbecomputedbyfindingtheareabelowthedemandcurveandabovethepriceHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc小结消费者剩余等于买者对某种物品的支付意愿减去买者的实际支付量。消费者剩余衡量买者从参与市场中得到的利益消费者剩余可以通过找出需求曲线以下和价格以上的面积来计算。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncSummaryProducersurplusequalstheamountsellersreceivefortheirgoodsminustheircostsofproductionProducersurplusmeasuresthebenefitsellersgetfromparticipatinginamarketProducersurpluscanbecomputedbyfindingtheareabelowthepriceandabovethesupplycurveHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc小结生产者剩余等于卖者出售某种物品得到的量减去卖者的生产成本。生产者剩余衡量买者从参与市场中得到的利益生产者剩余可以通过找出价格以下和供给曲线以上的面积来计算。Harcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,IncSummaryAnallocationofresourcesthatmaximizesthesumofconsumerandproducersurplusissaidtobeefficientPolicymakersareoftenconcernedwiththeefficiency,aswellastheequity,ofeconomicoutcomesHarcourt,Incitemsandderiveditemscopyright©byHarcourt,Inc小结可以说使消费者和生产者剩余的总和最大化的资源配置是有效率的。政策制定者通常关心经济结果的效率以及平等。

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

评分:

/48

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利