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首页 大学英语语法主谓一致新x(1)

大学英语语法主谓一致新x(1).ppt

大学英语语法主谓一致新x(1)

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2019-06-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《大学英语语法主谓一致新x(1)ppt》,可适用于综合领域

大学英语语法主谓一致主谓一致SubjectverbConcord“一致”(concord或agreement)指句子成分之间或词语之间在语法形式上的协调关系。主谓一致指主语和谓语动词之间在“人称”和“数”的方面的一致关系这又叫做“主动一致”(SubjectverbConcord)。指导原则语法一致原则(GrammaticalConcord)主语为单数形式谓语动词用单数形式主语为复数形式谓语动词也用复数形式。ThenumberoferrorswassurprisingJaneandMarylookalike意义一致原则(NotionalConcord))主语形式虽为单数但意义为复数谓语动词为复数。Thecrowdwererunningfortheirlives指导原则单数形式代表复数内容的词有:people,police,cattle,militia等。)主语形式为复数而意义上却是单数谓语动词用单数。Thenewswasveryexciting形复意单的单词有news,works(工厂)和一些以ics结尾的学科名称physics,economics等。就近原则(PrincipleofProximity)谓语动词的单复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如用连词or,either…or,neither…nor,notonly…,butalso等连接的并列主语如果一个是单数一个是复数谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。EitheryourstudentsorMrWangknowsthisI以S结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致以S结尾的表示疾病的名词作主语时谓语用单数arthritis:关节炎bronchitis:支气管炎mumps:腮腺炎diabetes:糖尿病phlebitis:静脉炎但是measles(麻疹)rickets(软骨病)谓语可用单复数以S结尾的表示游戏名称的名词谓语常用单数I以S结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致darts:投镖游戏dominoes:多米诺骨牌marbles:打弹子游戏billiards:台球但cards(打纸牌)用复数当它们表示所用工具时谓语用复数DartsisoftenplayedinEnglishpubsTwodartsarethrownateveryturn以ics结尾的学科名称通常用单数mathematics:数学physics:物理学optics:光学statistics:统计学politics:政治学acoustics:声学音响效果economics:经济学athletics:体育学mechanics:机械学semantics:语义学linguistics:语言学tactics:兵法策略当这类名词表示学科以外的其它意义时用作复数StatisticsisnotasdifficultassomepeoplethinkThelateststatisticsoncrimearebeyonddescription注:下列以ics结尾的名词仅用作单数classics:杰作,著作comics:连环图画ethics:伦理学cosmetics:化妆品以S结尾的地理名称如山脉海峡瀑布群岛等谓语动词通常用作复数theWestIndies西印度群岛theBahamas巴哈马群岛theHimalayas喜马拉雅山脉theStraitsofGibraltar直布罗陀海峡theNiagaraFalls尼亚加拉瀑布theRockies落基山脉但如果是国名则用作单数如:theUnitedStates,theUnitedNations,theNetherlands(荷兰)。由二部分组成的物体通常以S结尾如果不带“一把”等单位词而单独使用通常用作复数。scissors剪子shears大剪刀pincers、tongs钳子pliers老虎钳pajamas睡衣宽长裤suspenders吊裤带knickers短裤灯笼裤pants裤子jeans工装裤shorts短裤briefs三角裤shoesglassesspectacles眼镜binoculars望远镜chopsticks如带有单位词则由单位词的单复数来决定谓语动词的单复数Apairofshoeswasonthedesk下列以s结尾的名词通常用作复数archives:档案arms:武器eaves:屋檐contents:内容goods:货物suburbs:郊区thanks:谢意wages:工资stairs:楼梯remains:遗体morals:道德品行minutes:记录注:whereabouts(行踪下落)dramatics(舞台艺术)可用单复数凡是由ings结尾的名词常用作复数clippings:剪下来的东西filings:锉屑earnings:收入diggings:掘出的东西lodgings:租的房间surroundings:环境sweepings:扫拢的垃圾注:tidings(消息,音信)可用作单或复数8以S结尾的单复数同形的名词谓语动词形式取决于这些名词是用作单数还是用作复数意义不同单/复数也不同barracks:营房headquarters:总部means:方法,手段,工具series:系列species:种类works:工厂crossroads:十字路口ThisglassworkswassetupinTheseglassworksareneartherailwaystation少数名词用作单数和用作复数意义不同What’stheodds有什么要紧?=whatdoesitmatter(差别)Theoddsareagainstus我们成功的机会很小。(可能的机会)Themartyr’sremainswereburiedatthefootofthehill遗体Hereistheremainsofthetemple遗迹练习:TheAlps(covers,cover)anareaof,squarekilometersand(is,are)thegreatestmountainrangeinEuropeDraughts(is,are)aneasiergamethanchessWhat(is,are)hispoliticsTheremainsofShakespeare(is,are)buriedonStratfordonAvonPolitics(is,are)theartorscienceofgovernmentMrSmith’smorals(is,are)abovecriticismUsuallyabirdspeciesfacingthedangerofextinction(gains,gain)publicrecognitionThespeciesoffishintheaquarium(is,are)numerousII集体名词(CollectiveNoun)作主语的主谓一致通常用作复数的集体名词:people,police,folk,youth,cattle,poultry,militia,verminHiscattlewerestillleanSuchverminasbugsandratsarehardtogetridofManycattlearekept饲养了很多牲畜。Severalhundredpolicewereonduty几百个警察在执勤。Thepolicearesearchingforhim通常用作单数的集体名词:advice,baggage,equipment,information,knowledge,machinery,scenery,news,foliage,merchandise,furnitureII集体名词(CollectiveNoun)作主语的主谓一致ThemerchandiseondisplayintheshopwindowisverygoodAllthemachineryisnew既可用作复数也可用作单数的集体名词:family,army,group,committee,company,government,enemy,class,team,party,club,majority,crowd,audience,jury,union,fleet(舰队),faculty(能力大学教职人员)crewpublicHisfamilyareallmusicloversHisfamilyisn’tlargeHisfamilygoingtohavealongjourneyThewholefamilywatchingTV练习:Thejuryinopinionabout“sentenceofdeath”AdisagreesBdisagreeCagreesDhasdisagreedTodaythepublicaboutthewaynatureisbeingruinedAareconcernedBisconcernedChavebeenconcernedDisbeingconcernedThecommitteecan'tcometoadecisionbecauseatoddsAithasBtheyhaveCitisDtheyareThemajorityonBen'sside,butPeterdisagreeswiththemontwopointsAwereBwasCisDareKeys:bdddIII并列结构(CoordinateSubject)做主语的主谓一致用and或both…and连接并列主语谓语通常用复数Tomeantodosomethingandtoactuallydosomethingaretwoseparatethings但是当并列主语指的是同一个人事物或概念时谓语用单数这时and后面的名词没有冠词。TruthandhonestyisthebestpolicyThegirl’steacherandfriendisayoungdoctorToloveandtobelovedisthegreathappinessTotryandfailisbetterthannottotryatallAknifeandforkisonthetableBreadandbutterisourdailyfood类似结构有:whiskyandsoda,strawberryandcream,saltandwater,hamandegg,cartandhorsefishandchips等。当and连接的单数主语前面有each,every,manya,no等修饰时(即manya…andmanya…every…andevery…each…andeach…no…andno…)谓语动词用单数ManyaboyandmanyagirlhasseenthebrighterthanexpectedwhiteflashoflightNoteacherandnostudentwaspresentattheopeningceremony如主语是单数尽管后面跟有with,togetherwith,aswellas,asmuchas,nolessthan,morethan,ratherthan,like,but,except,besides,inadditionto等引起的短语谓语动词仍用单数Thatman,aswellashiswife,isaccusedofmolestingminorssincesAprofessor,togetherwithhisstudents,wassenttoworkinNigeriaTheroomwithitsfurniturewasrented由or,either…or,neither…nor,notonly…but(also),not…but等连接的名词或代词作主语时谓语与邻近的主语取得一致EitheryouorheistogoNotonlyJoanbuthersistersknowthecombinationtothesafewhichcontainsthelistofthefamilysecurities练习:eitherheorhisaccountantsgoingtoclaimforthelossAAreBWereCIsDDoesJoe’sfather,alongwithhistwouncles,inNewYorkonemoredayAdemandthathestayBdemandsthathestaysCdemandsthathestayDdemandthathestaysEverypolicemanandfiremanonthealertAhavebeenBwasCareDwereKeys:ccbIV代词以及“限定词名词”作主语的主谓一致由不定代词every,each,eachone,eachof,another,either,neither,noone,theother,everybody,everything,manya,morethanone等作主语或修饰主语时谓语用单数。ManyashiphasbeendamagedinthestormMorethanonemanbelievesthatthepromiseoftheAmericanDreamisstilloutofreachformanyblacksinthecity由“agreatmany,agoodmany,agroupof,anumberof复数名词”作主语时谓语用复数。IV代词以及“限定词名词”作主语的主谓一致Agreatmanygraduatesthinktheyareallentitledtomakeamistakeonceinawhileallof,someof,alotof,halfof,mostof,themajorityof,twothirdsof,ninetypercentof,therestof,plentyof,partof,heapsof(堆)等名词或代词作主语时谓语动词的单复数取决于后面的名词或代词的数因为这些词是中心词HalfoftheapplesgobadTherestofthelandisuncultivated练习:Althoughthefirstpartofthebookiseasy,therestAaredifficultBhasproveddifficultCissupposeddifficultDhavebeenfounddifficultMrsAngelfeelsveryhappywhentherestappearanceAmakesBmaketheirChasmadetheirDhavemadehisMorethanoneexamplenecessarytomakethestudentsunderstandthisruleclearlyAshouldbeBisCareDhavebeenAnotherfiveweeksnecessaryforustofinishtheworkAareBwereCisDwillhavebeenKeys:bbbcV数词、量词作主语的主谓一致表加减乘除等算式时谓语常用单数。如数词是复数形式如:thousandsof,millionsof等谓词常用复数TenminustwoiseightFortydividedbyeightisfive当aportionof,aseriesof,apileof,akindof,agreatdealof,agreatamountof等复数主语时谓语动词用单数形式AlargeportionofEmily'spoemswasfoundandpublishedafterherdeathAseriesoflecturesoneducationalpsychologyissaidtobegivenbyEStone当aflockof,adroveof,aschoolof,aswarmof,aherdof,apackof等集体名词被看作一个整体时谓语用单数。如指个体用复数Usually,aherdofAfricanelephantshasuptoonethousandmembersthenumberof复数主语谓语用单数anumberof复数主语谓语用复数AnumberofBritonsweresenttoTehranyesterdayThenumberofBritonswasfiftyfour练习:ThenumberofstudentsintheoralEnglishprogramtrainingtoAlimitsBislimitedClimitedDarelimitedAseriesofdebatesbetweenthelecturersforthenextweekendAarescheduledBwasscheduledCwerescheduledDhavebeenscheduledKeys:bbVI分句从句作主语的主谓一致不定式分句和ing分词分句作主语谓语用单数WritingstoriesandarticlesiswhatIenjoymost名词性从句作主语谓语动词常用单数WhatcausedtheaccidentisacompletemysteryVI分句从句作主语的主谓一致ThatblacksinAmerica’ssecondlargestcityfaretheworstamongallmajorracesineducation,health,economics,housingandcriminaljusticeissaidbyastudyreleasedonWednesday定语从句中从句与先行词的数保持一致IamoneofthosepeoplewhobythegeneralopinionoftheworldarecountedbothinfamousandunhappyGeorgeistheoneofthebrightestconfidantswhohasgraduatedfromMongoliaUniversityI,whoamyourfriend,willtrymybesttohelpyou存在句中be的单复数适用就近原则TherehastobealotofgiveandtakeinanysuccessfulmarriageTherearefourchairs,atable,andasmallbedintheroom强调句“ItisIwho…”中分句动词形式与I要保持一致。非正式英语中可用me代替I,随后的分句动词常用第三人称单数ItisIwhoamtoblameItismethatwasinjuredintheaccident练习:JohnistheoneofthestaffmemberswhotobetransferredAisgoingBaregoingChavebeengoingDhasbeengoingHeisoneofthosepersonswhoneversatisfiedAareBisChasbeenDtobeWhattheyhavedoneusefultothepeopleAareconsideredBisconsideredChavebeenconsideredDwillbeconsideredKeys:aab.某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数第一组:agreatmany可数名词复数谓语用复数anumberof可数名词复数谓语用复数themajorityof可数名词复数谓语用复数第二组thenumberof可数名词复数谓语用单数eachevery可数名词复数谓语用单数neithereitherof可数名词复数谓语用单数oneandahalf可数名词复数谓语用单数第三组morethanone可数名词单数谓语用单数manya可数名词单数谓语用单数第四组thegreaterpartofalargeproportionofofonethirdofplentyoftherestof谓语的数与of后面的名词一致第五组(n)either…(n)or…notonly…butalso……not…but……谓语的数与主语的第二部分(即(n)orbutalsobut引导的后面部分)一致注意比较:MorestudentsthanonehavebeenreferredtoMorethanonestudentisgoingtobuythisbookExerciseFiveHowcloseparentsaretotheirchildrenastronginfluenceonthecharacterofthechildren()AhaveBhasChavingDtohaveNeitheroftheyoungmenwhohadappliedforapositionintheuniversity()AhasbeenacceptedBhavebeenacceptedCwasacceptedDwereacceptedThegrowthofparttimeandflexibleworkingpatterns,andoftrainingandretrainingschemes,morewomentotakeadvantageofemploymentopportunities()AhaveallowedBallowCallowingDallows答案B父母与子女亲近的程度对于子女的性格培养有强烈的影响。C两个申请这个大学职位的年轻人都没被录用。D有弹性的兼职工作方式以及培训计划的推广使得越来越多的妇女能利用就业的机会。

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