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首页 毕业论文汽车侧围A柱支撑板连接板冷冲模具设计

毕业论文汽车侧围A柱支撑板连接板冷冲模具设计.doc

毕业论文汽车侧围A柱支撑板连接板冷冲模具设计

教育文库
2018-11-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《毕业论文汽车侧围A柱支撑板连接板冷冲模具设计doc》,可适用于求职/职场领域

北京工业大学耿丹学院毕业设计(论文)题目:汽车侧围A柱支撑板连接板冷冲模具设计系名机械工程系专业班级机械设计制造及其自动化姓名学号指导教师日期摘要随着冲压制品在机械业中的广泛应用冲压模设计的重要性越来越凸现出来约占冲压制品总数的%以上。本论文在对冲裁图样零件的工艺性正确分析的基础上设计了一个连续冲裁冲孔落料模。介绍了模具成型零件包括凸模、凹模及其他零件如卸料板、固定板、垫板、导柱、导套等的设计和选用过程重要零件的工艺参数的选择与计算冲裁机构与送料挡料以及其它结构的设计过程并对着重对模具的设计部分作了详细介绍。关键词:冲孔落料级进模冲孔落料模AbstractespeciallyinthemachineryindustryTherearemanywaysofmoldingproductsofstampingItismainlyusedforpiercing,blanking,bending,stretchingetcAndstampingmoldsalmostformmorethanpercentofthetotalnumberThroughtotechnologicalcorrectanalysisoftheblankingpatternscomponents,hasdesignedacontinualblankingpunchingdieblankingThisdesignintroducedthemoldformationcomponentsincludingtheplunger,thelowerdieandothercomponentslikeunloadtheyardlumber,thedeadplate,thebackingstrip,theguidepillar,theguidebusherandsoondesignandselecttheprocess,thetechnologicalparameter'schoiceandthecomputationoftheimportantcomponents,theblankingorganizationandthefeedingkeepoffthematerialaswellasotherstructuredesignprocess,andtohasmadethedetailedintroductionempcostmayprocesstheplasticinmoldmanufactureapplicationMayprocesstheplastictobecommoninthedevelopedindustrialnationapplication,speciallyinmanufacturingindustryandsoonautomobile,airplane,mainlyreplacesthelumberorthemetalmanufactureautomobilebodyhostmodel,theprofile,examineshasandthecastingmodelandsoonMayprocesstheplasticthemaincharacteristicishasboththelumberandthemetalfineworkability,themanufacturecraftsimpleanddirect(mayusecompressionmolding,pour,spellssticks,methodwellandsoonsculpture),thesizestability,doesnotdistort,bearsmoistly,anticorrosive,iseasytorepair,theeasymodification,theweightlight,themanufacturecycleshort,thecosttobelowconcludingremarkFasteconomicalpatternmakingtechnologytypeverymany,itshasthecharacteristic,theapplicationscopearevarious,thisarticleonlycanbroadlymakesomesimpleintroductions,eachkindoftechnologystillhadmanyconcretetechnologicalprocesses,thecraftparameteranditsthetechnicalcharacteristicintheconcreteapplicationandtheimplementationprocessThemoldisoneoffoundationindustries,intheglobalizationmarketeconomyandundereachkindofhightechnologyandnewtechnologyswiftandviolentdevelopmentsituation,thefasteconomicalmoldhasentrustedwiththenewmissionandthebrandnewconnotation,theclassificationincreasesunceasingly,thefasteconomicalpatternmakingmaterialturnstowardsthemultivarietiesseriationtomakegreatstridesforward,thecrafthasthenewinnovationandthebreakthroughunceasingly,ispublishedoneafteranotherwithitsupplementaryequipment,theservicedomaininopensupunceasingly,thecreationeconomicefficiencyismoreandmoreremarkableAlongwiththecommodityeconomydevelopment,theintensemarketcompetition,theproductrenewalacceleration,isreducingthecycletothefasteconomicalpatternmakingtechnology,reducesthecost,willincreasetheprecisionandlengthensthelifeaspecttherequesttobeabletobemoreandmorehighinevitablyBecauseitcancausetheenterprisetowinthemarket,createstheremarkableeconomicefficiency,moreandmorereceivesentrepreneur'sfavorandtheconcernedleaderdepartment'senormousattentionandthepolicyfundsupportEachkindoffasteconomicalpatternmakingtechnologyalsocanconsummatematureandthedevelopmentunceasinglyinthepromotedapplicationprocess,asaresultofthehightechnologyandnewtechnologydevelopment,eachkindoftechnicalbondingwiththeseepage,fortheadaptionproductionindifferentdemand,surelywillbeabletoformsome,thefrugalenergy,thefrugalmaterialfastpatternmakingtechnologynewfromnowon翻译:现代快速经济制造模具技术  引言      随着全球经济的发展新的技术革命不断取得新的进展和突破技术的飞跃发展已经成为推动世界经济增长的重要因素。市场经济的不断发展促使工业产品越来越向多品种、小批量、高质量、低成本的方向发展为了保持和加强产品在市场上的竞争力产品的开发周期、生产周期越来越短于是对制造各种产品的关键工艺装备模具的要求越来越苛刻。      一方面企业为追求规模效益使得模具向着高速、精密、长寿命方向发展另一方面企业为了满足多品种、小批量、产品更新换代快、赢得市场的需要要求模具向着制造周期短、成本低的快速经济的方向发展。计算机、激光、电子、新材料、新技术的发展使得快速经济制模技术如虎添翼应用范围不断扩大类型不断增多创造的经济效益和社会效益越来越显著。  快速经济制模技术类型      快速经济制模技术与传统的机械加工相比具有制模周期短、成本低、精度与寿命又能满足生产上的使用要求是综合经济效益比较显著的一类制造模具的技术概括起来有以下几种类别。    快速原型制造技术      快速原型制造技术简称RPM是年代后期发展起来的一种新型制造技术。美国、日本、英国、以色列、德国、中国都推出了自己的商业化产品并逐渐形成了新型产业。      RPM是电脑、激光、光学扫描、先进的新型材料、计算机辅助设计(CAD)、计算机辅助加工(CAM)、数控(CNC)综合应用的高新技术。在成型概念上以平面离散、堆积为指导在控制上以计算机和数控为基础以最大柔性为总体目标。它摒弃了传统的机械加工方法对制造业的变革是一个重大的突破利用RPM技术可以直接或间接地快速制模该技术已被汽车、航空、家电、船舶、医疗、模具等行业广泛应用。下面简述一下目前已经商业化的几种典型快速成型工艺。      激光立体光刻技术(SLA)      SLA技术是交计算机CAD造型系统获得制品的三维模型通过微机控制激光按着确定的轨迹对液态的光敏树脂进行逐层扫描使被扫描区层层固化连成一体形成最终的三维实体再经过有关的最终硬化打光等后处量形成制件或模具。      激光立体光刻技术主要特点是可成型任意复杂形状成型精度高仿真性强材料利用率高性能可靠性能价格比较高。适合产品外型评估、功能实验、快速制造电极和各种快速经济模具。但该技术所用的设备和光敏树脂价格昂贵使其成本较高。      叠层轮廓制造技术(LOM)      LOM技术是通过计算机的三维模型利用激光选择性地对其分层切片将得到的各层截面轮廓层层粘结最终叠加成三维实体产品。      其工艺特点是成型速度快成型材料便宜、成本低因无相变故无热应力、收缩、膨胀翘曲等所以形状与尽寸精度稳定但成型后废料块剥离较费事特别是复杂件内部的废料剥离。该工艺适用于航空、汽车等和中体积较大制件的制作。      激光粉末选区烧结成型技术(SLS)      SLS技术是将计算机的三维模型通过分层软件将其分层在计算机控制下使激光束依据分层的切片截面信息对粉末逐层扫描扫描到的粉末烧结固化(聚合、烧结、粘结、化学反应等)层层叠加堆积成三维实体制件。该技术最大特点是能同时用几种不同材料(聚碳酸脂、聚乙烯氯化物、石蜡、尼龙、ABS、  铸造砂)制造一个零件。      熔融沉积成型技术(FDM)      FDM技术是由计算机控制可挤出熔融状态材料的喷嘴根据CAD产品模型分层软件确定的几何信息挤出半流动状态的热塑材料沉积固化成精确的实际制件薄层自下而上层层堆积成一个三维实体可直接做模具或产品。      三维印刷成型技术(DP)      DP技术用微机控制一个连续喷墨印刷头依据分层软件逐层选择性地在粉末层上沉积液体粘结材料最终由顺序印刷的二维层堆积成一个三维实体犹如不使用激光的快速制模技术。该技术主要应用在金属陶瓷复合材料的多孔陶瓷预成型件上其目标是由CAD产品模型直接生产模具或功能性制作。    表面成型制模技术      表面成型制模技术主要是利用喷涂、电铸、化学腐蚀等新的工艺方法形成型腔表面及精细花纹的一种工艺技术实际应用中包括以下几种类型。      电弧喷涂成型制模技术      电弧喷涂成型技术的原理是:利用根通电的金属丝之间产生电弧的热量将金属丝熔化依靠高压气体将其充分雾化并给予一定的动能高速喷射在样模表面层层镶嵌形成一金属壳体即型腔的内表面再用充填基体材料(一般为金属粉粒与树脂的复合材料)加以支撑加固提高其强度和刚性连同金属模架组合成模具。这种制模技术工艺简单、成本低制造周期非常短型腔表面的成型仅需几个小时节省能源和金属材料一般型腔表面仅mm厚仿真性极强花纹精度可达到μm。      目前该技术被广泛地用于飞机、汽车的内饰件模具、家电、家俱、制鞋、美术工艺品等表面形状复杂及花纹精细的各种聚氨酯制品的吹塑、吸塑、PVC注射、PU发泡及各类注射成型模具中。      电铸成型技术      电铸成型技术的原理同电镀一样是依样模(现成制品或按制品图纸制成的母模)为基准(阴极)置放在电铸液中(阳极)使电铸液中的金属离子还原后一层一层地沉积在样模上形成金属壳体将其剥离后与样模接触的表面即为模具的型腔内表面。      该技术主要特点是节省材料、模具制造周期短电铸层硬度可达HRC提高了耐磨性和寿命粗糙度、尺寸精度与样模完全一致适用于注射、吸塑、吹塑、搪塑、胶木模、玻璃模、压铸模等模具型腔及电火花成型电极的制造。      型腔表面精细花纹成型的蚀刻技术      蚀刻技术是光学、化学、机加工综合应用的一种技术它的基本原理是先把花纹图案制成胶片再把胶片上的花纹图案复制在已涂上光敏材料的模具型腔表面上经过化学处理模具型腔表面形成不被蚀刻部分的保护层再根据模具材质选择相应蚀刻工艺将花纹图案蚀刻在模具内表面上。      该技术的主要特点是时间短、费用低修补破损花纹图案可做到天衣无缝。  浇铸成型制模技术浇铸成型制模技术的共同特点是依样件为基准浇铸出凸、凹模型腔表面不需要机械加工。实际制模中主要有以下几种类型。      铋锡合金制模技术      铋锡合金快速制模技术是经样件为基准以BiSn(铋锡)二元共晶合金(熔点℃胀缩率万分之三)为材料有精密铸造的方法同时铸出凸模、凹模、压边圈的一种技术。该技术的特点是制模成本低合金可重复使用制造周期短尺寸精度高形状、尺寸与样件完全相符一次铸模寿命可达件非常适合新产品开发、工艺验证、样品试制及中小批量和平。    锌基合金制模技术      这是一种以样件(或样模)为基准以熔点为℃左右的锌基合金为材料分别浇注凸、凹模原则上型腔表面不进行机械加工的一种制模技术。该技术特点是制模成本低、周期短适用于制作薄板大型拉伸模、冲裁模及塑料模。      树脂复合成型模具技术      这是一种以样模(或工艺模型)为基准以树脂或其复合材料为流体材料先浇注出凸(凹)模再依据凸(凹)模贴上蜡片(间隙层)浇注凸(凹)模。该技术成型的型腔表面不需机械加工。该技术与CADCAM相结合特点是模具尺寸精度高、制造周期短、成本低是新产品试制、小批量生产工艺装备的新途径。适用于制作大型覆盖件拉伸模(也可局部镶钢)、真空吸塑、聚氨酯发泡成型模、陶瓷模、仿型靠模、铸造模等。    硅橡胶制模技术该技术以制件原型或模型为基准将柔态硅橡胶制做成块再靠高压力与模型完全吻合。    挤压成型技术    冷挤压成型      利用铍铜合金的良好的导热性和稳定性经固熔时效处理后采用冷挤压制造模具凹模型腔。其特点是制造周期短型腔精度高(IT级)表面粗糙度Ra=μm,强度高寿命可达万次无环境污染。      超塑成型制模技术      该技术是利用金属材料在细化晶粒、一定成型温度、低变形速率条件下材料具有最佳超塑性时将事先制作好的凸模用较小的力便可挤压出凹模的一种快速经济制模技术。超塑成型材料的典型代表是ZnAL。     无模多点成形技术      无模多点快速成形技术是以CADCAMCAT技术为主要手段利用计算机控制高度可调基本体群形成上下成形面代替传统模具对板料进行三维曲面成形的又一现代先进制造技术。此项技术可以随意改变变形路径与受力状态提高材料的成形极限可反复成形以此消除材料内部的残余应力实现无回弹成形。     凯维朗(KEVRON)钢带冲裁落料制模技术      新型钢带冲裁落料制模技术是一种不同于一般具有凸、凹模结构的钢带模它是由单刃钢带与特制垫板组成的新型快速经济制模技术。这种模具重量轻一般只有kg加工精度为 ±mm可适合各种黑色和有色金属的mm厚的板料加工。寿命可达到 万次制造成本低。     模具毛坯的快速制造技术实型铸造      由于大量的模具是属于单件或小批量生产模具毛坯的制造质量和周期及成本对最终的模具质量和周期及成本的影响是至关重要的。      现代模具毛坯已广泛地采用子实型铸造技术所谓实型铸造就是利用泡沫塑料(聚苯乙烯PS或聚甲基丙烯酸酯PMMA)制作代替传统的木模或金属模造型后不需取出模型便可以浇铸泡沫塑料模型的高温液体金属作用下迅速燃烧气化而消失金属液取代原来泡沫塑料模型所占有的位置冷凝后形成铸件。实型铸造在实际应用中有下列几种情况。      干砂实型铸造      即用目的全干没有任何粘结剂的石英砂造型用EPS或PMMA泡沫塑料制作的模型涂挂mm厚透气性良好的耐火涂料层以提高铸件表面光洁度防止粘砂或塌箱。      负压实型铸造      负压实型铸造又称V法造型。该技术是使用全干而无粘结剂的石英砂做型砂用EPS或PMMA泡沫塑料做模型在塑料薄膜的密封条件下让整个铸型在负压条件下(真空度MPa)进行液体金属浇铸铸件凝固后解除负压即可得到表面光洁的铸件。      树脂砂实型铸造      利用树脂砂做型砂用EPS或PMMA泡沫塑料做模型在常温、常压下进行液体金属浇铸而制取铸件。利用实型铸造的技术制造模具毛坯具有尺寸精度高(ISO级)加工余量小(一般在mm左右)不需要拔模斜度不需要制型芯与泥芯撑节省金属材料节省做木模型的木材制造周期短成本低。该技术适合大型、复杂、单件模具毛坯的生产。陶瓷型精铸、失蜡精铸等技术在提高模具毛坯精度、降低加工工时、缩短制造周期、降低成本等方面也显示出其特有的优越性。     其它方面技术为了简化模具的结构设计降低模具成本缩短模具制造周期在国内外也先后出现了一些其它方面新技术的应用如快换模架、冲压单元、刃口堆焊、镶块铸造、氮气弹簧等。      氮气弹簧在模具上的应用      氮气弹簧是一种新型弹性功能部件用它代替弹簧、橡胶、聚氨酯或者气垫它能够准确地提供压边力在较小空间便可产生较大初始弹压力不需预紧在模具整个工作过程中弹压力基本恒定。弹压力大小及受力点位置可随时、准确、方便地调整简化模具拉伸、压边、卸料等结构简化模具设计缩短制模周期调试模具方便缩短更换模具时间提高生产效率。    快速换模技术      由于产品品种的增多使模具在生产中更换变得十分频繁于是如何缩短冲压设备的停机时间提高生产效率快速换模技术受到了人们的关注。目前发达工业国家的一些大公司换模速度达到了惊人的程度是否具有快速换模技术已成为企业技术进步的一项标志。总的趋势就是减少模具在设备上安装、固定、调整的时间这既要在设备结构设计上予以考虑又要在模具的结构设计、标准化方面予以考虑将机上的作业尽可能地放在机下做。      冲压单元组合技术      冲压单元组合技术是将常规的冲模分解为一个个简单的单元冲模根据工序件的要求排列组合在同一次冲程内完成多种冲压工序的新型工艺装备工作时冲压单元不与冲床滑块联接只需滑块打击即可完成冲压工作。单独使用时它就是副完整模具。它可以用来加工板料或型材的冲孔、落料、切角、切槽、切断及浅拉伸等。具有组装快捷、使用方便、通用性强、经济性好等特点特别适合多品种、中小批量生产。      刃口堆焊技术      在冲模制造中以普通灰铸铁为基体在刃口部位堆焊高硬度的合金钢以代替模具钢镶块这一技术成为世界先进工艺之一。这是一项节省制造工时节省昂贵的模具钢材缩短模具制造周期的快速经济制模技术。目前熔化极氩弧焊技术的应用大大地提高了刃口堆焊的速度和质量。这项技术世界各国模具行业已广泛采用取得了良好的经济效益。      实型铸造冲模刃口镶块技术      这是一种用实型铸造的工艺方法制造冲模刃口的方法即用合金钢铸件镶块代替锻造合金钢镶块。目前由于铸造工艺和热处理工艺不断完善和提高铸造镶块的内在质量有了保证故其应用范围在不断扩大。这项以铸代锻的新技术的突出特点是节省贵重模具钢材简化模具制造工序由于加工余量小节省了大量机加工工时缩短模具制造周期降低模具成本。      可加工塑料在模具制造中的应用      可加工塑料在发达的工业国家应用较普遍特别是在汽车、飞机等制造业中主要代替木材或金属制作汽车车身主模型、靠模、检具和铸造模型等。可加工塑料的主要特点是兼备木材和金属的优良加工性能制作工艺简捷(可采用模塑、浇注、拼粘、雕塑等方法)、尺寸稳定性好、不变形、耐潮湿、耐腐蚀、易修复、易改型、重量轻、制作周期短、成本低。      结束语      快速经济制模技术种类很多其所具有的特点、应用范围各不相同本文仅能概括地做一些简单介绍每种技术在具体应用和实施过程中尚有许多具体的工艺过程、工艺参数及其技术特性。      模具是基础工业之一在全球化市场经济和各种高新技术的迅猛发展形势下快速经济模具赋予了新的使命和全新的内涵分类不断增加快速经济制模材料向着多品种系列化迈进工艺不断有新的创新和突破与之配套设备相继问世服务领域在不断地拓宽创造的经济效益越来越显著。随着商品经济的发展激烈的市场竞争产品更新换代的加速对快速经济制模技术在缩短周期、降低成本提高精度和延长寿命方面的要求势必会越来越高。由于它能使企业赢得市场创造显著的经济效益越来越受到企业家的青睐和有关领导部门的极大关注与政策资金的支持。各种快速经济制模技术在推广应用过程中也会不断完善成熟和发展由于高新技术的发展各种技术的复合与渗透为适应生产中的不同需求今后必定会形成一些新型、节约能源、节约材料的快速制模技术。附录二:图纸附图一:总装图附图二:上模附图三:压边圈附图三:凸模附图四:下模座致谢此次设计能够顺利的完成设计的完成与老师、师傅的指导和支持是分不开的在此对导师赵老师的悉心指导表示衷心地感谢当然也感谢学校老师的支持。设计课题从方案确定到具体实现的整个过程中指导师傅给予了我全方位地指导使我修正了设计中一个又一个的错误获得更多的知识更重要的是我从指导师傅身上学到了很多东西比如严谨的工作作风、务实的科研精神。同时这次设计也让我增强了自信心使我明白绝对没有解决不了的困难只有你想不到的方法这些都是我以后工作中很宝贵的财富。最后在即将离校之际籍此机会也感谢在大学中所有曾经授我知识的老师谢谢。为你提供优秀的毕业论文参考资料请您删除以下内容O(∩∩)O谢谢!!!ManypeoplehavethesamemixedfeelingswhenplanningatripduringGoldenWeekWithheapsoftime,thesevendayChinese为你提供优秀的毕业论文设计参考资料请您删除一下内容O(∩∩)O谢谢!!!NationalDayholidaycouldbethebestoccasiontoenjoyadestinationHowever,itcanalsobetheeasiestwaytoruinhowyoufeelaboutaplaceandyoumaybecomemorefatiguedaftertheholiday,duetobattlingthelargecrowdsDuringpeakseason,adreamaboutaplacecanturntonightmarewithoutcarefulplanning,especiallyifyoutravelwithchildrenandolderpeopleAsmostChinesepeoplewilltaketheholidaytovisitdomestictouristdestinations,crowdsandbusytrafficareinevitableatmostplacesAlsotobeexpectedareincreasingtransportandaccommodationprices,withthepossibilitythattherewillbenoroomsavailableItisalsocommonthatyou' ll waitinthelineforonehourtogetaticket,andanothertwohoursatthesite,toonlyseeatinybitoftheplaceduetothecrowdsLastyear,milliontouriststraveledinChinaovertheweeklongholidayinOctoberTravelingduringthisperiodisamatterthatneedsthoroughpreparationIfyouareshortontimetoplantheupcoming"GoldenWeek"itmaynotbeabadideatoavoidsomeofthemostcrowdedplacesfornowThereisalwaysaplacesofascinatingthateveryoneyearnsforArxanisaplacelikethisThebeautyofArxaniseverlastingregardlessofthechangingoffourseasonsBestowedbynature,itsspectacularseasonallandscapeandmountainsarejustbeyondwordArxanisacrucialdestinationfortherecommendedtravellingroute,"ChinaInnerMongoliaArxanHailarManzhouli"ItisalsothejointofthefourprairiesacrosstheSinoMongolianborder,wherepeoplegravitatetowardstheexoticatmospheremixedwithChinese,Russian,andMongoliaelementsAsahistoricsitefortheYitianBattle,ArxanstillembodiesthespiritofGenghisKhanWalkingintoArxan,youwillbeamazedbyakaleidoscopeofgorgeouscolorsalltheyearroundtheSpringazaleasbloomingredinthesnow,theSummerseawaveringblueinthebreeze,theAutumnleavespaintedinyellowcoveringvolcanictraces,andtheWinterwoodsshiningwhiteonthevastalpinesnowscapeHingganLeagueArxancityissituatedinthefareasternareaofInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionItsfullname"HarenArxan"means"hotholywater"intheMongolianlanguageArxanisatourismcityinthenorthernfrontierwithablendoflargeforest,grandprairies,vastsnowfield,heavenlakecluster,thermium,aswellasvolcanicclusterItisarareanduniqueecotourismbasefilledwithhealthysunshine,cleanairandunspoiledgreen Nestledclosetothecountry'slargestvirginforest,andknownforitsspringandecologicalenvironment,Arxanismarveledatbymanytouristsasthepurestlandonearth YoucannotmissouttheAutumnofArxanItisdefinitelythebestwithbrightlycoloredsceneryfullofemotions AutumninthenorthernpartofthecountrycomesearlierthantheSouthASeptemberrainfollowedbythefootprintsofAutumnbringsmorecolorstotheonceemeraldgreenmountainandbloominggrassland Shutterbugsflocktoseeforthemselvesthemarvelofsplendidcolorsaroundthemountainsandwaters,manyofwhomhavetravelalongdistanceandevencamphereonlytocaptureamomentofthenaturewonder Thesilverbirchturnsgolden,whilethelarchisstillproudlygreenYouwillfindyourselfdrownedintheintoxicatingredofthewildfruitsaswellastheglamourofflowersinfullblownAndyourheartwillbelingeringonthewoodsasit'stimeforthewildfruitstoripeThepicturesqueArxaninAutumnisindeedafairylandonlyexistsinadreamthatsatisfiesallyourfantasiesIfit rainsheavilyonSaturdaynight,someelderlyChinesewillsayitisbecauseZhinu,ortheWeavingMaid,iscryingonthedayshemetherhusbandNiulang,ortheCowherd,ontheMilkyWayMostChineserememberbeingtoldthisromantictragedywhentheywerechildrenonQixi,ortheSeventhNightFestival,whichfallsontheseventhdayoftheseventhlunarmonth,whichisusuallyinearlyAugustThisyearitfallsonSaturday,AugustFolkloreStoryAsthestorygoes,oncetherewasacowherd,Niulang,wholivedwithhiselderbrotherandsisterinlawButshedislikedandabusedhim,andtheboywasforcedtoleavehomewithonlyanoldcowforcompanyThecow,however,wasaformergodwhohadviolatedimperialrulesandwassenttoearthinbovineformOnedaythecowledNiulangtoalakewherefairiestookabathonearthAmongthemwasZhinu,themostbeautifulfairyandaskilledseamstressThetwofellinloveatfirstsightandweresoonmarriedTheyhadasonanddaughterandtheirhappylifewasheldupasanexampleforhundredsofyearsinChinaYetintheeyesoftheJadeEmperor,theSupremeDeityinTaoism,marriagebetweenamortalandfairywasstrictlyforbiddenHeorderedtheheaventrooptocatchZhinubackNiulanggrewdesperatewhenhediscoveredZhinuhadbeentakenbacktoheavenDrivenbyNiulang'smisery,thecowtoldhimtoturnitshideintoapairofshoesafteritdiedThemagicshoeswhiskedNiulang,whocarriedhistwochildreninbasketsstrungfromashoulderpole,offonachaseaftertheempressThepursuitenragedtheempress,whotookherhairpinandslasheditacrosstheskycreatingtheMilkyWaywhichseparatedhusbandfromwifeButallwasnotlostasmagpies,movedbytheirloveanddevotion,formedabridgeacrosstheMilkyWaytoreunitethefamilyEventheJadeEmperorwastouched,andallowedNiulangandZhinutomeetonceayearontheseventhnightoftheseventhmonthThisishowQixicametobeThefestivalcanbetracedbacktotheHanDynasty(BCAD)Traditionally,peoplewouldlookupattheskyandfindabrightstarintheconstellationAquilaaswellasthestarVega,whichareidentifiedasNiulangandZhinuThetwostarsshineonoppositesidesoftheMilkyWayCustomsInbygonedays,Qixiwasnotonlyaspecialdayforlovers,butalsoforgirlsItisalsoknownasthe"BeggingforSkillsFestival"or"Daughters'Festival"Inthisday,girlswillthrowasewingneedleintoabowlfullofwateronthenightofQixiasatestofembroideryskillsIftheneedlefloatsontopofthewaterinsteadofsinking,itprovesthegirlisaskilledembroidersSinglewomenalsoprayforfindingagoodhusbandinthefutureAndthenewlymarriedwomenpraytobecomepregnantquicklyTraditiontransformedThelovestoryofNiulangandZhinu,andtheQixiFestivalhavebeenhandeddownforgenerationsYettheseancienttraditionsandcustomsareslowlydyingoutManymodernChinese,particularlyyoungsters,seemtoknowmoreaboutStValentine'sDayonFebruary,characterizedbybouquetsofroses,chocolatesandromanticcandlelightdinners,thantheydoabouttheirhomegrowndayforloversEvenQixiisnowadaysreferredtoasthe"ChineseValentine'sDay"MoreandmoreyoungChinesepeoplebegintocelebratethisdayinaverysimilarwayasthatinwesterncountriesFewerpeoplethaneverwillgazeattheheavensonSaturdaytopickoutthetwostarsshiningbrightoneithersideoftheMilkyWay,thatis,ifpeopleevenknowonwhichdayQixifallsTherearereadyremindersdottedabout,intheformofbigadssaying"SalesonChineseValentine'sDay!"inshops,hotelsandrestaurantsButfewyoungwomenwillmarkthefestivalwiththeirboyfriends,ortakepartintraditionalactivitiestoprayforclevernessAlargescaleofexhibitionontheSilkRoadopenedtothepublicintheNationalMuseumonThursdayTheexhibitiondisplaysmorethantreasuresfromShaanxiprovince,GansuprovinceandotherregionsItislargestscaleexhibitionthatshowsthehistoryoftheSilkRoadinrecentyearsAs APEC isgoingoninBeijing,theexhibitaimstoshowtheworldthisbrilliantsectionofhistoryTheSilkRoadisaseriesoftradeandculturaltransmissionroutesthatwerecentraltoculturalinteractionthroughregionsoftheAsiancontinentItconnectedtheWestandEastbylinkingtraders,merchants,pilgrims,monks,soldiers,nomads,andurbandwellersfromChinaandIndiatotheMediterraneanSeaduringvariousperiodsoftimeImetmydearhubbyinthesecondyearIwasinmyschoolanditwasthefirstyearwhenhecamehereWebecamecolleaguesAndtherewasnothingspecialhappeningduringthatyearHewasjustakindandhumblebrothergraduatedfromthesamecollegeasmeButwedidnotknoweachothertillhebecamemycolleagueandhisofficedeskwasjustinfrontofmeTherewasonlyaglassbetweenusSoactuallywecouldseeeachotherwhenwebothlookupButitisnotthemainreasonthatreallydrawsuscloseHowwebecomeclosetoeachotherwassomethingseemsquitenaturalWewentouttoplaybadmintonwithothercolleaguesandwesometimeschattedforawhileHeisamanoffewwordsbutsomehowsometimeswillsaysomethingreallyhumorousThenoneday,tomygreatsurprise,IfoundapotofbeautifulfloweronmydeskItwasjusttheflowerIhadtalkedaboutwithmycolleaguetheotherday,andIthoughtitwasherwhoputtheflowerthereButthetruthisnotItwasthehumbleguysittinginfrontofmeHejustsimplysaid,”well,Icaughtsightofthisflowerandthoughtthatit’sbeautifulandyoumaylikeit”IwonderwhyIwasmovedbecauseofthesesimplewordsandpresentMaybeitisthesincerityandthetrueselfthatimpressmeIthankedhimandsomecolleagueswalkedpastmydeskwouldappreciatethebeautifulflowerandtheynoticedthatsomethingromancehappenedthereThenlateron,thereweresomelittlesurprisesonceinawhileOnce,therewassomethingwrongwithmydrawerandIhadcomplainedaboutitunconsciouslyAndhefixeditformeThentheotherday,heplacedseveralpinkdiamondrosesbesidetheflowerwithapieceofpapersaying”IloveyoumorethanIcansay!Diamondstandsformarriage,rosestandforloveIhopeyouaremine,becomemywifeYouaretheonlygirlwhoIreallywanttospendtherestofmylifetostandby”AlthoughthereweresomegrammarerrorsbutIgotwhathemeantHemeantsoclearandsodirect Andactually,IacceptedhimsomedaysearlierIwasjustwaitingforhimtobreaktheiceSofinally,thecommoninterestsandthecommonunderstandingbroughtustogetherSomepeoplesaytherelationshipandthefeelingwillchangeaftergettinghitchedYouwillfindthatloveisnolongerstrongandthereisalwayslackofpassionandwhat’sworseyoumayfindoutmanybadhabitsofyourpartner,whichneverappearwhenyouarefirstinlovebeforethemarriageItseemsthatmanyfaultsturnupafteryoutrulylivingtogetherandseeeachother’sfacethemomentyouopenyoureyesintheearlymorningButafteralmostyearsfromnow,IdonotfeelanynegativechangeinourrelationshipDuringalltheseyears,weknoweachotherbetterandwebecomemoretolerantabouteachotherandIrealizethatifyoureallyloveapersonyouwillaccepthisimperfectAndwhatisthequalificationofagoodhusbandOnceIwaschattingwithmycolleagueaboutthisissueAndoneofthequalificationsIthoughtwasthathemustbeagoodcookButtomysurprise,mycolleaguesaidthatagoodhusbandmustbesomeonewhomakesbigmoneyWhatmadeherthinksowasquitebeyondmeMaybeIamnotsophisticatedenoughandwhatIwantisjustsimplelifestyleThemostenjoyablethingisthatwegotothemarkettobuyvegetablesandotherdailystuffsifwebothhavetimeMaybeheisahouseboundhusbandandIlovehouseboundmanAndthereisanotherreasonwhyWelovegoingtothemarketThatisbecausewesometimeswillgetsomesurprisesThesurpriseissavinglittlefishwhicharedissertedbythefishmongersBecausethesefishareswellfishThenwewillcollectthemandsetthemfreeintotheriverSwellfisharelovelycreatureWhentheylooklikealittlesubmarinewhentheyareswimminginthewaterandlooklikeameatballwhenyouholdtheminyourhandAndiftheyarescared,theywillswellandlooklikealittleballEverytimeweseethemswimawayandwefeeltheirhappinessofreturninghomeandthisalsomakeuscherishlifeMaybesomewillconsiderthesebehaviorassomethingchildishWell,thatisfinewithusWelovedoingthesetogetherandfeelhappythatiswhatitisallaboutMydearhubbyisakindheartedmanandheloveanimalsjustasIdoIamluckytohavesomeonewhocanbebothmyintimatedsoulmateandmyforeverfriendunknow
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